Latex is the basic natural stuff required to bring forth baseball mitts. The latex is collected from the gum elastic trees and the fresh latex is centrifuged and pre treated at the gum elastic aggregation centres. The quality of the concluding merchandise depends on the quality of latex and the composing of the chemical mixtures used in the fabrication procedure. At the following phase the porcelain formers are immersed in acid and basic solutions, so brushed and rinsed with hot H2O and prohibitionist.
The Calorific value of a fuel is a step of heating power which depends on the composing of the fuel. The Calorific value is the sum of energy given out when a known volume of a fuel is wholly combusted under specified conditions.
When taking a fuel for the industry the undermentioned factors should be considered.
It is better to take a fuel which can give more Calories per unit weight. The fuels which contain O have a lesser calorific value.
The minimal temperature for which the fuel oxidant mixture should be heated so that the burning reaction would happen is called the ignition temperature. High ignition temperature makes the fuel tougher to light and low ignition temperature makes the fuel easier to light and this makes the fuel potentially risky. When the activation energy is high, the ignition temperature besides will be high.
Volatility is the fuel let go ofing combustible gases ( bluess ) . When the boiling point of the fuel is high the fuel is less volatile. And besides when the vapor force per unit area is high the fuel is more volatile. The volatility of any fuel could be increased by increasing the temperature since the vapor force per unit area besides increases with the temperature. A fuel with high volatility can easy organize a flammable or explosive mixture with air. Liquid fuels are volatile plenty to bring forth combustible bluess such as ethyl alcohol and gasoline or bring forth adequate combustible bluess such as kerosine when heated at room temperature. Solid fuels have a high ignition temperature compared to liquid and gaseous fuels.
The minimal temperature at which a pure liquid fuel should be heated so the vapor force per unit area is high plenty for an explosive mixture to be formed with air when the liquid is so allow to evapourate and is brought to reach with a fire, flicker or hot fiament is called the flash point. The brassy point is lesser than the ignition temperature. A fuel which has a brassy point much above room temperature such as kerosine, can be handled safely at room temperature because it will non detonate when exposed to fires, flickers and hot fibrils.
A fuel which has a brassy point below the room temperature such as gasoline and intoxicant, will detonate when exposed to fires, flickers and hot fibrils. Therefore these fuels should be stored in a ice chest topographic point in order to impede the rise of the vapour force per unit area of the fuel due to increase in temperature. The topographic point should besides be good ventilated so that there would be no accretion of any at large vapor. And they must be stored in metal robust metal containers with oral cavities narrow and palpebras sealed tightly to forestall the vapor from get awaying.
Ease of Liquefaction
Gass take a big volume, but liquids of the same mass take a lesser volume which makes them easier to transport. The temperature at which a gas can be liquefied or condensed by increasing the force per unit area is called the critical temperature.
The fuel should incorporate low content of non combustible stuffs, drosss when heated could do pollution and give out risky gases. An ideal fuel must non foul the environment by bring forthing harmful substances.
The handiness of fuel
The cost of fuels
Different fuels used in Boilers
Different types of fuels, solids liquid and gases are used in boilers. Combination of certain fuels are used sometimes in order to better the public presentation of the boiler. The fuels normally used in boilers are fossil fuels, RDFs and biomass. Petroleum, coal and natural gases are usually used in ICI boilers.
Some common fuels used in boilers are listed below.
Coal is a sedimentary stone like substance composed fundamentally of chemically altered works stuffs which grew in prehistoric woods. It is a blackish brown combustible substance.
From one topographic point to another the chemical composing of the coal differs depending on the environmental conditions like the force per unit area and temperature. Its major chemical components are C, H, N and O. It besides constitutes of a small sum of H2O and drosss like ash, quicksilver and S chiefly.
