Last Updated 05 Sep 2020

Understand Child Development and Young Person Development

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Assessment Criteria 1. 1: Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth – 19 years.

Answer to 1. 1: Below I have explained the sequence and rate of each development from birth – 19 years old in great detail. 0-2 Years – Physical Development: The baby lies supine (1 month old)

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  • The baby turns its head towards light and stares at bright and shiny objects (1 month old)
  • The baby can lift the head briefly from the prone position (1-4 months old)
  • Legs can kick vigorously both separately and together (1-4 months old)
  • The baby is beginning to use a palmer grasp and can transfer objects from hand to hand (4-6 months old)
  • The baby has good head control and is beginning to sit with support (4-6 months old)
  • The baby can roll from front to back (6-12 months old) The baby is very alert to people and objects (6-12 months old)
  • The baby will now be mobile, maybe crawling, bear walking, bum shuffling, and even walking (9-12 months old)
  • The baby may bounce is a rhythm to the sound of music (9-12 months old)
  • The baby might be able to manage stairs and steps, but will need supervision (1-2 years old)
  • The baby can build a few bricks and arrange toys on the floor (1-2 years old)
  • The child can walk confidently and is able to walk without falling (1-2 years old)

0-2 Years – Communication Development: The baby responds to sounds, especially familiar voices (1-month-old)

  • The baby makes eye contact (1-month-old) The baby makes no-crying noises, such as cooing and gurgling (1-4 months old)
  • The baby cries with anger to show they are hungry, tired or need a nappy change (1-4 months old)
  • The baby begins to laugh and squeal with pleasure (4-6 months old)
  • The baby becomes more aware of others and starts to communicate with them more and more (4-6 months old)
  • Babies begin to understand words like ‘up’ and ‘down’ raising their arms to be lifted, using appropriate gestures (6-9 months old)
  • The baby can follow simple instructions – for example, kiss teddy (9-12 months old)
  • The child begins to talk with words or sign language (1-2 years)
  • The child starts pointing and taking a real interest in books and enjoys looking at all the pictures and objects (1-2 Years)

0-2 Years – Intellectual and Cognitive:

  • The baby is sensitive to light (1-month-old) The baby’s face, abdomen, hands, and feet are very sensitive to touch (1 month old)
  • The baby recognizes differing speech sounds (1-4 months old)
  • The baby can develop favorite tastes in food and recognize differences by five months (4-6 months old)
  • The baby prefers complicated things to look at from five to six months and enjoys bright lights (4-6 months)
  • The baby understands signs e. g. he bib means that the food is coming (6-9 months)
  • From 8 -9 months, the baby shows that they know objects exist when they have gone out of sight (6-9 months)
  • The baby is beginning to develop images (9-12 months)
  • The baby gives some understanding of daily routine e. g. food, changing, and then nap time (9-12 months old)
  • The child understands the names of objects and can follow a simple instruction (1-2 years old)
  • The child learns about things through trial and error (1-2 years)

0-2 Years – Social, Emotional, and Behavioural:

  • The baby often imitates certain facial expressions (1-month-old)
  • The baby will smile in a response to an adult (1-4 months old)
  • The baby stays awake for longer periods of time (1-4 months)
  • The baby shows trust and security (4-6 months old)
  • The baby has recognizable sleep patterns (4-6 months old)
  • The baby can manage to feed themselves using their fingers (6-9 months)
  • The baby is more aware of other people’s feelings, for example; they might cry and get sad if they see their brother or sister crying or sad. 6-9 months old)
  • The baby enjoys songs and action rhymes (9-12 months old)
  • The baby still likes to be near a familiar adult as appose to strangers (9-12 months old)
  • The child begins to have a longer memory (1-2 years old)
  • The child expresses their needs using words and gestures (1-2 years old)

0-2 Years – Moral:

  • Show joy by smiling, cooing, and laughing when fed comfortable or safe.
  • No understanding of right or wrong starts to understand the word no.
  • Sensitive to adult approval and disapproval, despite tantrums and bursts of anger. -4 Years - Physical Development:
  • The child is very mobile and can run safely (2 years old)
  • The child can draw circles, lines, and dots, using the preferred hand (2 years old)
  • The child can jump from a low step (3 years old)
  • The child can build tall towers of bricks or blocks (3 years old)
  • The child has good spatial awareness (3 years old)

2-4 Years – Communication Development

  • Children are rapidly becoming competent speakers of the language they experience (2 years old)
  • The child can follow simple instructions for example; “Could you bring me the spoon? ( 2 years old)
  • The child wants to share songs, dance, and have conversations (2 years old)
  • The child might say “two times” instead of ‘twice’ and might say “I go there” instead of ‘I went there’ (3 years old)
  • The child loves to chat and ask a lot of different questions (3 years old)

2-4 Years - Intellectual and Cognitive

  • The child can hold a crayon and move it up and down (2 years old)
  • The child talks about an absent object when reminded of it ( 2 years old)
  • The child pretend plays – often making up stories and characters ( 3 years old)
  • The child represents events in drawings, models, etc (3 years old)

2-4 Years – Social, Emotional, and Behavioural:

  • The child begins to express how they are feeling (2 years old)
  • The child is learning how to dress themselves (2 years old)
  • The child is beginning to develop a gender role as they become aware of being male or female (3 years old)
  • The child makes friends and is interested in making new friends (3 years old)

2-4 Years – Moral:

  • Beginning to know right from wrong. Is more self-controlled and less aggressive. Uses extreme verbal threats such as, "I'll kill you," without understanding the full implications, wants to be good but is not yet mature enough to be able to carry out most promises.

