The Importance of Teacher’s Part in the Disruptive Behavior
The Importance of Teacher’s Part In the Disruptive Behavior In the Classroom Prepared by Aclan, Olga Enriquez, Zarah Mae Salazar, Aprilyn Prepared to: Mrs. Rose Mae Ann LUmanglas Instructress Table of Contents I. Introduction a.
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Statement of the Problem b. Significance of the Study II. Body a. Conceptual Literature b. Research Literature III. Summary and Recommendation IV. Bibliography a. Books b. Journals c. Unpublished Materials d. Web Resources I. Introduction Disruptive behavior can be defined as any behavior that disturbs, interferes with, disrupts, or prevents any normal operations and functions.
It is the most common reasons children are referred for mental health practitioners for possible treatment. However many children with oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder are found to have neurologically related symptoms over time, the primary problem is behavior. Study has known both biological and environmental causes for disruptive behavior disorders. Young people most at risk for oppositional defiant and conduct disorders are those who have low birth weight, neurological damage or attention deficit.
For treating this disorder used behavior therapies to teach young people how to control and express feelings in healthy ways and coordination of services with the young person’s school and other involved agencies. Disruptive behavior disorder, characterized by aggression, noncompliance, and negative emotionality, remain a mental health priority. Parents require an arsenal of coping strategies to lessen the behavioral problems at home. Children attend school to become educated members of society, capable of making informed decisions and increasing future career possibilities.
However, some children have difficulty adjusting to the classroom environment and act out with disruptive behaviors. Disruptive classroom behaviors not only detract from a child’s education experience, but may also lead to social isolation. Understanding the types of disruptive classroom behaviors, and the possible causes and solutions, may help to solve a child’s behavior problems, and reduce the likelihood that he will suffer from social isolation. One teacher considers disruptive, another teacher may not. No set criteria or definition exists to determine which behavior qualifies as disruptive.
However, some behaviors generally qualify as unacceptable no matter which teacher runs the classroom. Disruptive classroom behaviors include aggressive behaviors, defiant behaviors, social disruptions and emotional disturbances. Aggressive behaviors include intimidating peers, engaging in physical altercations or damaging property. Defiant behaviors include blatant and sometimes vocal disregard of rules, as well as devaluing the teacher’s expertise and judgment. Examples of social disruptions include interrupting discussions with off-topic information, engaging in private conversations or passing notes during instructional time.
Emotional disturbances are temper tantrums. A chronic pattern of disruptive behavior may indicate a mental health disorder. Possible disorders indicated by such behavior include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, also known as ADHD, and oppositional defiant disorder. ADHD, characterized by an inability to pay attention and impulsive behaviors, often causes behavioral problems in class. The symptoms of ADHD clash with the expectations of the classroom environment. Children with ADHD may talk out of turn, have difficulty staying seated and find it challenging to maintain focus during instructional time.
Children with oppositional defiant disorder exhibit behaviors of negativity, defiance, disobedience and hostility toward authority figures. These symptoms may lead to problems in school, temper tantrums, aggressiveness toward peers and other disruptive classroom behaviors. Different factors may cause a student’s disruptive behavior and these factors will depend on the surrounding a student lives in. As this disruptive behavior occurs inside the classroom, this is the time a teacher needs to do his/her part. These are the following examples of disruptive classroom behaviors: Usage of Electronic Devices Using cellular phones, text messaging iPods, MP3 players, laptops, etc. while class is in session Unexcused exits • Leaving to retrieve a soda or other snack items • Leaving to engage in a conversation (i. e. person-to-person or by phone) • Leaving before class is finished for any reason without prior permission from the instructor Non-Permitted Communication During Classroom Instruction • Talking while the instructor is talking • Talking before being recognized by the instructor (i. e. blurting out information) • Talking without permission during classroom instruction (i. . side conversations with an individual or in a group) • Mimicking and/or consistently repeating an instructor’s words Personal Attacks • Engaging in abusive or mean spirited criticism of another student or an instructor • Questioning an instructor’s authority in front of the class • Continuing to insist on speaking with an instructor during classroom instruction • Telling an instructor to “shut-up” Threatening Behaviors • Verbally abusing an instructor or student (i. e. cursing or extremely loud talking directed at a particular person) Threatening to physically harm an instructor or student through verbal or body gestures • Intimidating through body gestures and/or posture or persistent staring at an instructor or student Overt Inattentiveness • Sleeping in class • Preventing others from concentrating on classroom instruction • Reading a newspaper, doing homework from another class, etc. Other Distracting Behaviors • Arriving late to class, especially on test dates • Persistent Tardiness • Creating excessive noise from packing up before class has ended • Dressing inappropriately as to cause other students or instructor to be distracted (i. . wearing pajamas, indecent exposure, or offensive words on clothing) Statement of the Problem This study aims to find out the importance of teacher’s part in the disruptive behavior in the classroom. Specifically, this sought to answer the following questions: 1. What are the factors of the disruptive behavior in the classroom? 2. How does the teacher respond to the disruptive behavior in the classroom? 3. What implication can be drawn from the study conducted/ 4. What recommendation can be proposed on how teachers would discipline the student’s disruptive behavior in the classroom?
Significance of the Study Lots of students now are having disruptive behavior in the classroom. Most of the time they use their cellular phones, iPods or any other electronic devices during class discussions. There are times that students have unexcused exits during class discussions like leaving to retrieve a soda or other snack items, leaving to engage in a conversation whether it is person – to – person or by phone, leaving before class is finished for any reason without prior permission from the instructor, etc.