Coal is one of the cheapest fuels available and quite wantonness. But the disadvantages of utilizing coal are that it is less overall boiler efficient. And the handling and storing of coal should be considered carefully. The storing and disposing of ash besides should be considered. Coal needs a greater intervention of flue gases before dispatching in order to do certain that they do non harm the environment.
By merchandise waste
Any sort of gaseous or liquid produced at chemical workss or in crude oil refineries except natural gases, residuary oil or distillate oil and are combusted in a steam bring forthing unit to retrieve heat or dispose.
Biomass are organic affair and are non fossil fuels. Wood, rice hulls, bagasse, java evidences, and baccy roots are some biomass stuffs.
This is the waste merchandises when coal is mined, cleaned and fixing operations incorporating coal, matrix stuff, clay and other organic or inorganic substances.
Distillate oil fuels
These are oils which contain 0.05 wt % N or less and comply with the specification for fuel oil.
Municipal type solid waste and RDF
These are the garbage of which more than 50 % waste incorporating a mixture of paper, wood, yard waste, nutrient wastes, plastics, leather, gum elastic, and other incombustible stuffs such as metal, glass, and stone, that are usually removed before burning.
It is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases found in geologic formations under the surface of the Earth happening of course with the chief content methane, or LP gas.
Crude oil, crude oil or liquid fuel obtained from either rough oil or crude oil, besides including distillation and residuary oil.
Propane is a fossil fuel prepared from petroleum crude oil and natural gas and is heavy gaseous.
Residual oil Crude oil and fuel oil
These are oils which have 0.05 wt % or greater N content.
Any solid, liquid, or gaseous fuel derived from solid fuel to make utile heat. This include solvent-refined coal, liquified coal, and angasified coal.
Very low S oil
These are Oils which contain no more than 0.5 wt % S and which when has a SO emissions rate that is equal to or less than 215 ng/J ( 0.5 lb/MBtu ) heat end product when burning takes topographic point without SO emanation control.
Wood, wood residue, bark, or any derivative fuel or residue. And including, sawdust, sanderdust, wood french friess, garbages, slabs, milling shaves, and processed pellets made from wood or other forest merchandises. Wood residue Bark, sawdust, slabs, french friess, shaves, factory trim, and other wood merchandises derived from wood processing and forest direction operations.
Energy has become a really of import standard of advancement today because it facilitates the human life. It is one of the Primary demands of people today. But Energy has become a terrible challenge to adult male today. Energy engineerings have become one of the chief causes for many chief environmental jobs which is a world-wide subject of treatment. The speedy exhaustion of the energy beginnings of the universe has besides become a major job. There are many issues in the universe refering the energy supply. Therefore dendro power could be used as an alternate beginning of energy in order to carry through the energy demands for industrial intents in States like Srilanka.
The coevals of electricity utilizing sustainable adult biomass such as fuel wood is known as dendro power. Biomass accounts about more than 55 % of entire energy ingestion of Sri Lanka. Chiefly fuel wood is used for cookery and warming intents in industries. Biomass energy could besides be described as electricity and liquid fuels produced with works affair. The works affair could be harvest residues, particularly from adult harvests, and in some instances from refuse. Electricity could be produced utilizing all these stuffs via advanced methods which are cleaner and more efficient than firing. By chemical processing they besides can be turned into transit fuels like ethyl alcohol. Wood is being used as an industrial fuel to bring forth dendro power for electricity coevals and warming applications in many topographic points of the universe. Industrialized states such as Sweden, the Netherlands, Finland, Denmark, Austria, the USA and the UK in the western universe have been utilizing wood as a fuel to bring forth electricity since many old ages.
The distribution of electricity can be done in two ways, as grid connected and off-grid power supply. Dendro power has wider possibility to bring forth power for long term, for grid connexions and off-grid communities. Merely about 15 % to 20 % of the off-grid population in Srilanka can fulfill their energy demands by solar power and small town hydro power. Dendro power can be established to function off-grid communities who can non afford solar power and do non hold the hydro power. Dendro power is a community-based electricity bring forthing engineering which comprises all families in a small town regardless of their income degree.
