School leadership and social justice: Evidence from Ghana and Tanzania
This paper will be a critical analysis of the quality and rightness of the methods of informations aggregation and analysis in the paper produced by Bosu et Al. ( 2011 ) . I will try to supply with logical thinking, an apprehension for the grounds of the methods used in the instance surveies analysed and do usage of literature to supply back uping and opposing positions on the informations aggregation methods every bit good as its analysis.
The context of the paper is set in the African states of Ghana and Tanzania, both considered ’emerging and developing economic systems ‘ harmonizing to the International Monetary Fund ( IMF, 2010, p. 152 ) . Three instance surveies are scrutinised, each with the subject of educational leading with undertones of societal justness nevertheless it is non clear what the aims of the research workers are, which is critical in a instance survey due to their being “ wide in nature ” ( Best, 2010a, p. 1 ) .
Each was an explanatory instance survey, look intoing the consequences of determinations made by school leaders based upon informations collected utilizing an etic attack. In each instance survey there is a reappraisal of an action research run, where the facilitator was the caput instructor of a school. Two of the caput instructors, both from Ghana, attended an action research workshop where they were introduced to research techniques, there is no reference of the history of the Tanzanian caput instructor, or if they had received similar preparation. There is no lucidity of the research workers focus, be it the difference that go toing the workshop makes to the effectivity of action research, the difference caused by lodgers or merely the end point of changing methods of action research.
At this occasion I shall try to reexamine the informations aggregation methods of each single instance survey, reasoning by reexamining the informations aggregation by the research workers, of the paper as a whole.
Case Study: School A – Gold coast
This instance survey had the focal point of trying to cut down adolescent gestations of members of the school in inquiry. To accomplish this, the caput teacher attempted to derive information from the community. There is clear grounds of the usage of interview techniques, notably the caput teacher keeping a ‘discussion ‘ with the PTA which was a focus-group interview. A focal point group interview does look allow in this instance as they are designed to “ explicate and understand, the significances, feelings, beliefs and attitudes that influence the behavior of persons who are assumed to portion a common civilization, job or issue ” ( Best, 2010b, p. 23 ) which in this instance seems to be pertinent despite a deficiency of information as to who is invited to the PTA and if they do hold a cognition of the country to be discussed. Maxwell ( 1997 ) explains the importance of purposive trying – of which this is grounds – saying “ peculiar scenes, individuals, or events are intentionally selected for the of import information they can supply that can non be gotten every bit good from other picks ” ( p. 87 ) . There is no clear indicant of the construction, although utilizing the word treatment, one could determine that the signifier of an in-depth interview was taken where the caput instructor had compiled a list of the issues to be covered and the interview construction was of a guided conversation.
The proclamation of progressive betterment in footings of Numberss of gestations, and in reading accomplishments by the caput instructor was followed by a announcement that the intercession was a success. There is besides an indirect suggestion by the research workers that all communities and schools can work collaboratively facilitated by the caput instructor to turn to societal justness jobs. This is clearly grounds of a authoritative characteristic of the literature and observations of school betterment, as evidenced by Coe ( 2009, p. 368 ) , with instructors frequently declaring:
‘My school was neglecting in A, B, C ways. We did X, Y, Z. Now the grounds of success is P, Q, R ‘
Coe warns against doing summing ups that what is observed in one school may needfully be true for another ( ibid. )
Case Study: School B – Gold coast
This instance surveies focus was that of trying to cut down hookies of students who on market yearss absented from school to do money. Harmonizing to the baseline informations collected by the caput instructor, utilizing quantitative informations beginnings such as registries and text books, there was a clear group of male childs identified with low attendings and hapless public presentation, this is an illustration of secondary analysis, which harmonizing to Lewis ( 2003, p. 76 ) is analyzing a set of informations which was originally used for one intent with a different intent. There was a meeting between the caput instructor and a instructor to make up one’s mind upon an intercession, there is no reference of the format of this meeting or how the format of the intercession was taken. It was concluded that a focal point group interview with the students followed by single interviews. The quality of this information is arguably high, harmonizing to Best ( 2010b, p. 23 ) the group interview can potentially supply ‘deeper and richer ‘ informations due to the societal interaction and inquiring of the group members. As with School A this is grounds of purposive sampling. The usage of single interviews besides allows for personal issues to be expressed, which participants may experience uncomfortable with showing in the group environment. This is grounds of usage of method triangulation in that the caput teacher used two different informations aggregation methods on the same group of students in order to increase the cogency of the informations.