Other examples of disruptive behavior in the classroom are talking while the instructor is talking, talking before being recognized by the instructor like blurting out information, sleeping in class, reading a newspaper, doing homework from another class, arriving late on class especially on test dates, persistent tardiness, threatening to physically harm an instructor or student through verbal or body gestures, and a lot more. Teachers begin to have problems due to the misbehaviour of the students and it is important for them that they should know how to handle the disruptive behavior of the student in the classroom.
Teachers are now aware that this new generation of students could be more disruptive inside the classroom and even outside. And this misbehaviour could lead them to trouble or worst could bring them to prison. To prevent this thing to happen, teacher’s disciplinary action should be implemented. They should talk to their students, a heart – to – heart talk, for the students to release what’s inside of them that may cause them to have such disruptive behavior. It is important for the teachers to know the reason why students act like that so that they could know the preferred action that they will do.
This study will help not only teachers but also students to know the factors of disruptive behaviors and how to prevent it. This will give them more knowledge regarding this disruptive behavior. Students will be educated about the wrong things that they do inside the classroom which they think is not a wrong thing and it is just a common thing. Shown also in this study how important the teacher’s part will be in the disruptive behavior in the classroom. They will be given tips and recommendations that they could use in disciplining a student’s disruptive behavior.
II. Body Conceptual Literature * According to Karen Hollowell of eHow Contributor, teachers deal with classroom discipline issues every day. “Classroom management skills are essential for all teachers. Supervising a group of children with different personalities and backgrounds is a challenging task. You are responsible for their academic growth while ensuring that the learning environment stays welcoming and secure. Establish a discipline plan the first week of school and implement it fairly and consistently.
Clearly explain your definition of appropriate classroom behavior as well as your system of rewards and consequences. Be sure your behavior management plan reinforces the school’s code of conduct regarding disruptive behavior. ” Talk to the student publicly and privately. When students disrupt the classroom with incessant talking or getting out of their seats, tell them immediately to stop and inform them of the consequences per your class rules and expectations. Talk to them again separately after class or in a conference with the principal if disruptions continue.
Determine causes of misbehavior and address them if possible. If a student suddenly starts disrupting class after being quiet and studious all year, the behavior may indicate a problem at home or at school with peers. Talk to your school’s counselor about meeting with the student to find out additional information. If you have a rapport with the student, talk to him yourself and offer assistance if appropriate. Meet with the student’s parents if disruptions continue. This allows you to collaborate with caregivers and discuss ways to help the child conform to classroom expectations.
Ask parents for their input and advice. Do not use a parent conference as a forum for your opinions about how bad their child is or to criticize their parenting style. Establish a behavioral plan and contract for repeat offenders. A counselor or behavioral interventionist at your school can help you with this. A behavior contract outlines specific ways the student will act in class. It also lists possible rewards for meeting behavioral goals. Get the student’s, parents’ and your signature on this document as a way to demonstrate that this plan is a team effort.
Enforce school and classroom rules as stated. If a student continues to display disruptive behavior after enacting a behavioral plan, follow your discipline plan in the order you presented it at the first of the year. Do not let anger and frustration cause you to exact a more severe punishment than the offense warrants. When students see that you treat everyone fairly and respectfully, it can have a positive impact on future behavior. Karen Hollowell gave tips to teachers on how they would handle a student’s disruptive behavior.
She gave five steps and instructions on how a teacher should handle a student’s disruptive behavior inside the classroom. Her first step was teacher should talk to his/her students. Second was teachers should determine the causes of misbehaviour done by a student. Third was teachers should meet with the student’s parents if his/her disruptive behaviors continue. Fourth was teachers should establish a behavioral plan and contract for repeat offenders. And the last one was teacher should enforce school and classroom rules as stated.
According to Rosalind Reed Ph. D. Department of Health and Community Services College of Behavioral and Social Sciences California State University, Chico, there are different strategies for dealing with troublesome behaviors in the classroom. For talking and inattention, teachers should make direct eye contact, stop talking or stop whoever has the flood and hold, don’t start talking until have full attention, physically move to that part of the classroom, vary the methods of presenting the content, and speak to the student or students privately.
For unpreparedness, missed deadlines and tests, and fraudulent excuse making, design class so there are logical consequences to this behavior. Follow through, be consistent. Don’t rescue and don’t enable. Teachers should require evidence of preparation for class like notecards, 2 minute written/on-spot reflective feedback (quiz) on assign and call on students for input. Teachers should also be a good role model. They should consistently meet your agenda deadlines with class.
When there are excuses making, clearly state policy at beginning of semester about excuses with regard to absences, missed exams, etc. For example: validate certain excuses, no make-up exams, all make up exams vary, one day in semester only to make up. For lateness and inattendance, teachers should establish a policy and expectations from the beginning. You expect them to be on time and leave on time. As what you expect on them, teachers should start the class on time and finish it on time too, be a good role model to them.
If a student is going to absent tell them that they should call and inform ahead of time. Teachers could also have rituals at starting at time especially in large classes. They should also speak to chronically late students. A student could have logical consequences for being late in class. Instructor does not own the problem. And teachers should not reteach the topic due to that late comer student. Students are the one responsible for getting missed assignments and material. Teachers should not rescue the student and let him/her be responsible enough for his/her mistakes.
Overt hostility from a student or verbally aggressive students, students usually become verbally abusive in frustrating situations which they see being beyond their control; anger and frustrations becomes displaced onto others; fear of rejection and feeling of righteous indignation are frequently with patterns like talking to student privately. Teachers should talk to student in neutral setting and try to find a common ground. Write letter to student describing his/her behavior, how behavior disrupts you and others, restate expectations and request behavior change.
