Introduction The literature review was crucial to this dissertation since it was the major part of the dissertation that examined several secondary sources and reinforced the aim which is to critically analyse and investigate the extent to which physical infrastructure has influenced the tourism industry in Nigeria compared to South Africa. This dissertation has an adapted version of Handy’s (1994) Product Lifecycle Model because it shows the development of physical infrastructure in regards to accessibility within Nigeria and South Africa.
This dissertation also has Butler’s TALC Model (1980) to demonstrate the development of tourism in Nigeria and South Africa. The dissertation assesses the impacts of the 3 A’s accessibility, Amenities and Ancillary Services by comparing Nigeria to South Africa. The dissertation answers whether physical infrastructure has positively or negatively influenced Nigeria and South Africa’s tourism industries. This dissertation also includes the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index indicators and the Global Competitiveness index indicators in order to compare the infrastructure rankings in Nigeria and South Africa.
There are conclusions which evaluate what the researcher found throughout the dissertation. The recommendations stem from what the researcher discovered and discussed in the conclusions within the dissertation. Aim and Objectives Aim To critically analyse and investigate the extent to which physical infrastructure has influenced the tourism industry in Nigeria compared to South Africa. Objectives To scrutinise secondary research which discusses the state of physical infrastructure.
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To assess the impacts of the 3 A’s in Nigeria in comparisons to South Africa. To find out whether physical infrastructure had a positive or negative influence on both countries tourism industries. To critically analyse competitiveness indicators in relation to other data sources. To make several recommendations based on the conclusions in this dissertation. Rationale The main purpose of this dissertation is to answer the question- How has physical infrastructure influenced the tourism industry in Nigeria in comparison to South Africa?
There are various reasons to why this dissertation is being written. The first reason is there is a gap in academic literature seeing that there is no existing research that compares how physical infrastructure has influenced the tourism industry in Nigeria and South Africa. This could be due to the fact that there are no qualified researchers who have been focusing on documenting such research since researchers may view Nigeria and South Africa as developing economies and would rather conduct research on other countries like England or United States of America.
The second reason is that the researcher would be able to explore the aim in great detail through the usage of secondary research and secondary data. Nigeria and South Africa were chosen because both countries have significant roles and influence on the African Continent. Kwintessential (2011) states: “Along with South Africa, Nigeria is considered a super-power in the African continent. ” Tourists frequently visit Nigeria and South Africa. In 2009/ 2010, more than forty-nine million tourists travelled to Africa.
The top ten African Countries were Morocco which had nine point twenty-nine million tourists, South Africa had eight point nine million tourists and Nigeria had one point forty-one million tourists (TV3news, 2011). In 2011 Nigeria’s new President Goodluck Jonathan commissioned twenty-five trains and also in 2011 South Africa Transport Minister Sibusiso Ndebele introduced a law called Road Transport Management System (RTMS) which was implemented successfully.
Secondary data from 2009, 2010 and 2011 was used because information linked to the Access, Amenities and Ancillary Services was available as major events closely linked to Access, Amenities and Ancillary Services occurred in Nigeria and South Africa. Contribution Secondary data would be required since quantitative data, such as statistical figures are of great importance because they are needed in order to effectively support the findings in this dissertation.
The 3 A’s Accessibility, Amenities and Ancillary Services According to Buhalis (2000) there are six A’s which are Attractions, Accessibility, Amenities, Available Packages, Activities and Ancillary Services however for the purpose of this research, this dissertation will only focus on three A’s which are Accessibility, Amenities and Ancillary Services as tourists take these three A’s into consideration when travelling aboard. Accessibility is essential as it enables tourists to travel to visit numerous places within Nigeria and South Africa.
Hall et al (2006) refers to Butler (1980) and Wolfe (1952) who believe that accessibility is important seeing that they acknowledge that when accessibility improves an area would experience a growth in tourist numbers. Amenities are vital since tourists need to stay and sleep in accommodation whilst in Nigeria and South Africa. Bhatia (2006) and Hall (2009) agree that accommodation gives tourists the opportunity to spend some time in a destination.
Ancillary Services for instance medical facilities like hospitals are important because tourists may need medical assistance so travel insurance is recommended to cover medical emergencies. Cowie (2011) reveals that The Association of British Insurers (ABI) believe there has been an increase in the number of travel insurance claims from holidaymakers particularly holidaymakers over the age of sixty-five. The 3 A’s Attractions, Available Packages and Activities Table The table below discusses why the researcher would not use the other 3 A’s
Attractions, Available Packages and Activities which are also part of Buhalis’s Framework. | | | | | | |Attractions |The researcher would not use attractions as the researcher does not intend to discuss the various types of | | |attractions that tourists can visit on holiday when in Nigeria and South Africa, furthermore discussing several| | |attractions would not enable the researcher to answer the aim. | | | | | | |Available Packages |The researcher would not use available packages because the researcher’s dissertation is not about the | | |different types of holiday packages available that can be booked for a tourist going to Nigeria and South | | |Africa, therefore information on holiday packages would not be relevant in this dissertation. | | | | | | |Activities |The researcher would not use activities since the researcher’s dissertation does not involve finding out the | | |range of activities that tourists can partake in whilst in Nigeria and South Africa so information about types | | |of activities would be irrelevant in this dissertation. | Table 1 Chapter 1 Literature Review This literature review provides definitions of infrastructure, historical influences on infrastructure, definitions of the tourism industry, an overview of Nigeria and South Africa’s tourism industry. Butler’s TALC Model is used to showcase the development of tourism in Nigeria and South Africa and physical infrastructure in Nigeria and South Africa is discussed. Furthermore a theoretical framework is linked to the aim of the dissertation.
