The course is designed to show in details the events that took place in America after the Second World War. That is the things that happened in America after 1945. There are many events that took place. The post war period start from 1945 when Manchukuo province was captured by the Soviet Union and the atomic bombs which were dropped by USA on the mainland of Japan. This essay is going to touch on the cold war ideologies and breakups of made during the time of the war.
Also the policies that were made during the cold war time, I will also discuss the events that took place in the 1950s: Politics and Culture, the liberal reforms of 1960s, reason why USA crashed with southern Asia and elaborate on the conservatism and the consensus politics. I will also discuss on the happenings of the 1970’s: Nixon’s politics and achievements and finally, I will also discuss on the 80s events: the cold war, its end and the reasons that led to the fall of the communism. The immediate post war period. The period after 1945(Farber D. , 1994) was a golden time of capitalism in America.
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In 1946 the council of economic advisors was established. Its roles were to analyze and advice on various policies mostly in development and implementation of domestic and international economic policies. At around 1953 the council for economic advisors had come up with five policies. These were: economic quantitative targets were set. The “growth model” of economic replaced the “cyclical model”, full employment budget was drawn, fiscal drag theories were employed, taxation base and flexibility were widened and finally and a low aggregate demand replaced unemployment notion that had persisted.
In 1945 there emerged a crash in the course implementation between Edwin Nourse and Leon Keyserkling. Nourse believed that guns were to be dispensed for butter but Keyserling thought that by expanding economic it would promote expenditure without compromising the standards of living. During the inter war period economic depended on massive spending , raw materials control and price controls as well as the draft of 12 million military men with these reforms the quality of the lives of Americans continued to improve(Leslie B. , 1995) Culture Emergence and some Politics of 1940s and 1950s
During this period the quality of life was improved through social welfares. As the stock exchange market thrived uninterrupted from 1949 up to 1957 (Hardayal S. , 2001) the great depression status was reversed, the government embarked on social welfares and military industries complex as it was called by Dwight Eisenhower. It involved employing women in industrial places for manufacturing ammunitions. They were also employed in the military service. The war time experience of women working in military services shaped the future career of women.
Many women who were in the war went back to their house hold chores. This past experience led to later integration of women in to the working places in America. According to (Halliwell M. , 2007) the 1950s provides an account of the cultures in America. These were fiction, poetry, theatre, television and films performances, music, radio and visual arts. In this period the economic was still not good. For instance, there were about 3,288,000 people who were unemployed the average salary of the working class was 2,992 dollars.
This is the period that saw many young people who serve in the war comeback home to pick up their lives start new families and new jobs. With this new phase of experiences, American industries rose up to the challenge of meeting the rising demands of items. Americans began buying things they could not buy during the wartime. 1960s: The Liberal Reforms and Kennedy’s Visions. In 1960 a presidential election was held. This marked the end of Dwight Eisenhower as the president of America. He served his nation for a period of two terms.
At this time his vice president was Richard Nixon who had turned his office into a political base. In the elections of 1960s, John F. Kennedy- a democrat was the second one to have the presidential position as a Roman Catholic after a democrat Al smith . At this time the Soviet Union was far a head of America both militarily and economically. At this time Kennedy was young and inexperienced to be trusted with presidency and his victory margin was among the closest ever known in the history of America. This was attributed to his religious stand. It was believed that many Protestants did not vote him (Murray C.
, 1994) In 1950’s and 60’s both major political parties in USA were liberal and conservative factions. The Democratic Party had northern and Western liberals and on the other hand was the conservative Southern whites. For two decades the cold war liberalism was not that active and it only peaked in 1964 when Lyndon B. Johnson over Barry Gold water during the election. In 1948, Truman the then president of USA had outlawed desegregation in the armed forces and civil rights were strongly agitated for. These culminated in to the passage of 1964 civil rights act as well as the voting rights act of 1965.
During 1960s the relations between white liberals and civil rights leaders intensified. The later accused the former of hindering the progress it was during this time that Kennedy put federal troops to protect the African Americans who were being admitted to the University of Mississippi. In 1962 (Sitkof H. , 2000) f James Meredita and Martin Luther King junior staged a march to Washington in 1966. This emerged to be a very strong movement which was called the black power. The blacks in this movement accused the whites of trying to control the blacks’ agendas.
The opponents of the civil rights wanted blacks in America to stop following democratic machines and instead apply the ethnic model. The civil rights movements totally revolutionized the lives of blacks in America. Much of the credit goes to Martin Luther king. He was the leader of hundreds of Black people. He inspired the blacks greatly especially when he made his’ I have a dream speech’ to the multitude. It was all about racial harmony. This was done on the mail in Washington. In 1902, Kennedy announced that by the end of the 1960s decade USA would send a man on the moon in a spaceship and safety return him to earth alive.