Setting classroom norms at the very beginning of a class is one of the best methods of classroom management. Hang a flip chart or poster, or dedicate a section of white board if the room has the space, and list expected classroom behaviors. Refer to this list when disruptions occur. Using a flip chart or white board can be especially useful because it can involve students in the construction of the list on the first day and in that way get buy-in. Start with a few of a teacher’s own expectations and ask the group for additional suggestions.
When they all agree on how a teacher wants the classroom to be managed, disruptions are minimal. It’s always a good idea to address questions of any kind when disruptive behavior occurs because curiosity provides fabulous teaching moments, but sometimes it just isn’t appropriate to get off track. Many teachers use a flip chart or white board as a holding place for such questions to ensure they’re not forgotten. Call your holding place something appropriate to the topic. Be creative. When a question being held is eventually answered, mark it off the list.
Unless the teacher got a completely obnoxious student in his/her classroom, chances are good that disruptions, when they do occur, will be fairly mild, calling for mild management. Disruptive behaviors like chatting in the back of the room, texting, or someone who is argumentative or disrespectful. It’s generally unprofessional to share frustrations about individual students with other teachers who may be influenced toward that person in the future. This doesn’t mean that teachers can’t consult with others. A teacher could choose confidants carefully.
The different strategies and method used by teachers in disciplining a student’s disruptive behavior could be a great help to lessen the disruptive classroom behaviors. As the teachers explain to their students the importance of having good moral values inside the classroom, students may lessen or the best part was they could have no disruptive behaviors done inside the classroom. Teachers are very important in disciplining a student disruptive classroom behavior for they could do a lot of things to make their students a good and effective one.
Students would be able to remember the lessons their teachers told them and through it they could make themselves a responsible one as they grow. Research Literature It is important to differentiate between disruptive classroom behavior (that which directly interferes with the ability of the instructor to teach or the ability of other students to benefit from the classroom experience) from behavior that is merely rude or uncivil. While the latter may become disruptive when it is repetitive or persistent, it usually is best addressed by example and influence.
Disruptive student behavior is detrimental to the academic community because it interferes with the learning process for other students, inhibits the ability of instructors to teach most effectively, diverts university energy and resources away from the educational mission, and may indicate a significant level of personal problems or distress on the part of the disrupter. Common Types of Disruptive Classroom Behavior Grandstanding: Use the classroom for them by monopolizing class discussion, speaking protractedly and bombastically on favorite subjects with no regard to relevancy to the discussion.
Sleeping in Class: While passively disruptive, it sends a message to the other students about the quality of the class or teaching. It is disrespectful to the instructor and the other students. Prolonged Chattering: Small cliques of 2-3 students who engage in private conversations or pass notes to each other. Excessive Lateness: Students who not only come in late, but make an entrance speaking to friends, walking in front of the professor, arranging their belongings. Noisy Electric Devices: Beepers and pagers going off in class or students talking on the telephone uring the class. Disputing the Instructor’s Authority or Expertise: Students may be disappointed or frustrated over a grade and may debunk or devalue the instructor’s judgment, authority, and expertise. This may take the form of comments in the class or memos to department chair or dean. Verbal or Physical Threats to Students or Faculty: Some verbal threats are veiled while others are more explicit. A threatening student may approach the instructor or fellow students menacingly, or actually shove the individual, or worse, physically assault them. Levels of Response Prevention – setting standards for behavior in class, developing a process for notifying students of the standards, developing a process to respond to violations of class standards as well as university standards, and responding to violations in a consistent and fair manner. • Intervention by the Instructor. • Reporting behavior to Department Chair for consultation/intervention. • Reporting behavior to Judicial Affairs for disciplinary action. • Reporting behavior to University Police for immediate action. Reasons Why Instructors Don’t Respond to Disruptive Acts by Students “Benign” Inaction:
Some instructors believe if they take no action, that somehow the disruption will stop on its own. They believe that at some point the student will see the error of his/her way and stop the behavior. The instructor may think that the student will see such action as being a “good guy”, generous and kind and will therefore be grateful to the instructor. However, many students interpret this as fear, naivete, or indifference to their conduct. If this is a highly disruptive student, they often take further advantage of their power and the behavior may escalate. Fear of Receiving Inadequate Administrative Support:
Some instructors are afraid of receiving adverse reactions from administrators in their department. They may be afraid that the administrator may believe that there had been malice or ineptitude on the part of the instructor. It can happen that the administrator may devalue the instructor’s assessment of the seriousness of the disruption. This is most difficult for instructors who are part-time or untenured. Fear of Harming the Psychologically Fragile Student: Often reports by instructors include reference to the students’ state of mind or psychological status.
However, once they convince themselves of the students’ psychological frailty, they think it would be inappropriate to use the discipline process with them. However, many of these students need the direction and limit-setting from others that the discipline process can provide. Fear of Physical Reprisals: Instructors are often afraid to respond or report disruptive behavior because of real or perceived threats from students. If a real threat has occurred, the instructor may not only be afraid of the student, but may convince themselves that reporting would incite the student to physical action.
It is always best for the instructor to take threats or threatening behavior seriously and consult with the appropriate administrator about the appropriate course of action. However, as an agent of the university, all faculties have a duty to report threats of violence. Fear of Legal Reprisals: Instructors sometimes fail to act because they are afraid of being sued. While we live in a litigious time where anyone can sue anyone, if instructors follow the university due process procedures, the likelihood of having to deal with a lawsuit is diminished.
Misperceiving the Nature of Discipline: Many instructors attach very negative connotations to the role and nature of discipline and choose not to place themselves the role of disciplinarian, nor want to report to an office that they perceive is punitive. Essentially, determining what constitutes disruptive activity lies at the discretion of each instructor. Behaviors such as routine tardiness, speaking without being recognized, harassing instructors through email, and overt acts of violence are all examples of the range of unacceptable behaviors.