One of the the chief manner to bring forth electricity in Sri Lanka is by utilizing Petroleum in order to get the better of the energy deficit. But this is non an appropriate manner for a underdeveloped state like Srilanka since the cost is really high due to the increasing monetary value of non renewable resources as crude oil will exaust in another 30 to 40 old ages and coal in around 200 old ages.
The coevals of Dendro Power in Srilanka has high potency due to the undermentioned grounds,
Srilanka already has practical experience in bring forthing dendro power which was started by persons and the private sector for their ain usage.
Biomass feedstock can be obtained as a natural stuff for bring forthing electricity.
The underutilized, non used and degraded province land could be converted into dendro plantations.
The possibility of actuating private landholders to put in dendro plantations is besides
considered promising. The generation-long pattern of tree agriculture as a constituent of
land-based supports in Sri Lanka is a capital plus when advancing dendro energy.
There are potencies to utilize fast turning species, aiming woodfuel production, as good
as utilizing coppicing techniques to supply feedstock.
The Energy in any state is a major factor that gives a complete thought about the
industries of the state. As the energy taken from the Hydro-Power workss is limited,
there must be good options for making the of all time increasing power demand
Sanitation means the hygienic method of insulating the jeopardies that could be caused due to reach of waste with human to advance wellness. Human Beings generate a batch of waste such as body waste, piss, effluent, solid wastes, industrial and agricultural wastes. These wastes could incorporate risky substances like microbic pathogens and risky chemicals, which could be harmful to human wellness.
Improper sanitation installations and solid and H2O disposal systems in edifices could make a batch of jobs. Some of them are,
There is a high opportunity of distributing infective diseases such as cholera, enteric fever, infective hepatitis, infantile paralysis, cryptosporidiosis, and ascariasis.
Peoples are exposed daily to an unpleasant environment.
When rivers and other H2O organic structures are contaminated with these wastes, they could impact the other life species excessively which is a menace to the ecological balance of the environment.
Discharge of untreated waste pollutes the imbibing H2O.
Enters into the nutrient concatenation ( eg: through fruits, veggies, fish etc )
Provides an environment for insects that spread diseases to engender.
When industrial waste is sent into the environment heavy metals, toxic organic and inorganic substances can do serious menace to people and the environment. For an illustration, in some parts of China, due to irrigation done with waste H2O contaminated to a great extent with industrial waste for many old ages is reported to hold produced tonss of wellness jobs which includes expansion of the liver, malignant neoplastic diseases and raised rates of inborn deformity rates, compared to countries where effluent was non used for irrigation.
When there is a high concentration of Nitrates in waste H2O in belowground beginnings, it associates with methaemoglobinaemia ( bluish babe syndrome ) when this contaminated H2O is used in preparing of infant provender.
There could be extra foods in H2O beginnings which will ensue in giantism of algae and harmful cyan bacteriums which produce toxins that cause skin annoyance and liver harm.
While planing healthful systems for edifices one should guarantee that safe and adequate drainage from a edifice and suited and equal commissariats of healthful installations are provided. The effluent and surface H2O from the edifice should be carried to an appropriate disposal country.
Some constituents in effluent systems are,
Septic armored combat vehicles
The followers are some factors to be considered when planing a healthful system.
Measures should be taken in order to forestall the flight of disgusting air into the environment and command the force per unit area. This could be done by sealing and venting the drainage system in a proper manner.
A drainage system should be decently designed and constructed in order to minimise the hazards of obstruction and implosion therapy.
A drainage system should be suitably tested in order to guarantee acceptable installing,
If any discharge sent into a drainage system functioning a brooding containing silt or grit, equal installations to divide and take those substances must be made.
If any discharge sent into a drainage system functioning a edifice, except a home, contains oil, fat, lubricating oil, volatile substances, silt or grit, appropriate installations to adequately separate and take such substances must be made.