In addition the literature review also includes Nigeria’s and South Africa’s political backgrounds, African Union agreements that Nigeria and South Africa have agreed to, the fact that South Africa is part of B. R. I. C. Baldauf (2011) reveals that South Africa joined the club of emerging economies in the world. The club is now known as BRICS which is an acronym for Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. An overview of infrastructure studies in tourism 1. 1 Defining Infrastructure in the tourism industry Infrastructure can be defined as essential elements which people need and can use within a Country, for example accommodation, roads and rail and medical facilities, like clinics and hospitals. Dutt and Ros (2008, p. 01) refer to Ingram & Fay (2005) who discuss: “In mid-twentieth century, infrastructure was seen as a key determinant of economic development – ‘the commanding heights’ of the economy – and market failures in infrastructure provision were thought to be endemic. ” Dutt and Ros (2008, p. 301) also refer to Ingram and Fay (2005) who believe that there are various elements to infrastructure such as telecommunications, airports, roads, piped water, railways, power, ports and sanitation. Dutt and Ros (2008) also cite Hirschman (1958) who agrees that physical infrastructure consists of transportation, power, roads and water. Guttal (2008) agrees with Dutt and Ros (2008) in terms of what infrastructure is however the author adds that parks and shopping centres are part of infrastructure.
Guttal (2008) has a negative perspective of infrastructure as Guttal (2008) believes that infrastructure can often have negative impacts which lead to local community’s food and water being damaged or completely destroyed and communities becoming displaced. Mascardo (2008) has a positive view of infrastructure because Mascardo (2008) believes that infrastructure helps to enhance local people’s living conditions. 1. 2 Historical Influences on infrastructure World History (2011) and History (2011) both agree that Nigeria gained Independence from Britain on the 1st of October 1960. About. com (2011) African History (2011) and History Orb. com (2011) both agree that on the 31st of May 1910 South Africa became independent from Britain.
South Africa History Online (2011) and Priory World History (2011) agree that in 1652 South Africa had been colonised by the Dutch. Nigeria and South Africa are similar as both countries were British colonies in the past. History (2011) and Wars Of The World (2011) agree that in the Northern part of Nigeria Moslems killed Christians which lead to a civil war and briefly divided the country. This civil war lasted from July 1967 to the 11th January 1970. History (2011) emphasises what happened during the civil war and how the civil war negatively impacted Nigerians by saying that: “The state lost its oil fields its main source of revenue and without the funds to import food, an estimated one million of its civilians died as a result of severe malnutrition. OnlineNigerian DailyNews (2011) and IRIN humanitarian news and analysis (2011) both agree and recognise that Nigerians have experienced two separate eras of military rule in the country, the first military era was in 1966 to 1970 lead by Gowon and the second military era was lead by Buhari, Babangida and Abacha 1984 to 1999. Robinson (2011) and SouthAfrica. TO (2011) agree that Afrikaner Nationalist came into power in 1948 its main aim was to keep races separated from each other through the implementation racist legislation. Robinson (2011) notes that: “The implementation of the policy, later referred to as "separate development," was made possible by the Population Registration Act of 1950, which put all South Africans into three racial categories: Bantu (black African), white or Coloured (mixed race). Nigeria and South Africa have had corrupt leaders in the past who did not improve their countries physical infrastructure this lead to negative implications on the countries physical infrastructure. In Nigeria military rule had a negative effect on Nigeria as the military leaders caused the physical infrastructure to deteriorate because the leaders did not use the money budgeted for maintenance of the roads to maintain the roads instead the money was used for personal expenses. Online Nigerian News (2011) stated that: “Years of its rule, brought corruption, injustice, religious and ethnic intolerance, poverty and misery still abound indicating that military rule largely failed. In South Africa part of the apartheid policies caused separation of facilities, such as people had to use public toilet facilities depending on his or her race. Presently, the Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan has had positive implications on the country’s physical infrastructure particularly the rail infrastructure as part of the President’s Agenda is to restore all structures that would improve the railways in Nigeria. Azubuike (2012) reveals that Nigeria’s Minister of Transport, Senator Idris Umar believes that the rehabilitation of Akere Bridge in Niger State was part of President Goodluck Jonathan's transformation agenda for rail service in Nigeria.
South African President Jacob Zuma has also had positive implications on the country’s physical infrastructure like the airport infrastructure since part of the President’s world cup infrastructure plans was to upgrade the facilities in the airports. Lelliott (2010) states that “President Jacob Zuma officially opens revamped expanded OR Tambo Airport. ” Another part of the plan was to build a new airport called King Shaka International Airport in South Africa which has now been fully built and opened in 2010. Province of Kwazulu-natal (2010) reveals that the South African President Jacob Zuma performed the last part of the World Cup infrastructure by opening Durban’s new international airport King Shaka International Airport.
South Africa’s improvements in its airports won awards and South Africa needed to have world-class infrastructure in order to host the world cup in 2010. Ongoing repairs to the railways mean that there has been an increase in the number of trains operating in Nigeria. 1. 3 Definition of the tourism industry The tourism industry can be defined as an industry that consists of different components due to the fact that there are various tourism businesses, for instance accommodation businesses, like hotels are where tourists stay throughout their visit in a destination and food businesses, such as restaurants in which tourists can eat local or international cuisines.