Related article: Intervention When Development is Not Following the Expected Pattern

4-7 Years - Physical Development:

  • A sense of balance is developing – the child may be able to walk in a straight line (4 years old)
  • The child can thread small bread on a lace (4 years old)
  • The child can play ball games (5 years old) The child has increased agility, muscle coordination, and balance (6 years old)
  • The child can catch a ball thrown from one meter with one hand (7 years old)

4-7 Years – Communication Development:

  • The child begins to ask a lot of where, when, how, and why questions (4 years old)
  • The child talks confidently and with more fluency (5 years old)
  • The child begins to understand book language and that books have characters (6 years old)
  • The child begins to realize that different situations require different ways of talking (7 years old)

4-7 Years - Intellectual and Cognitive: At age four, the child usually knows how to count up to 20 (4 years old)

  • The child can usually write their own name down on a piece of paper (5 years old)
  • The child includes a lot more detail in their drawings (6 years old)
  • The child begins to establish what is real and what is a fantasy (7 years old)

4-7 Years – Social, Emotional and Behavioural: The child likes to be independent and is strongly self-willed (4 years old)

  • The child can wash their hands and brush their own teeth unassisted (4 years old)
  • The child has developed a stable self-concept (5 years old)
  • The child can begin to hide their feelings, once they learn to control them (6 years old)
  • The child can take responsibility e. g. in helping younger children (7 years old)

4-7 Years – Moral:

  • Is interested in being good, but may tell lies or blame others for wrongdoings because of an intense desire to please and do right. Is very concerned with personal behavior, particularly as it affects family and friends.

7-12 Years - Physical Development:

  • The child can ride a bike easily (7 years old)
  • The child plays energetic sports and games (8 years old)
  • The child is usually writing with an established style using joined-up letters (9 years old)
  • Children differ in physical maturity. Girls experience puberty earlier than boys do and sometimes girls can be two years ahead of the boys with puberty (10 years old)
  • The child’s body proportions are becoming more similar to adults (12 years old)

7-12 Years – Communication Development:

  • The child uses and understands complex sentences (7 years old)
  • The child is increasingly verbal and enjoys making up stories and telling jokes (8 years old)
  • The child uses reference books with the increasing skill (9 years old)
  • The child can write fairly lengthy essays (11 years old)
  • The child starts to write stories that show a lot of imagination (12 years old)

7-12 Years - Intellectual and Cognitive:

  • The child has an increased ability to remember and pay attention, speak and express different ideas (7 years old)
  • The child is learning to plan and evaluate what they do (8 years old)
  • The child enjoys tasks that are task-orientated, such as sewing and woodwork (9 years old)
  • The child begins to notice and understand the motives behind the actions of another (10 years old)
  • The child begins to devise memory strategies (11 years old)
  • The child starts thinking about different possibilities (12 years old)

7-12 Years – Social, Emotional and Behavioural: The child may become discouraged easily (7 years old)

  • The child takes pride in their competence (8 years old)
  • The child can become argumentative and bossy at times (9 years old)
  • The child is beginning to see things from another child’s point of view (10 years old)
  • The child may be experiencing sudden, dramatic, and emotional changes associated with puberty (11 years old)
  • The child succumbs to peer pressure more readily and wants to talk, dress, and act just like their friends (12 years old)

7-12 Years – Moral:

  • May experience guilt and shame.
  • Has difficulty admitting mistakes but is becoming more capable of accepting failures and mistakes and taking responsibility for them.
  • Is aware of right and wrong; wants to do right.

12-19 Years - Physical Development:

  • Physical development during adolescence is known as puberty. The age of puberty varies but is often between the ages of 9-13 years old for girls and 10-15 years old for boys.
  • Girls will experience the following during puberty; breasts develop, body size and shape will change, and menstruation.
  • Boys will experience the following during puberty; voice breaking, body size, and shape will change, chest hair, penile erections, and sperm.
  • Both girls and boys will experience the following during puberty; public hair, excess sweating, and oil-secreting glands.

12-19 Years – Communication Development:

  • Become more independent and rely less on parents or carers
  • The young person has a fast, legible style of handwriting
  • The young person communicates very well in an adult manner, with increasing maturity
  • The young person understands abstract language, such as idioms, figurative language, and metaphors.

2-19 Years - Intellectual and Cognitive:

  • Around this time young people experience a shift in thinking from concrete to abstract – an adult way of thinking
  • They systematically approach a problem and also use their imagination when solving problems

12-19 Years – Social, Emotional, and Behavioural:

  • The young person may become self-conscious about physical changes their body is going through (e. g. too short, too tall, too fat, too thin)
  • The young person often feels misunderstood
  • The young person can experience a wide range of emotions and sometimes have mood swings (e. . happy one minute and very down the next minute)
  • The young person wants to become accepted and liked

12-19 Years – Moral:

  • Knows right and wrong; tries to weigh alternatives and arrive at decisions alone.
  • Is concerned about fair treatment of others; is usually reasonably thoughtful; is unlikely to lie.
  • Experiences feelings of frustration, anger, sorrow, and isolation.
  • Is confused and disappointed, state values and actual behaviors of family and friends;
  • May be interested in exploring physical-emotional urges.
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