A drainage system must dispatch the surface H2O by suited techniques by directing it to a soak off, to a public cloaca or to a suited topographic point where there will be minimal hazards of fouling the environment.
In Sri Lanka, in general, waste H2O and disgusting H2O articulation together and are disposed to infected armored combat vehicles in rural countries or to foul H2O cloaca in urban countries. The sewage in the disgusting H2O cloaca is discharged to a intervention works where it is settled, filtered and chemically treated.
Surface H2O can be discharged into soak off to a river or a lake in rural countries or to the surface H2O drain in urban countries. The surface H2O drain discharges H2O safely to a river or a lake. A separate system of drainage is used where the disgusting H2O and surface H2O are separated at beginning and piped separately to a surface H2O drain or disgusting H2O drain.
Private effluent intervention works or infected armored combat vehicles
Must be suited for its intent.
Must incorporate a suited screen which is sealed and secure.
Must have installations to supply entree for inspecting and sampling of the waste H2O discharge.
Must be located at a minimal distance from the edifice in order to forestall amendss t the foundation.
Should minimise environmental hazards.
Must have entree for the procedure of de-sludging.
Any commercial or industrial edifices must supply a sufficient figure of healthful installations for their staff and people other than the staff depending on their figure.
Sufficient figure of H2O cupboard cells must be provided in edifices to ease the motion within the cells.
Suitable healthful installations for the handicapped people must be provided.
Every lavatory must be provided with a wash basin within the lavatory or in an next infinite near the lavatory.
Blushing cistern and trough, automatic flushing cistern, blushing valve, H2O cupboards, bidets, urinals, are some common healthful contraptions t be fitted.
The pipe work and adjustments which carry effluent and surface H2O should be of right size and installed to minimise the opportunities of escape or obstruction.
Some of the drainage systems that could be designed are,
Separate drainage systems
In this system ever the surface and disgusting H2O are separated. In this instance the sewage intervention works would ne’er acquire overloaded during wet conditions.
Combined Drain system
In this system some or all surface H2O joins the disgusting H2O drainage system. A combined system is non recommended to be used. It joins all or some of the waste H2O with the disgusting H2O system.
By and large the cost of installing and running of sewage intervention works could be minimized by put ining a separate system. Because of this ground a separate system is recommended by local governments.
Many jobs could happen due to improper installing of drainage systems. They are,
Back force per unit area
Back force per unit area is the force per unit area which opposes the coveted flow of any fluid in a confined topographic point like a pipe and is caused frequently due to tight decompression sicknesss or hinderance in the confinement vas along which it moves ( pipes or air blowholes ) .
Due to bad designing, the H2O fluxing could acquire compressed in the air pipes and force out the trap H2O seal. This could be prevented by non linking waste pipes to the lower 450 millimeter of perpendicular tonss ( when measurings are taken from the underside of the horizontal drain ) . The waste discharged from the lower floors should be connected to the drain individually.
Self siponage may happen if a wash basin is excessively steep a gradient. In such state of affairss the contents of in the trap are sucked out into the waste pipe due to fast flow of H2O which empties the trap. This could be avoided by puting limitations on lengths and gradients and besides by venting long or steep gradients.
Two pipe foul H2O system
Foul H2O means the waste H2O from baths, basins, showers and etc and dirt H2O discharged from lavatories. The one pipe system contains fewer pipes and is more hygienic. Therefore this system is recommended over the two pipe systems.
In the two pipe system there are separate blowholes from each healthful equipments and they are joined into a combined blowhole stack.605.gif
Surface H2O means the H2O that is collected on the land, watercourses, lakes, rivers, oceans or any other H2O organic structures which is related to H2O degree Celsius
Surface H2O is H2O roll uping on the land or in a watercourse, river, lake, wetland, or ocean ; it is related to H2O roll uping as groundwater or atmospheric H2O.
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