Lafferty (2001), Planck (2008), Hall (2008) and Ekwere (2010) all believe that the tourism industry includes accommodation establishments, shops, restaurants, travel agencies and tour operators. However Hall (2008, p. 11) identifies the fact that there are different types of accommodation by saying “Accommodation operators, include hotels, motels, caravan parks and camping grounds. ” Parks (2007) indicates that the tourism industry has a diverse range of products and services which include cruise ships, campsites, car rentals, five star hotels and airlines. Parks (2007) reveals that the tourism industry is closely linked to various types of travellers or tourists, for instance business tourists, leisure tourists or people that are visiting family and friends which is sometimes referred to as (VFR’s). 1. Overview of the tourism industry in Nigeria and South Africa Nigeria’s and South Africa’s Tourism Industry has experienced tourism growth through the global economic crisis. Euromonitior International (2011) Media Club South Africa (2012) and South Africa. info (2011) both agree that South Africa’s Tourism Industry was not severely affected by the global economic crisis as there was an increase in the number of leisure tourists who came to watch sports in 2010 compared to 2009. Media Club South Africa (2012) acknowledges that in the first quarter of 2010 South Africa received close to six million tourists arrivals which was an increase of 17. 1% compared to the same time period in 2009.
Media Club South Africa (2012) also acknowledges that the second quarter in 2010 showed a 91. 3% rise in tourists from the Americas in the same time period in 2009 because South Africa hosted the World Cup. Euromonitor International (2010) Nigerian Tribune (2011) World Bank Report (2010) and Champion Newspaper (2011) also both believe that the global economic crisis did not immensely affect Nigeria’s tourism industry seeing that Nigeria had more inbound tourists come to visit the country in 2009 and also in 2010. World Bank Report (2010) states that “The number of International tourist arrivals in Nigeria was 1,41,4000 in 2009. ” Champion Newspaper (2011) believes that in 2010 Nigeria tourist arrivals increased by 8. 8 percent.
South Africa’s tourism industry has been more successful at attracting leisure tourists compared to Nigeria’s tourism industry since South Africa promotes and provides leisure tourists with various types of holidays which range from wine tasting to bungee jumping. South Africa Index (2011, p. 10) indicates that fifty-seven percent of tourists visited South Africa for leisure purposes. It could be said that some States in Nigeria want to attract more leisure tourists. Emelike (2011) reveals that governors, like Liyel Imoke in Calabar, Nigeria are making attempts to encourage leisure tourists to visit Nigeria by holding an annual carnival festival for thirty-two days in December.
It could also be said that South Africa is trying to get more business tourists. South Africa. info (2011) indicates that South Africa is targeting business tourists that tend to spend more money compared to leisure tourists when business tourists become leisure tourists that go on tours after they have gone to their business meetings or when business tourists decide to return to the country just to experience the available range of leisure activities. Whereas in the Nigeria tourism industry, cities like Lagos have already experienced a boom in business tourism with a great rise in business tourists as there are many business opportunities available in Nigeria, for example in the retail and hospitality sectors.
Jacobson (2011) believes that there has been a high number of business tourists going to Nigeria every month compared to other African Countries and the increase of business tourists in a city like Lagos has lead to a rise in luxury hotels being built in Lagos to meet the needs of the business tourists who tend to come from European Countries. Jacobson (2011) reveals that the immigration office at Murtala International Airport figures show that sixty-five percent of passengers who come on British Airways flights from London to Lagos between Mondays to Saturdays are in Lagos for business purposes. However some authors believe that Nigeria’s tourism industry is not as developed as it should be when taking into consideration the country’s size, abundance of areas of natural beauty and culture.
Encyclopaedia of the Nations (2011) and Emelike (2010) agree that the Nigeria tourism industry is currently operating below its potential. Encyclopaedia of the Nations (2011) reinforces this by saying: “Tourism in Nigeria is highly undeveloped, considering the West African nation's available tourist resources: land, climate, vegetation, people and their festivals, abundant art treasures, national monuments, ports, traditional sports, and music. ” The World Travel Tourism Council had positive projections for Nigeria and South Africa in terms of how the travel and tourism industries would increase the countries GDP. World Travel Tourism Council (2011) believes that by 2021 Nigeria’s travel and tourism industry would rise by 1. % and South Africa’s industry would rise by 5. 1% in contribution to the GDP. Nigeria and South Africa on the Butler’s (1980) TALC Model The diagram below is based on Butler’s TALC Model which exhibits the development of tourism in Nigeria and South Africa. Figure 1 6 3. 9 1. 4 656,000 0 SOURCE: Butler (1980) Butler’s TALC Model above illustrates that over time the number of tourists travelling to Nigeria and South Africa increased so both countries went from the Exploration Stage to the Involvement Stage in which local people became more involved in the tourism businesses which changed Nigeria’s and South Africa’s environment to the Development Stage.