According to University policies, disruptive activity is behavior in a classroom or instructional program that interferes with the instructor’s ability to conduct the class or the ability of others to profit from it. Why don’t faculty members report disruptive behavior? Research suggests that instructors do not report disruptions because they hope for a spontaneous resolution; they fear they will not be supported by the administration; they fear it will reflect poorly on their abilities, and/or they fear retaliation.
Since there has been an increase in the reporting of problems, and in many cases, in the severity of the problems, we would like to remind all faculty and instructors that the academic and Student Affairs staff are committed to ensuring that your decision will be met with support and expeditious resolution. How do I handle disruptive activity? Include on your syllabus the guidelines and consequences regarding behaviors, attendance, and punctuality; repercussions for academic dishonesty.
On the first day of class, clearly state behavioral expectations and consequences; discuss protocols for discussions/debates, including how to be recognized; state (or negotiate) what you will allow in class (gum, hats, snacks, etc. ); role model expected behaviors. When it occurs, remain calm and in control, identify and acknowledge the issue; offer a solution or recommend a continuation of the discussion after class or during office hours; document the incident; follow up with the student verbally and in writing. Copy the Dean of Students Office on any correspondence. f the situation escalates: Dismiss the student from class or dismiss the class entirely; Document the incident with the Dean of Students Office. Remember to never raise your voice, argue with the student, threaten the student, get too close to the student, touch the student, use abusive language toward the student, or put yourself in danger! Generally, classroom teachers can use the same disciplinary practices to manage the disruptive behavior of students with disabilities that they use to manage the behavior of students without disabilities.
Much of the undesirable behavior exhibited by both groups is similar in nature. The differences, however, may originate in the teacher’s selection of the particular behavioral intervention. When selecting behavior interventions for students with disabilities, teachers should ensure that the strategies are developmentally appropriate and take into consideration the student’s disability and due process rights. Here are 10 questions that may help you diagnostically analyze situations that foster disruptive behavior in students with disabilities.
These discussions may provide guidance as you select behavior-reduction strategies. Question 1. Could this misbehavior be a result of inappropriate curriculum or teaching strategies? Inappropriate curriculum and teaching strategies can contribute to student misbehavior – but not all misbehavior is attributable to these factors. Some misbehavior may arise as a function of the teacher’s inability to meet the diverse needs of all students. Consider these factors: * Group size. * Group composition. * Limited planning time. * Cultural and linguistic barriers. Lack of access to equipment, materials, and resources. If the misbehavior evolves as a result of inappropriate curriculum or teaching strategies, redress the content and skill level components of your curriculum, its futuristic benefit for the student, and the formats you use in instructional delivery. When you identify the instructional needs of students within the context of the classroom, using a diagnostic prescriptive approach, and make curricular adaptations both in content and instructional delivery, you can greatly reduce the occurrence of student misbehavior. Question 2.
Could this misbehavior be a result of the student’s inability to understand the concepts being taught? When there is a mismatch between teaching style and the learning styles of students, misbehavior inevitably results. Incidents of misbehavior may also result when students refuse to learn concepts because they are unable to see the relationship between the skills being taught and how these skills transcend to the context of the larger environment. In these situations, you should employ strategies and tactics that show students how component skills have meaning in the classroom and in the community.
If you find that the cause of the inappropriate behavior is related to the student’s lack of prerequisite skills or abilities to acquire concepts, you can use a simple procedure known as task analysis. By using this procedure, you can pinpoint specific functional levels of students on targeted skills and provide sequential instructional programs that will move the student with disabilities toward mastery of a targeted goal at a pace appropriate for the student (Moyer ; Dardig, 1978). Question 3. Could this misbehavior be an underlying result of the student’s disability?
Some disruptive behavior may be a result of the student’s disability (e. g. , emotional/behavioral disorders). Meanwhile, other behavior may result from deliberate actions taken by the student to cause classroom disruption. Determining the underlying cause of a student’s disruptive behavior involves a careful analysis of the behavior, as follows: * Try to clarify what kinds of behavior are causing concern. * Specify what is wrong with that behavior. * Decide what action should be taken to address the behavior. -Specify what behavior you desire from the student. Implement a plan to correct conditions, variables, or circumstances that contribute to the problem behavior (Charles, 1996). You should analyze the disruptive behavior and render a professional judgment as to its cause. Redl and Wattenberg (cited in Charles, 1996) suggested that teachers employ a procedure of “diagnostic thinking” when faced with incidents of student misbehavior. These procedures include forming a first hunch, gathering facts, exploring hidden factors, taking action, and remaining flexible. While such a task is not easy, having a knowledge base of the general characteristics (e. . , academic, behavioral, social/emotional, learning, physical) of students with disabilities and the associated etiologies (causes) can be helpful. Question 4. Could this misbehavior be a result of other factors? Many aspects of classroom life may contribute to students’ misbehavior: the physical arrangement of the classroom, boredom or frustration, transitional periods, lack of awareness of what is going on in every area of the classroom. Remember, however, that classroom climate and physical arrangements can also encourage desirable behavior.
You should regularly assess your teaching and learning environment for conditions or procedures that perpetuate or encourage misbehavior. Because inappropriate behavioral manifestations of students can also stem from certain types of teaching behavior, teachers need to become more cognizant of the kinds of behavior they emit and the relationship between their teaching behavior and the resultant behavior of students. Examine your instruction and interactions with students in ongoing classroom life, as follows: * The development of relevant, interesting, and appropriate curriculums. The manner in which you give recognition and understanding of each student as an individual with his or her unique set of characteristics and needs. * Your own behavior as a teacher, and characteristics such as those identified by Kounin (1970 – withitness, overlapping – that reduce misbehavior, increase instructional time, and maintain group focus and movement management of students. Question 5. Are there causes of misbehavior that I can control? As a teacher, you can control many variables to thwart undesirable behavior.