This was the height of optimism because at this time its space program was in its infancy stage It was also at this time that president Johnson of America promised his people that he would fight poverty and ensures that the Americans would enjoy descent lives. This promise was actualized when social security fund was increased and as a result millions of Americans received improved health care. This 1960s became the turning point in the history of American. A lot were achieved at this time (Suman K. and Bery G. F. , 1997) 1970s: Outcomes of Vietnam Invasion and Lifestyles Change.
During the 1960s period, Richard Nixon in his presidential campaign promised to end the Americans involvement in the war again Vietnam if he was elected in office in 1969. This whole plan was called “Vietnamization” it meant that the United States would gradually withdraw itself from the Vietnam War and transfer its military duties to the Southern Vietnam. He wanted to reinforce the Eisenhower and Kennedy’s policies of helping the South Vietnamese but things did not go as they were expected. In 1969(Brad R. , 1991) the North Vietnamese communists intensified their attacks and through Laos and Cambodia supply lines.
As a result of these events Nixon invaded Cambodia and bombarded Laos. This initially was done secretly but sooner than later it was made public by Nixon who on 1970 April 30 announced on the television that he invaded Cambodia and wanted to recruit some 150,000 new soldiers . This decision was not welcomed by many Americans in fact it provoked many ant-war protests especially from college and campus students. In 1970 on May 4th the National Guard fined shots in to a crowd of demonstration at Kent state university and killed four of them and about nine wounded. This only increased outrage to people who turned against Nixon and Vietnam War.
Due to the increased pressure to put the war to an end an end (Goodwin J. , 2001) Nixon ordered the North Vietnam zone to be bombed. This act led to signing of an agreement which led to the termination of the war in March 1973. As America quit the war, it left the southerners to fight the northerners’ American indigence in the war caused it a big harm. About 55,000 American lives perished. Basically American gained very little from this war. It left Vietnam a devastated nation. 1980s: Cultural Influence and Economic Policies. In 1980s there was economic boom. The existing market was advancing in age and was financially becoming stable.
The society’s face changed demographically. People could live longer and seemed younger. New technologies replaced old ones or we can say that there was a technological change. These changes were celebrated by Richard Nixon and his wife with a fashionable clothes accompanied by social events that displayed affluence of American society (Minarik J. J. , 1990) During this time the whole world was in perpetual change for instance the USSR eased their roles and gave in to private enterprise the famous Berlin war came down and Western cloths found their way in eastern, countries.
There were some economic policies that were posed by the government. For instance it states that when market lack the in information on the quality of assets as well as true value of an institutions net worth then potential for crisis increased. 1990s: Revival of Cold War Period and Reagan’s Ideas. In the 1980s the cold war came to an end the eastern block had suffered economically. The cold war period of 1985-1991 came back to life with the ascension of Mikhail Gorbachev to power in 1991. In the same year on December 31, the USSR broke into 15 separate nations and this marked the end of the cold war period.
Conclusion. Having seen the effects of every action that has been done in America since 1945 and Judging by the way things stand currently, we can say that in the past ten years the politics of America will move to greater heights as the democrats and the republicans become more vibrant in addressing the things that are affecting the Americans right now. Culturally, Americans are very dynamic people who keep on inventing new ways of life. So, it is hard to predict what exactly will happen in the next ten years to come. But socially it seems people will be more integrated, interactive and united.
Americans are social and interact with their fellow people in a positive manner and that is why America is a united nation. Reference: Halliwell M. , 2007: American Culture in the 1950’s. Edinburgh University Press, United Kingdom. Farber D. , 1994: The Age of Great Dreams America in the 1960s, 1st Edition. USA. Goodwin J. , 2001: No Other Way Out: States and Revolutionary Movement 1945-1991 Cambridge University Press P. 5 Suman K. and Bery G. F. 1997: Preventing Banking Sector Distress and Crises in Latin America; Proceedings on a Conference Held in Washington DC, World Bank. Minarik J. J.
, 1990: Making America’s Budget Policies from the 1980’s to the 1990’s M. E. Sharpe. Murry C. , 1994: Loosing Ground; American Social Policy 1950- 1980, Basic Books 10th Anniversary Edition. Brad R. , 1991: Weapons Proliferation in the 1990s. MIT Press, Washington. Ciment J. , 2006: Postwar America: An Encyclopedia of Social Political Cultural and Economic History Sharpe New York. Sitkoff H. , 2000: Post War America a Student Companion, Oxford University Press. Leslie B. , 1995: The Cambridge History of Latin America, Cambridge University Press. Hardayal S. , 2001. Ambassadors of Culture. Princeton University Press.
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