The changes at the Development Stage encouraged foreign tourism business to invest in both countries and this lead to the Consolidation Stage, for example Hilton opened branches in Abuja, Nigeria and Cape Town, South Africa. southafrica. info (2011) revealed that the newly opened Hilton Cape Town Hotel is the third Hilton Hotel in South Africa. The Consolidation Stage for Nigeria and South Africa was positive since there was investment in both countries tourism industries however the Consolidation Stage went into the Decline Stage due to conflicts in Jos, Nigeria but in South Africa the Consolidation Stage went to the Rejuvenation Stage because local tourism businesses are re-investing and making improvements to their businesses. Applying Nigeria to Butler’s TALC Model
Stage 1: Exploration The Exploration Stage is the stage in which tourists originally started visiting Nigeria. The World Group (2011) indicates that the first international tourists came to Nigeria in 1995 and the total number of international tourists in 1995 was 656,000. Stage 2: Involvement The Involvement Stage is when there was an increase of tourists to Nigeria and local people started businesses within the tourism industry. Tassiopoulos (2009) agrees with William (2009) who refers to Cohen (1972, p. 8) who says that: “Some local residents will react to the economic opportunities by providing basic facilities for tourists (such as accommodation). ” Stage 3: Development The Development Stage is a stage that has caused changes to the physical environment in Nigeria since foreign companies, such as luxury hotels have set up their businesses. Wall et al (2006) and Huybers (2007) believe that there are evident changes to the physical appearance of the area and local facilities may stop operating if they are unable to compete with new-modern-up-to- date facilities.
Stage 4: Consolidation The Consolidation Stage refers to the stage whereby famous businesses now have new branches and franchises to supply the tourists with products and services they want and are use to back in their countries of origin. Hospitality Net (2010) indicates that Best Western opened a new branch called The Best Western Island Beach Hotel in Lagos, Nigeria. Talking Retail (2010) reveals that Spar has entered the Nigerian retail sector by opening a Spar supermarket in a new shopping centre in Lekki-Ajah which is an emerging area of Lagos.
Stage 6: Decline The Decline Stage is evident in a city called Jos in Northern Nigeria that was once popular and visited by many tourists. Iyanu (2011) discusses Jos and indicates that many years ago the city was given the slogan ‘The home of Peace and Tourism’ as it could boost of a city that was full of tranquillity and had well-known attractions which inbound and outbound tourist visited. However there has been a dramatic decline in the number of tourists to the city throughout 2011due to religious conflicts. Walker (2011) talks about the conflicts in Jos and believes that the conflicts mostly stems from Muslims settlers feeling marginalised by the indigenous Christians.
Applying South Africa to Butler’s TALC Model Stage 1: Exploration The Exploration Stage refers to the stage when tourists initially started coming to South Africa. South info (2011) reveals that International tourists began visiting South Africa after Apartheid in 1994 and the total number of International tourists that visited South Africa was 3. 9 million. Stage 2: Involvement The Involvement Stage is when there was a rise in tourists coming to South Africa so the indigenous people got involved in the tourism sector.
Dale (2006) and Disgupta (2011) agree that Indigenous people see business opportunities in the tourism industry so they decide to open businesses that offer facilities for the tourists, for instance guest houses and restaurants. Stage 3: Development The Development Stage has occurred as more multi-national companies came into South Africa to establish their accommodation establishments, man-made or purpose-built attractions. Dale (2006) and Devashish (2011) believe that the multi-national companies such as hotels could take over the accommodation sector in a destination because the local hotels cannot compete with them. Stage 4: Consolidation
The Consolidation Stage relates to well-known businesses setting up to franchise and cater to the continuous inflow of tourists to South Africa. Ivanovic (2009, p. 202) discusses the consolidation stage in South Africa by saying that: “In this stage the major franchises in food, hotel and retail chains enter the market, such as McDonalds, Hilton and Dolce and Gabbana. ” Stage 6: Rejuvenation The Rejuvenation Stage is the stage in which local businesses in South Africa have decided to invest in their businesses by spending more money to upgrade and increase the number of attractions offered to tourists. Bruyn (2009, p. 03) talks about Durban Beachfront in Durban, South Africa and states that: “Durban Beachfront has rejuvenation projects such as the R21. 5 million ($ 3. 2 million) Wilson’s Wharf, uShaka Marine World Theme Park. ” Theoretical Framework The diagram below is an adapted version of Handy’s (1994) Product Lifecycle Model that illustrates the different types of transportation in Nigeria and South Africa. Transportation in Nigeria and South Africa 650 450 250 50 40 30 20 0 The adapted model above indicates that the trains in South Africa started operating in 1860 and in Nigeria the trains starting operating in 1902.
In South Africa the first international flights disembarked in 1945 and in Nigeria the first international flights flew in 1958. Lawal (2011) agrees with Nigeria’s The International Civil Aviation Organisation report that reveals 30 million flights arrived in Nigeria. Irwin (2011) believes South Africa’s airport improvements enabled 40 million passengers to come on flights into South Africa. There is a lack of records in regards to how many railway passengers travelled seeing that records were mainly noted later on in the twentieth century. Nigeria’s recorded figures start from 1964 which showed that 11. 2 million passengers travelled by rail, in 1974 4. 3 million, 1978 6. million, in 1984 Nigeria reached its peak in terms of passenger numbers, then went down to 3 million in 1991, 1. 6 million passengers in 2003 but in 2009 and 2010 the number of railway passengers grew again. South Africa’s recorded figures started in 1992 and exhibited that there were 286 million railway passenger, 2007 13. 8 million, then went up to 646 million and declined to 520 million railway passengers in 2010. Physical Infrastructure in Nigeria and South Africa 1. 5 Airports Both Akpan (2011) and Ayodele (2011) believe Nigeria’s airports in major cities in Nigeria are in a dreadful condition.
Ayodele (2011) reinforces this by explaining how passengers were affected when there was a power cut at Lagos Airport by stating: “On May 9, the terminal building was filled to the brim with passengers who were unable to access their luggage because the outage had affected the conveyor belt which had already aged. ” Eze (2011) and Daily Trust (2011) both agree that Murtala Muhammed Airport in Lagos was built thirty-two years ago, the airport was originally built to accommodate one million passengers however the airport currently reaches twelve million passengers and this has had a negative impact on the facilities in the airport.