You may modify or change your curriculum; make adaptations in instruction to address multiple intelligences; and make changes in your communication style, attitude toward students with disabilities, and expectations of these students. Analyze how much positive feedback you give students. If you find that you use limited feedback (encouragement or praise), which accentuates positive behavior of students (and also communicates respect and promotes self-esteem and self-confidence), you may be contributing to behavior problems.
Feedback (both verbal and nonverbal) is an important factor in the learning paradigm that is too often neglected, overlooked, or haphazardly orated. Question 6. How do I determine if the misbehavior is classroom based? This is a difficult question. Conducting a self-evaluation of teaching style and instructional practices – as in the previous questions – may provide some insight into whether the behavior is related to the disability or is classroom based.
You may find a classroom ecological inventory (Fuchs, Fernstrom, Scott, Fuchs, ; Vandermeer, 1994) helpful in determining cause-effect relationships of student misbehavior. The classroom ecological inventory could help you assess salient features of the learning environment of your school or classroom. In such analysis, you can gather specific information about the student, the behavior, and the environmental conditions and settings associated with the behavior (Evans, Evans, ; Gable, 1989).
By taking into account the learning ecology, you can be more decisive and selective in your use of resources for managing student behavior and, at the same time, obtain a more accurate and complete picture of a particular student for developing a more appropriate and comprehensive behavior-change program. Classroom ecological inventories can be useful for collecting information about a wide range of events, variables, and conditions that can influence and affect a student’s behavior.
Conducting a functional analysis or functional assessment can also be useful in examining cause-effect relationships of students’ behavior. Functional assessments can also help you address serious problem behavior displayed by “target” students. These analyses examine the circumstances or functional relationships between, or surrounding, the occurrence or nonoccurence of the challenging behavior. The assessments can help you identify variables and events that are consistently present in those situations (Dunlap et al. , 1993; Foster-Johnson ; Dunlap, 1993).
You may identify events, variables, and circumstances that contribute to the problem. In addition, you may devise a comprehensive, individualized approach to designing interventions logically related to the target behavior – and, in the process, better meet the student’s specific needs. Question 7. How do I teach students to self-regulate or self-manage behavior? You can teach students to self-regulate or self-manage their behavior by teaching them to use the skills of self-management: * Self-instruction, self-recording, or self-monitoring. * Self-reinforcement, self-evaluation, and self-punishment. Multiple-component treatment packages (Carter, 1993; Hughes, Ruhl, & Peterson, 1988; Rosenbaum & Drabman, 1979). Many studies (e. g. , McCarl, Svobodny, & Beare, 1991; Nelson, Smith, Young, & Dodd, 1991; Prater, Joy, Chilman, Temple, & Miller, 1991) focusing on self-management techniques have shown the effectiveness of self-management procedures in behavior change and academic productivity. These studies included students from many different populations, ranging from average achievers to students with mild, moderate, and severe disabilities.
Teachers have found many advantages in using self-monitoring procedures: These procedures improve target behavior, stress the student’s role in behavior change, allow generalization to non-school environments, free teachers for other tasks, and teach students responsibility and self-determination (Frith ; Armstrong, 1986). Furthermore, these procedures are relatively simple to implement; they quickly reach a point in which little supervision is required; and, they help students become more successful and independent in their classroom and in everyday life (Dunlap, Dunlap, Koegel, ; Koegel, 1991).
Of course, teaching students self-management skills should not be regarded as a substitute for a high-quality curriculum of instruction (Dunlap et al. , 1991) that emphasizes academic and social learning skills. Here are some steps for teaching self-management skills: * Defining the target behavior. * Defining the desired behavior. * Developing the data-collection system. * Teaching the students how to use the self-management system. * Implementing the system. * Evaluating the effectiveness of the system (Carter, 1993). * Additional steps may include identifying functional reinforcers and fading use of the self-
Question 8. How do I determine what methods of control are appropriate without violating the rights of students with disabilities mandated under P. L. 105-17? Determining which behavior-reduction methods to use with students with disabilities is not as difficult as you may think. As mentioned previously, the behavioral interventions typically used with students without disabilities can also be used with students with disabilities – with a few exceptions. Yell and Shriner (1997) provided a comprehensive account of major issues effecting the discipline of students with disabilities addressed in Section 615 K of P.
L. 105-17 (the IDEA Amendments of 1997): * Disciplinary procedures. * Behavior-intervention plans. * Manifestation determination. “Manifestation determination” refers to a review process (conducted by the student’s IEP team and other qualified personnel) to determine the relationship between a student’s disability and misconduct. This review process is conducted when school officials seek a change of placement, suspension, or expulsion for more than 10 school days. * Interim, alternative educational settings. * The “stay put” provision. * IDEA protection for students not yet eligible for special education. Referral to law enforcement and judicial authorities. When applying behavior-reduction techniques, use a common sense approach and be reasonable in your application. * Regardless of the behavioral infraction, before you discipline any student with disabilities, you should talk to administrative officials (e. g. , principal, special education supervisors, school attorney) about the rules, policies, regulations, and procedural safeguards outlined in the IDEA Amendments of 1997 that govern the discipline of students with disabilities. Question 9.
How do I use reinforcement strategies to reduce disruptive behavior? Teachers can use many types of reinforcers to teach desirable behavior. Madsen and Madsen (1983) identified five categories of responses available for teaching desired behavior: the use of words, physical expressions, physical closeness, activities, and things used as rewards or positive feedback (see box, “Positive Feedback”). Remember that the effectiveness of such reinforcers is contingent on continuous, systematic use across time. Also, consider the appropriateness of each response for your individual students.