An chance to roll up farther information arose from the meetings with the parents, enabling the caput instructor to foreground a group of three students every bit high hazard due to parental indifference with respect to their kids ‘s instruction. The intent of these meetings were clearly to educate the parents, nevertheless it seems unintentionally critical information has come from them.
Due to the intercession the caput instructor provided informations for attending as being 100 % , with increased degrees in mathematics and English, collected from monthly trials. The quality of these trials could be questioned every bit good as the instruction methods used as there is no information provided. One could oppugn if these kids were taught specifically to execute in trials. The caput instructor took this farther roll uping informations on six of the male childs after graduation to junior high school ; the consequences harmonizing to the research workers were sustained.
Case Study: School C – Tanzania
The instance of the Tanzanian caput teacher differed from the old instances due to the deficiency of history in relation to their experience in action research. The caput instructor, look intoing the consequence of poorness and hard place environments on the schooling of the students, attempted to reply some inquiries. The caput teacher ‘sought information ‘ from instructors, the format of which is unspecified, nevertheless due to the anterior readying and clear apprehension of the inquiries needed replying it could be suggested that there was an interview, utilizing a structured or semi-structured method. In add-on informations was collected from quantitative beginnings including, day-to-day attending records and trial and scrutiny consequences, every bit good as qualitative beginnings like category assignments and prep. In uniting multiple methods a research worker must be cognizant of equilibrating differing theoretical backgrounds with any ascertained relationships between the informations sets ( Brannen, 1992, p. 33 ) . It is the position of Ritchie ( 2003, p. 38 ) that there can be benefit in tackling the two methods provided that the two informations sets can be described exactly.
There may be biographical histories within the category assignments or the prep which can supply critical information and “ sensitise a research worker to identify issues ” ( Plummer, 2001, p. 130 ) . This is supported by Angell and Freedman ( 1953 ) who explain that this signifier of information has great value at the get downing phases of research instead than the terminal stages in order to derive an apprehension of an probe, which is reflected in the methodological analysis of this instance survey. They emphasise the value of the apprehension that this type of informations can supply with regard to the topic of probe ( p. 305 ) . Harmonizing to Best ( 2010c ) the dependability of this attack is questionable nevertheless utilizing a theoretical generalization the informations can be used to beef up the cogency of a chosen theory or in this instance the signifier of an intercession ( p. 5 ) . It is of import at this phase to underscore the obvious ethical issues in this instance, ab initio due to the nature of the survey, look intoing students personal lives, and secondly due to the aggregation of the biographical information of students.
Interviews were held with the students separately, presumptively utilizing the same set of inquiries. If this was the instance it would be grounds of usage of informations triangulation by the research worker, in that the same informations aggregation method was used on legion respondents in an effort to increase cogency of the consequences. All students insisted they enjoyed school and they felt that they could “ freely show their jobs to instructors who were comparatively more caring and considerate than many of their parents and defenders ” ( p. 75 ) . One could oppugn nevertheless if the responses were wholly true due to the nature of the relationship between the students and the caput instructor and if the students would supply different responses to a alien. There is grounds to propose that interviewees are more willing to supply true replies to aliens, although this statement relates specifically to online scenes instead than in face to confront interviews ( Paine et al. , 2007, p. 533 ; Nguyen and Alexander, 1996, p. 104 ; Wellman and Gulia, 1999, p. 172 & A ; 178 ) . Harrison ( 2008, p. forty ) highlights the importance of the ‘subjective ‘ nature of informations aggregation every bit good as how the relationship between the research worker and participant may ‘impinge ‘ on its cogency.