Eze (2011) discusses displeasure in the state of Nigerian airports but mainly focused on the Murtala Muhammed International Airport (MMIA) Lagos and recognises the fact that the airport is a gateway into the country and views the facilities as a shame by saying “The Murtala Muhammed International Airport (MMIA) Lagos, in particular have deteriorated to the extent they have become an embarrassment. ” Afrique Avenir (2011) acknowledges that The Managing Director of Skyway Aviation Handling Company Limited, Lagos, Mr. Isaac Orulagbagbe has criticised the infrastructure in Nigerian airports. Afrique Avenir (2011) agrees with Mr Orulagbagbe who believes that the federal government needs to improve the infrastructure in Murtala Mohammed International Airport because the airport is full to its capacity. However Harding (2011) talks about South Africa infrastructure in the airport which showed that the infrastructure was impressive as South Africa won awards based on the county’s airports.
South African Government Information (2011) notes a statement from Ms Hlahla, ACSA who agrees with Claude Harding by saying: “Current airport infrastructure in South Africa has been recognised as being of world class standard. ” Harding (2011) and SouthAfrica (2011) both give explanations of the reasons to why Tambo Airport which is also known as Johannesburg International Airport was voted the second most improved. Tambo Airport won since it provides adequate facilities for seventeen million passengers each year, the building was expanded and the airport plays a significant role in the city’s economy. Nkosi (2011) and Skytrax (2011) both discuss Cape Town International Airport winning awards.
On one hand Nkosi (2011) explains the factors that contributed to Cape Town International Airport getting an award for the best Airport in Africa by referring to Airports Council International survey which indicated that Cape Town International Airport had high scores in terms of the level of cleanliness in the washrooms and ease of passengers being about get trolleys and find car parking spaces. On the other hand Skytrax (2011) also explains that Cape Town International Airport got an award for Staff Service by stating: “Cape Town International Airport wins the Staff Service Excellence Award for Airports in Africa, as passengers recognise the high quality of front-line service delivery. ” 1. 6 Roads
Both Abubakar (2011) and Ezekiel (2011) believe the roads in Nigeria are in an appalling state and this has caused a significant number of car accidents and deaths. BluePrint (2011) refers to The National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) who say: “There were a total of 20,910 road accidents or crashes in 2010 and the total mortality or deaths caused by these accidents were 6,853. This means that 6, 853 Nigerians lost their lives to accidents, caused by bad roads across the country. ” Ezekiel (2011) and Samade (2011) both indicate the factors that lead to the poor state of the roads in Nigeria and agrees with the Minister of Transportation Mrs.
Diezani Alison-Madueke that the present conditions of roads in Nigeria are a result of the lack of maintenance culture. Southafricagoodnews (2011) and SustainableTransport&Mobility (2011) agree that 50% of the roads are in a terrible state. Arizona Auto Accident Attorney News (2011) confirms this by saying: “The 2010 December/January festive season in South Africa resulted in over 1500 deaths as a result of accidents on the road and recent statistics indicate that an average of 36 people die on South Africa roads on an average day. ” The Transport Minister took action and made a road safety law in 2011 which helped to decrease the number of deaths due to bad roads. allAfrica. om (2011) Transport Minister Sibusiso Ndebele has commended the road transport industry for their efforts in implementing the Road Transport Management System (RTMS) to reduce road deaths. SustainableTransport&Mobility (2011) also discusses the factors that have contributed to the state of the roads in South Africa and agrees with The South African Road Federation President Mutshutshu Nxumalo that the current state of roads in South Africa are due to poor management skills and also a poor maintenance culture. 1. 7 Rail Sunday (2011) and ThisDayLive (2011) agree that Nigeria’s railways have been neglected but ThisDayLive (2011) acknowledges the fact that the railways are improving as new trains were acquired stating that: The nation’s comatose rail system appears to be roaring back to life with the recent commissioning of the newly acquired 25 modern locomotive engines belonging to the Nigerian Railway Corporation (NRC) by President Goodluck Jonathan. ” Euromonitor International (2011) supports the fact that there are new trains with figures that show there has been an increase in the number of passengers travelling by train in Nigeria seeing that 1. 9 million passengers travelled on the train in 2009 and 2. 1 million passengers travelled by train in 2010. However there are arguments about the state of South Africa’s railways. Roberts (2011) states that: “The best description of the current (201l) state of railway preservation in the country was probably 'parlous'. ”
BRICS (2011) reinforces this with figures that illustrate passengers traffic by railway decreased in 2009 to 644 million passengers and further declined in 2010 to 520 million passengers, but Euromonitor International (2011) disagrees with the figures and shows an increase in passengers carried by rail. African Online News (2011) supports Euromonitor International (2011) by stating that “The biggest growth came from a great rise in the usage of rail services. ” Furthermore Railways Africa (2011) reveals that train accidents increased as there were eight train accidents between April 2010 and March 2011. 1. 8 Accommodation Punch (2011) notes why hotels are expensive and agrees with the Managing Director of Thornberry Africa, Mr Church who believes that in Nigeria the hotel rooms are expensive. This is due to the fact that hotels have high operating costs which include generating their own electricity supply. Emelike. 2011) refers to Ajonumah who believes that in Nigeria international hotels, for instance Sheraton Lagos Hotel have 85 percent+ occupancy rate due to the fact that business tourists and expatriates continuously occupy the hotel rooms. Lenhart (2011) discusses costs of staying in hotels and agrees with Mr Anderson international marketing director for Sun International, a South Africa-based hotel company who believes that hotel room prices in cities like Cape Town, South Africa are reducing with better rates and more availability. Mintel (2011) acknowledges that South Africa has different accommodations from guesthouses to five-star hotels. SouthAfrica. nfo (2011) agrees with Mintel (2011) and states: “These hotels include the Cape Grace, Arabella Sheraton Grand, Table Bay and Mount Nelson hotels in Cape Town; the Grande Roche in Paarl outside Cape Town; The Plettenberg on the Western Cape Garden Route; and the Grace in Rosebank, Michelangelo, Saxon and Westcliff hotels in Johannesburg. ” Africa Point. com Online Travel Agent (2011) recognises that Nigeria also has a wide variety of accommodation ranging from budget to luxury hotels. However Africa Point. com Online Travel Agent (2011) and Maps of World (2011) both agree that most of the luxury hotels with international standards are situated in Lagos and Abuja.