Other reinforcement-based intervention strategies may also be effective: differential reinforcement of low rates of responding (DRL); differential reinforcement of other behavior(s) (DRO), also referred to as differential reinforcement of zero responding; differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior (DRI); and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior(s) (DRA). Many teachers have found such strategies effective in developing alternative response behavior to inappropriate, disruptive, or undesirable behavior.
Even though these procedural alternatives use a positive (reinforcement) approach to behavior reduction, teachers have found both advantages and disadvantages in the use of such procedures. In deciding whether to use differential reinforcement procedures, you should review the works of Alberto and Troutman (1995) and Schloss and Smith (1994). Question 10. Is it appropriate for me to use punishment? Punishment, the most controversial aversive behavior management procedure, has been used and abused with students with disabilities (Braaten, Simpson, Rosell, ; Reilly, 1988).
Because of its abuse, the use of punishment as a behavioral change procedure continues to raise a number of concerns regarding legal and ethical ramifications. Although punishment is effective in suppressing unacceptable behavior, it does have some limitations: * The reduction in disruptive behavior may not be pervasive across all settings. * The effect may not be persistent over an extended period of time. * The learner may not acquire skills that replace the disruptive behavior (Schloss, 1987). A decision regarding the use of punishment as a behavior reduction technique is an individual one.
Some professionals suggest that punishment-based interventions should be eliminated, whereas others favor a variety of behavior-control procedures, including punishers (Braaten et al. , 1988; Cuenin ; Harris, 1986). Inasmuch as the use of punishers inhibit, reduce, or control the future occurrence of an unacceptable behavior, the effects of punishers are limited. By itself, punishment will not teach desirable behavior or reduce the desire of misbehavior (Larrivee, 1992). Whereas the use of punishment remains a matter of individual choice, currently used punishers by classroom teachers include the following: * Response cost. Time out. * Overcorrection. * Contingent exercise. * Aversive conditioning (Braaten et al. , 1988; Cuenin ; Harris, 1986). Questions such as whether, when, or if you might use punishment will always be tainted with controversy. Whatever decision you make, keep the following cautions in mind: * Punishment should be used discriminately, rather than routinely. * It should be combined with positive procedures. * Punishment should be used only in response to repeated misbehavior for students who persist in the same kinds of misbehavior. It should be employed consciously and deliberately as a part of a planned response to repeated misbehavior. * Punishment should be used only when students are not responsive to reward-based interventions or praise/ignore strategies (Larrivee, 1992). * Punishment should be used only as a “treatment of last resort” (Larrivee), and only after you have taken appropriate steps to ensure that the due process rights of students will not be violated and that the procedures will not cause psychological or emotional harm to the student.
Final Thoughts There is no “one plan fits all” for determining how teachers should respond to the disruptive behavior of students with disabilities in inclusion settings. An initial starting point would include establishing classroom rules, defining classroom limits, setting expectations, clarifying responsibilities, and developing a meaningful and functional curriculum in which all students can receive learning experiences that can be differentiated, individualized, and integrated.
Many publications describe effective classroom-based disciplinary strategies (Carter, 1993; Schloss, 1987), but few (Ayres ; Meyer, 1992; Carpenter ; McKee-Higgins, 1996; Meyer ; Henry, 1993; Murdick ; Petch-Hogan, 1996) address effective classroom-based disciplinary strategies for students with disabilities in inclusion settings. Classroom teachers can use a variety of strategies to discipline students with disabilities in inclusion settings.
The approaches most likely to be successful combine humanistic and cognitive behavioral attributes and take into consideration the teacher’s diagnostic-reflective thinking and choice-making skills regarding the following: * Student’s behavior. * Student’s disability. * Curriculum. * Instructional program. * Classroom environment. * Due process rights. In formulating a discipline plan, teachers must first clarify personal values in terms of acceptable and unacceptable classroom behavior.
By setting classroom rules, defining limits, clarifying responsibilities, and developing a meaningful and functional curriculum, teachers can begin to build a system of discipline that will accentuate the positive behavior of all students. Finally, classroom teachers should contact appropriate administrators and seek information on administrative policies, rules, and regulations governing disciplinary practices for students with disabilities. Data Analysis Used The weighted mean (WM) was used to obtain how the respondents agree about the different disruptive behavior in the classroom.
It is also used to determine how effective are the recommendations on how teachers would discipline the student’s disruptive behavior in the classroom, while the composite mean (CM) was applied to determine how the respondents perceive all the disruptive behaviors and recommendations on how teachers would discipline the student’s disruptive behavior in the classroom. The scale used to analyze different disruptive behaviors in the classroom is presented here. Table I Raw ScoreWeighted Mean RangeVerbal Interpretation 32. 00 – 2. 5Always 21. 50 – 1. 9Sometimes 11. 00 – 1. 49Never The scale used to determine the best recommendations on how teachers would discipline the student’s disruptive behavior in the classroom. Table II Raw ScoreWeighted Mean RangeVerbal Interpretation 54. 50 – 5. 00 Very Effective (VE) 43. 50 – 4. 49Effective (E) 32. 50 – 3. 49Undecided (U) 21. 50 – 2. 49Ineffective (I) 11. 00 – 1. 49 Very Ineffective (VI) Interpretation of Data 1. Different disruptive behaviors inside the classroom The following are the different disruptive behaviors in the classroom.