An intercession similar to that in School A was held, with fluctuating consequences, with students neglecting to go to and execute good in monthly trials. There is a clear contrast from the consequences of the old instance surveies, nevertheless due to the nature of the description of the instance surveies it is ill-defined what the cause of assortment in consequences is. The research workers attempt to salve some sense of achievement by underscoring the sense of authorization of the caput instructor, where due to the fortunes, it would be probably that many would experience helpless. Provided is no grounds of the authorization of the caput instructor after the completion of the instance survey, every bit good as a deficiency of grounds for the innuendo that the fortunes would most likely generate a sense of weakness, taking to inquiries of the quality of informations analysis displayed in this instance. In the chief the informations analysed was qualitative, which as Harrison ( 2008 ) notes, has a different attack to analyzing quantitative informations, although there are attacks which aim to accomplish a comparable ‘routinization ‘ ( that is a modus operandi of analysis ) ( p. 51 ) . Chiefly there is the method of analyzing the construction of the text and based on Glaser and Strauss ‘ ( 1967 ) propositions, the designation of commonalties and relevant theory ( p. 105-106 ) . Evidence of usage of this methodological analysis is present with the research workers placing typical instances in each of the instance surveies, doing comparings with literature and adverting the ascertained differences between the Westernised literature and African world.
Second there is the method of nonsubjective hermeneutics ( that is the survey of reading theory ) developed by Oevermann et Al. ( 1979, in Harrison, 2008, p. 51 ) . It involves the reading of the motivations behind an action, with research workers adhering to two rules ( Soeffner, 1997, p. xiv ; Harrison, 2008, p. 51 ) . The research worker should bring forth a extremely extended reading, supplying all points of position that the information may stand for nevertheless improbable, and look into the motive behind an action extensively before supplying any sentiment about the information. There is grounds that both of these rules have been neglected to some grade by the research workers ; there is a mostly unbalanced penchant towards the positives that action research has provided in these instances despite its clear failure in the survey of School C of which there is small mentioned. There is besides grounds of the informations being used to suit the statement, with a clear anterior cognition of practise in Ghana that relates to the research carried out.
Although the fact-finding attack of the research workers is by usage of instance surveies, it is besides biographical in nature as there is a clear narration produced, reflecting upon the experiences of the caput instructors. All three caput instructors participate in action research that affects them straight, harmonizing to Erben ( 1993, p. 15 ) this is good pattern for a biographical research worker ; supported by Mills ‘ statement, as explained by Best ( 2010c, p. 7 ) that frequently ‘personal jobs are public issues. ‘
It is clear that the research workers feel they have obtained critical informations from the instance surveies that strengthens their stance on action research as a method of school betterment ( p. 75-76 ) . There is clear grounds of varied interview methods including single and focus-group interviews with varying construction, with more than one method used in the instances. One could propose that the rules of method triangulation could besides use for analyzing the usage of different interview attacks.
Although there is fluctuation in the method of informations aggregation, the literature suggests that there are informations aggregation methods that were non utilised in this paper, such as questionnaires, ocular analysis ( exposure, picture, being present ) , on-line interviews or usage of informations analysis package to explain qualitative informations.
It could be suggested that a more complete, higher quality of informations could hold been accumulated had there been more fluctuation in the techniques used by the caput instructors in the instance surveies, inquiries can so be raised about the quality of the action research workshop. Bearing in head the context of the instance surveies, it is apprehensible that in developing states, there may non be every bit much entree to computing machines and hence electronic mail, and that people may non hold every bit much clip to pass on informations aggregation because of a demand to be at work to do money. The information that was collected nevertheless was utile to each caput teacher, evidenced by a considered attack to each intercession warranting the information as appropriate for each instance.
The decisions drawn by the research workers focus on the positives that action research offers, and the chances it offers, in these instances to the caput instructors, schools and communities ( p. 75-76 ) . The writers nevertheless are involved in the administration at the caput of the undertaking which has hereafter purposes to supply service in developing states ( p. 69-70 ) . The quality of the analysis is besides questionable, Harrison ( 2008 ) high spots two attacks to analyzing qualitative informations, and the research workers have merely displayed grounds of the usage of one of these. Although the intent of the probe clearly has value, covering with issues of societal justness, one could presume that the writers have non taken a entirely humanistic attack. Due to their engagement and the wholly affirmatory nature of the decisions drawn, it is right to oppugn the objectiveness of the research workers as there may be an component of politically oriented rating evident ( Best, 2010d, p. 1-2 ) .