Maps of World (2011) reinforces that this by mentioning two well-known luxury hotels in Lagos - Eko Hotels and Suites and Sofitel Lagos Moorhouse Ikoyi Hotel. 1. 9 Medical Facilities Health of Nations (2011), Travel. State. Gov (2011) and Ngex (2011) all agree that government medical facilities are lacking in terms of modern medical equipment and medications however Ngex (2011) notes doctors and hospitals tend to ask patients for cash before medical treatment is given. Allianz (2011), Immigration South Africa (2011) and South Africa (2011) also agree that medical facilities in South Africa are great particularly in private hospitals. The nurses and general practitioners train in the top medical schools in South Africa.
Connell (2011) and Immigration South Africa (2011) also acknowledge that some international tourists only visit South Africa to receive specific medical treatment to prevent them from waiting in long queues in their country or the medical treatment is less expensive compared to their country of origin. Nigeria and South Africa have agreed to abide by African Union agreements such as the AU Constitutive Act (2002). South Africa being a part of B. R. I. C this is economically beneficial to the country. South Africa (2011) refers to the International Relations and Cooperation Minister Maite Nkoane-Mashabane, who was briefing journalists in Pretoria last Tuesday and said: “South Africa would both benefit from and contribute to the grouping's ambitious goal of expanding inter-trade amongst BRICS countries to US$400-billion to $500-billion by the year 2015. ”
It could be said that as a result of reviewing literature the researcher has increased knowledge about what physical infrastructure actually consists of, an insight into how important infrastructure is to a country and the components that make-up the tourism industry. It could also be said that Nigeria’s and South Africa’s political background has affected the countries positively, negatively and has had implications on the countries physical infrastructure. On one hand both countries experienced the happiness of becoming independent from Britain but on the other hand not long after independence Nigeria was ruled by the military leader General Yakubu Gowon and South Africa was ruled by the apartheid leader Pieter Willem Botha. Presently Nigeria and South Africa have elected Democratic Presidents which are Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan in Nigeria and South African President Jacob Zuma.
In addition it could be argued that some of the existing differences between Nigeria and South Africa currently exist as a result of how much colonisation has affected both nations differently. It could be said that the western world has had a stronger influence on South African culture compared to Nigerian culture because South Africa was colonised by two European countries Britain and The Netherlands this is evident through the fact that many South Africans speak Afrikaans which stems from the Dutch language and several cities in South Africa have Dutch names for example Johannesburg and Bloomberg whereas the majority of states and cities in Nigeria have Nigerian names and a high percentage of Nigerians speak at least one Nigerian language.
Furthermore another difference is that conflicts in Nigeria stemmed from disagreements between different ethnic groups whereas in South Africa conflict stemmed from an unfair system of racial segregation called apartheid imposed by the whites against blacks. Interestingly both countries share a political similarity, for example Nigeria and South Africa had civilian rule as the democratic presidents who were elected in the1990’s both men had originally been in prison and not long after being released from prison elections took place and the Nigerian President was Olusegun Obasanjo in 1999 and the South African President was Nelson Mandela in 1994. Literature Review Matrix Author |Year |Title |Journal |Relevant Content |Useful references the | | | | | | |author makes | |Buhalis |2000 | |Tourism Management |* Buhalis’s Framework | | |Butler |2009 | |Elsevier |* Butler’s (1980) TALC |Agarwal and Baum | |Butler |2006 |Tourism Area Life Cycle: | |* Handy’s Product Life Cycle |Handy | | | |Conceptual and theoretical| | | | | | |issues | | | | |Butler |1980 | |Canadian Geographer |* Butler’s (1980) TALC Model | | |Connell |2011 |Medical Tourism | |*People are going to South Africa for Cosmetic | | | | | | |Surgery | | |Dutt & Ros |2008 |International Handbook of | |History & Definition of physical Infrastructure |Ingram & Fay Hirschman | | |Development Economics | | | | |Guffery & Almont |2009 |Essentials of Business | |* Secondary Research | | | | |Communication | | | | |Guttal |2008 |IFI’s Tourism Perspectives| |* Definition and negative impacts of Physical | | | | |and Debates | |Infrastructure | | |Hall and Williams |2008 |Tourism and Innovation | |* History of Tourism Industry |Lofgren | |Mascardo |2008 |Building Community | |* Positive impacts of Physical Infrastructure | | | | |Capacity for Tourism | | | | | | |Development | | | | |Parks |2007 |Contemporary Sport | |* Definition of the Tourism Industry | | | | |Management | | | |
The impacts of the 3 A’s in Nigeria in comparisons to South Africa |The impacts of the 3 A’s |Nigeria and South Africa | | | | |Accessibility |It is evident that accessibility has had a major impact in Nigeria compared to South Africa. Accessibility is | |(Roads) |very poor an indication of this is the fact that the numbers of deaths are increasing in Nigeria every year as a | | |result of car accidents and no action is being taken to reduce accidents which has led to so many people’s | | |deaths. | | | | |Amenities |It is also evident that amenities have had a major impact in Nigeria and South Africa.