Table I utilizes the weighted mean (WM) and composite mean (CM) to find out the most used/unused disruptive behavior inside the classroom. Table I Different Disruptive Behaviors inside the Classroom Different Disruptive Behaviors inside the Classroom| WM| VI| R| 1. Using cellular phones, iPods, MP3 players, laptops, etc, while class is in session| 1. 94| Sometimes| 1| 2. Leaving to retrieve a soda or other snack items| 1. 66| Sometimes| 7| 3. Leaving to engage in conversation (i. e. person-to-person or by phone)| 1. 68| Sometimes| 6| 4.
Talking while the instructor is talking| 1. 92| Sometimes| 2| 5. Talking before being recognized by the instructor (i. e. blurting out information)| 1. 86| Sometimes| 3| 6. Talking without permission during classroom instruction (i. e. side conversations with an individual or group)| 1. 76| Sometimes| 4| 7. Sleeping in class| 1. 26| Never| 10| 8. Reading a newspaper, doing homework from another class, etc. | 1. 72| Sometimes| 5| 9. Arriving late on class, especially test dates| 1. 34| Never| 9| 10. Persistent tardiness| 1. 46| Never| 8| Composite Mean (CM)| 1. 66| | |
As shown in the table the most used disruptive behavior in the classroom is using cellular phones, iPods, MP3 players, laptops, etc, while class is in session with a highest weighted mean of 1. 94, followed respectively by talking while the instructor is talking with a weighted mean of 1. 92, talking before being recognized by the instructor (i. e. blurting out information) with a weighted mean of 1. 86. While the most unused disruptive behavior in the classroom is sleeping in class with a weighted mean of 1. 26, followed respectively arriving late on class, especially test dates with a weighted mean of 1. 4, persistent tardiness with a weighted mean of 1. 46. Also the table shows that the respondents also agree to the all above mentioned disruptive behavior inside the classroom with a composite mean of 1. 66. 2. Teachers Way in Disciplining the Disruptive Behavior inside the Classroom The following are perceived best recommendations on how teachers would discipline the student’s disruptive behavior in the classroom. Table II utilizes the weighted mean and composite mean to determine the most effective recommendations on how teachers would discipline the student’s disruptive behavior in the classroom.
Table II Teachers Way in Disciplining the Disruptive Behavior inside the Classroom Teachers Way in Disciplining the Disruptive Behavior inside the Classroom| WM| RI| R| 1. When caught using cellphone or other gadgets, confiscate it and after a week return it back to their parents| 3. 74| E| 8| 2. When eating, teacher should send the student outside and let him/her stay outside for the whole class| 3. 44| U| 10| 3. While the teacher is discussing his/her topic and he caught his/her students talking, teacher should stop talking and let that student talk. 3. 86| E| 5| 4. When a student is always late, give him/her extra tasks| 3. 6| E| 9| 5. Teacher should talk to his/her students about their disruptive behavior| 3. 94| E| 4| 6. Make direct eye contact to your noisy student| 4. 08| E| 2| 7. Teachers should talk to the parents of their students who did consistently disruptive behaviors| 3. 78| E| 7| 8. Teachers should make agreements with his/her students regarding their disruptive behaviors| 4. 1| E| 3| 9. Teachers should give their expectations at the beginning of the school year| 3. 4| E| 6| 10. Teachers should give punishments appropriate to the disruptive behavior done by the student| 4. 22| E| 1| Composite Mean (CM)| 3. 86| | | As shown in the table the most effective recommendation on how teachers would discipline the student’s disruptive behavior in the classroom is teachers should give punishments appropriate to the disruptive behavior done by the student with the highest weighted mean of 4. 22, followed respectively by make direct eye contact to your noisy student with a weighted mean of 4. 08.
While the very ineffective recommendations on how teachers would discipline the student’s disruptive behavior in the classroom is when eating, teacher should send the student outside and let him/her stay outside for the whole class with a weighted mean of 3. 44, followed respectively by when a student is always late, give him/her extra tasks with a weighted mean of 3. 6. Also the table shows that the respondents considered the all above mentioned recommendations as effective as how teachers should discipline the student’s disruptive behavior in the classroom with a composite mean of 3. 86. III.
Summary and Recommendation This chapter presents the summary and recommendations profounded by the researcher in the light of the findings of this sudy. Summary This study dealt with the different disruptive behaviors in the classroom and recommendations on how teachers would discipline the student’s disruptive behavior in the classroom. Specifically, this sought to answer the following questions: 1. What are the factors of the disruptive behavior in the classroom? 2. How does the teacher respond to the disruptive behavior in the classroom? 3. What implication can be drawn from the study conducted/ 4.
What recommendation can be proposed on how teachers would discipline the student’s disruptive behavior in the classroom? Findings The following are the different disruptive behaviors inside the classroom that a student usually does. Items| WM| 1. Using cellular phones, iPods, MP3 players, laptops, etc, while class is in session| 1. 94| 2. Leaving to retrieve a soda or other snack items| 1. 66| 3. Leaving to engage in conversation (i. e. person-to-person or by phone)| 1. 68| 4. Talking while the instructor is talking| 1. 92| 5. Talking before being recognized by the instructor (i. e. lurting out information)| 1. 86| 6. Talking without permission during classroom instruction (i. e. side conversations with an individual or group)| 1. 76| 7. Sleeping in class| 1. 26| 8. Reading a newspaper, doing homework from another class, etc. | 1. 72| 9. Arriving late on class, especially test dates| 1. 34| 10. Persistent tardiness| 1. 46| The following are the recommendations on how teachers would discipline the student’s disruptive behavior in the classroom. Items| WM| 1. When caught using cellphone or other gadgets, confiscate it and after a week return it back to their parents| 3. 4| 2. When eating, teacher should send the student outside and let him/her stay outside for the whole class| 3. 44| 3. While the teacher is discussing his/her topic and he caught his/her students talking, teacher should stop talking and let that student talk. | 3. 86| 4. When a student is always late, give him/her extra tasks| 3. 6| 5. Teacher should talk to his/her students about their disruptive behavior| 3. 94| 6. Make direct eye contact to your noisy student| 4. 08| 7. Teachers should talk to the parents of their students who did consistently disruptive behaviors| 3. 78| 8.