Amenities for example | |(Hotels) |hotels are diverse in both countries and both African Countries are able to cater to the different needs and | | |wants of business tourists and leisure tourists that visit the two African Nations however there is a lack of | | |awareness in regards to the less expensive accommodations available in Nigeria. | | | | |Ancillary Services |It is very clear that ancillary services have had a greater impact in Nigeria compared to South Africa.
Ancillary| |(Hospitals) |Services for instance hospitals are extremely poor as they are not adequately equipped whereas in South Africa | | |many people use the ancillary services for example South African surgeons perform cosmetic surgeries in South | | |African hospitals on patients from around the world. | The table below assesses the impacts of the 3 A’s accessibility, Amenities and Ancillary Services in Nigeria compared to South Africa. Table 2 Has Physical infrastructure had a positive or negative influence on both countries tourism industries? Airports
Interestingly even though airport infrastructure is in a terrible state in Nigeria it has not had a negative influence on Nigeria’s tourism industry as Nigerian Airports, for example Murtala Muhammed International Airport in Lagos received sixty-five percent of passengers who were business tourists on British Airways Flights (page 12, Jacobson, 2011). Airport infrastructure had a positive influence on South Africa’s tourism industry since its improvements lead to being chosen to hold the world cup which attracted leisure tourists. Roads Road infrastructure had a negative influence on Nigeria’s tourism industry and South Africa’s tourism industry because domestic tourists or people visiting friends and family (VFR’s) have been involved in car accidents which have consequently lead to their deaths.
Rail Rail infrastructure had a positive influence on Nigeria’s tourism industry subsequently there has been a rise in people travelling on the trains. Rail infrastructure had a negative influence on South Africa’s tourism industry as a result there has been a decrease in people travelling by trains. Accommodation Hotels had a positive influence on Nigeria’s tourism industry since it brings in money into Nigeria when business tourists pay to stay in Nigerian hotels, for example Eko Hotels and Suites however the prices of hotel rooms has a negative influence because ultimately tourists pay extreme prices to cover the operating costs of the hotels.
Hotels had a positive influence on South Africa’s tourism industry because it also brings more capital into South Africa as leisure tourists and business tourists can also pay to stay in hotels that have reasonably-priced hotel rooms that meet their needs and budgets, for instance business tourists can go to Table Bay Hotel in Cape Town, South Africa. Medical Facilities The current infrastructure had a negative influence on Nigeria’s tourism industry since people like domestic tourists may go to a hospital and cannot get medication or there is no modern medical equipment available if they needed to have an operation. The current infrastructure had a positive influence on South Africa’s tourism industry because more international tourists come to South Africa for cosmetic surgery (Page 24,Connell,2011).
Chapter 2 Methodology 2. 1 Choice of research design Secondary research was chosen instead of primary research because the secondary research methods enabled the aim to be achieved more effectively due to the fact that there was so much relevant secondary research that was available. The researcher could independently get secondary research as soon as possible since secondary sources can be accessed online. Guffery et al (2009, p. 256) states that “Many writers turn to them first because they are fast, easy to use and available online. ” There was also control since decisions were made in terms of what information was included or excluded. Issue |Inclusion |Exclusion | |The year of publishing - academic materials: |The researcher included Journal articles that were |The researcher did not include any Journals which were | |Academic Journals |published since year 2000 but one of the journal |published forty years ago seeing that it would have been | | |articles was published in 1980 it had to be used |too old and not have the current up-date information that| | |because Butler’s TALC Model (1980) Model had |the researcher could utilise in the dissertation. | | |essential information that was needed in the | | | |dissertation. | |The year of Publishing - Textbooks |The researcher included textbooks that have |The researcher did not use textbooks that were published | | |published appropriate information that could be |in the 1980’s and 1990’s because there were up-to-date | | |linked to the aim and objectives of the |books available. | | |dissertation, for instance information about the | | | |tourism industry. | |The year of Publishing - News Websites |The researcher included News websites that had |The researcher excluded News websites that had articles | | |articles which were published in the past three |published in 2008 since there was less information about | | |years because there was relevant contemporary |Nigeria’s infrastructure compared to South Africa’s | | |information available on the news websites. infrastructure in 2008 so the researcher choose to avoid | | | |having uneven comparisons when discussing Nigeria and | | | |South Africa. | Inclusion/Exclusion Matrix Table Primary research would involve travelling to Nigeria and South Africa, which would have been very time consuming as this dissertation has a specific deadline and sufficient information may not have been collected before the deadline this would negatively affect the dissertation. The researcher choose to use contemporary research since it is up-to-date information.
The researcher did not use information published in 2008 because there was less relevant information about Nigeria’s physical infrastructure compared to South Africa’s physical infrastructure in 2008 so the researcher would not have be able to effectively meet the aim or fairly compare Nigeria to South Africa. The secondary research included the usage of relevant academic materials, for example Mintel Reports and the Global Market Information Database published by Euromonitor International which are market research reports from the academic website Athens. Mintel and Euromonitor International were used to attain essential information like secondary data. For instance statistical data which was found by using keywords like rail passengers and accommodation into the search engines. The other secondary esearch was done by only extracting important information such as applicable quotes, from reading appropriate Nigerian Newspapers, for instance ThisDayLive, Daily Trust, Punch and BluePrint and suitable South African News websites, for example Southafricagoodnews, SouthAfrica and African websites such as Africa Online News and Afrique Avenir. However the researcher is aware that newspapers and websites can be potentially biased. The researcher maintained reliability relevance with newspapers by using newspaper articles that criticised the infrastructure rather than pretending that the infrastructure was perfect. The researcher also used relevant textbooks and academic journals such as Tourism Management because academic journals are not biased.
In addition The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index was utilised in order to obtain statistical data to measure infrastructure in Nigeria and South Africa. The researcher compared figures from 2009 and 2011. Furthermore the researcher also compared The Travel & Tourism Competitive Index indicators with The Global Competitiveness Index indicators in 2009 and 2011. 2. 2 Construction of the method Assessment Schematic |Authors claim |Position of the |Is the Author |Is the Authors claim accepted? | | |Author |biased? | |Ime Akpan (2011) Poor obsolete facilities in airports in Nigeria |Writer |yes |Yes as the claim is based on Nigeria’s Aviation Minister’s | | | | |statement. | |Claude Harding (2011) South Africa has great airports. |Writer |No |Yes since the claim is based on South Africa winning Skytrax 2011 | | | | |World Airport Awards. |Toba Agboola (2011) high operating costs in restaurants. |Writer |No |Yes because the claim is based on the statement by the Nigerian | | | | |restaurant Tantalizers. | |BRICS (2011) Less people are travelling by rail in South Africa. | |No |Yes the claim comes from a BRICS report. | |Punch (2011) It is costly to stay in hotels in Nigeria. | |No |Yes the claim is based on The Managing Director of Thornberry | | | | |Africa, Mr.
David Church statement who is in the hospitality | | | | |industry high hotel prices caused by high running costs. | |Mintel (2011) South Africa has great a variety of hotels to suit | |No |Yes since the claim is based on an analysis of the accommodation | |different budgets. | | |sector in South Africa. | |Bongani Nkosi (2011) Cape Town International Airport best airport |Writer |No |Yes because the claim is based upon Airports Council International| |in Africa. | | |survey. | |Afrique Avenir (2011) Nigeria airports are in a terrible state. | |Yes the claim is based upon The Managing Director of Skyway | | | | |Aviation Handling Company Limited statement. | The assessment schematic above was constructed to exhibit what authors have said, state the authors position, establish whether the authors has written in a biased manner and whether the researcher of this dissertation accepts what the authors have claimed. 2. 3 Sample To select the literature, the researcher would use contemporary literature that reveals significant information about Accessibility, Amenities and Ancillary in Nigeria and South Africa. Non-probability sampling methods like snowball sampling would not be used the researcher ould utilise the cluster sampling probability sampling method since it is the most suitable method as the researcher could apply the method seeing that this type of probability sampling method tends to be used when quantitative data is being collected. Furthermore the researcher used figures from The Travel & Tourism Competitive Index that state the rankings and different elements of physical infrastructure in Nigeria and South Africa. United Nations World Food Program Office (2011) reveals that Probability sampling is mostly utilised during quantitative data collection methods. The fundamental reason for probability sampling is to split a study into different categories like children and adults when studying population. 2. Procedure Secondary data which is under specific pillars were selected from the Travel & Tourism Competitive Index from the 2009 and 2011 in the World Economic Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report for Nigeria and South Africa because of its relevance to this dissertation seeing that it enabled the researcher to meet the fourth objective as this included quality of the airport infrastructure which comes under 6th pillar: Airport transport infrastructure, quality of roads, quality of rail infrastructure which is under the 7th pillar: Ground transport infrastructure, hotel rooms which comes under the 8th pillar: Tourism infrastructure and Hospital beds which is under the 4th pillar: Health and hygiene.
The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index rankings from the 2009 and 2011were compared with The Global Competitiveness Index rankings in 2009 and 2011. 2. 5 Plan for Data Analysis The secondary data would be used to meet the 4th objective. The analysis includes secondary data from the Travel and Tourism competitive index which would be in a table format seeing that it is an easy format for the reader to understand the data and the findings from the data. The analysis would also evaluate the findings that link back to the literature review, Butler’s (1980) TALC Model and the Theoretical Framework.
Chapter 3 Discussion and Analysis This chapter discusses and analyses the findings from the indexes and the literature review. The table below illustrates where Nigeria’s and South Africa’s airports, roads, rail, hotel rooms and hospital beds ranks are positioned out of one hundred and thirty-three countries in 2009 and 2011 from The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index and also has the findings about the infrastructure. The higher the ranking the worse the level of the country’s infrastructure. Nigeria and South Africa’s rankings on The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index |Nigeria |South Africa | Travel and Tourism |2009 |2011 |2009 |2011 |Findings from the infrastructure rankings | |Competitiveness Index | | | | | | |Airport Transport Infrastructure | | | | |On one hand the quality of the airport infrastructure rank in Nigeria has | | | | | | |dramatically increased which clearly indicated that the airport infrastructure in| |Quality of air transport | | | | |Nigeria has deteriorated between 2009 and 2011. | |infrastr
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