Teachers should make agreements with his/her students regarding their disruptive behaviors| 4. 1| 9. Teachers should give their expectations at the beginning of the school year| 3. 84| 10. Teachers should give punishments appropriate to the disruptive behavior done by the student| 4. 22| Recommendations The following are the recommendations make in the light of the findings of this study: 1. Teachers should send the student to the guidance councilor due to the mistakes they commit. 2. Teachers should be strict and serious on the disruptive behavior that a student causes inside the classroom. . Teachers should make an effective motivation for his/her student in able for them to lessen the disruptive behavior in the classroom. 4. Teachers should mark the student absent when the student is caught texting while the discussion is going on. 5. Teachers should give time to his/her students and talk about the disruptive behaviors they commit. He/she should explain to them the effects of the disruptive behavior that the students did inside the classroom. IV. Bibliography a. Books * Disruptive behavior: Disorders in Children Treatment – Focused Assessment By: Michael J.
Breen and Thomas S. Altepeter * Behavioral Approach to Assessment of Youth with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: A Handbook for School-based Practitioners Michael J. Breen, Craig R. Fiedler * Treatment of Childhood Disorders Eric J. Mash, Russell A. Barkley * Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Children and Adolescents, Volume 18,Issue 2 Robert L. Hendren * Defiant Children: A Clinician’s Manual for Assessment and Parent training Russell A. Barkley b. Journals * The Modern Teacher. Manila: Association Of the Philippines, Inc. , 1986 * Journal for Research in Disruptive Behaviors.
April 1986 c. Unpublished Materials Ocampo and Perez. Different Disruptive Behaviors Done by the Student inside a Classroom During the School Year 1991 -1992. Unpublished Thesis. University of Santo Tomas: 1992 d. Web Resources * http://www. teachervision. fen. com/classroom-discipline/resource/2943. html? * http://childparenting. about. com/od/disruptivebehaviorproblem/a/disruptivebehav. htm * http://www. livestrong. com/article/147291-what-is-disruptive-behavior-in-the-classroom/ * http://www. udc. edu/ccdc/disruptive. htm * http://oregonstate. du/studentconduct/faculty/disruptivebehavior. php * http://www. ehow. com/how_2181266_handle-disruptive-students-classroom. html * http://www. fullerton. edu/deanofstudents/judicial/New%20Content/Faculty%20Resources/Disruptive%20Classroom%20Behavior. pdf * http://saweb. memphis. edu/judicialaffairs/pdf/DisruptiveClassroomBehaviors. pdf * http://www. uky. edu/StudentAffairs/NewStudentPrograms/UK101/pdf/Disruptive. pdf V. Appendix Colegio ng Lungsod ng Batangas An Action Research on the Importance of Teacher’s Part in the Disruptive Behavior in the Classroom
Dear Fourth Year Students: This is being conducted in order to determine the importance of teacher’s part in the disruptive behavior in the classroom. The researchers are appealing for your consideration to finish this study. Answer the following honestly and truthfully, then return to us this questionnaire after answering. Rest assured that your information given here will be kept confidentially. Part I Directions: Fill up the following personal information Name: Section: Gender: Age: Address: Part II Directions: Tell how you frequently do the following disruptive behavior in he classroom. Answer this truthfully, put a check mark ( ) on the column that corresponds your answer. Questions| Always| Sometimes| Never| 1. Using cellular phones, iPods, MP3 players, laptops, etc, while class is in session| | | | 2. Leaving to retrieve a soda or other snack items| | | | 3. Leaving to engage in conversation (i. e. person-to-person or by phone)| | | | 4. Talking while the instructor is talking| | | | 5. Talking before being recognized by the instructor (i. e. blurting out information)| | | | 6. Talking without permission during classroom instruction (i. e. ide conversations with an individual or group)| | | | 7. Sleeping in class| | | | 8. Reading a newspaper, doing homework from another class, etc. | | | | 9. Arriving late on class, especially test dates| | | | 10. Persistent tardiness| | | | Part III. Directions: Tell how effective the teacher’s way in disciplining a student’s disruptive behavior. Answer this truthfully using the scale below. Put a check mark ( ) on the column that corresponds the number of scale. 5 – very effective2 – uneffective 4 – effective1 – very uneffective 3 – undecided Questions| 5| 4| 3| 2| 1| 1.
When caught using cellphone or other gadgets, confiscate it and after a week return it back to their parents| | | | | | 2. When eating, teacher should send the student outside and let him/her stay outside for the whole class| | | | | | 3. While the teacher is discussing his/her topic and he caught his/her students talking, teacher should stop talking and let that student talk. | | | | | | 4. When a student is always late, give him/her extra tasks| | | | | | 5. Teacher should talk to his/her students about their disruptive behavior| | | | | | 6. Make direct eye contact to your noisy student| | | | | | 7.
Teachers should talk to the parents of their students who did consistently disruptive behaviors| | | | | | 8. Teachers should make agreements with his/her students regarding their disruptive behaviors| | | | | | 9. Teachers should give their expectations at the beginning of the school year| | | | | | 10. Teachers should give punishments appropriate to the disruptive behavior done by the student. | | | | | | Part IV Directions: Write at least three recommendations that a teacher could use to discipline the disruptive behaviors inside the classroom that was not stated above. 1. 2. 3