Motivation and Work Performance
Research Questions How does the different types of motivation impact work performance? Is there a relationship between specific type of motivation and work performance? Motivation Motivation is not just a one-step concept. According to Krause, Bochner & Duchesne (2003) “Motivation involves the processes that energize, direct and sustain behavior. It can be thought of as an internal process that activates guides and maintains behavior overtime.
” Intrinsic motivation can be defined as motivation based on taking pleasure in an activity rather than working towards an external reward.
According to Akanbi (2001), people who are intrinsically motivated will be committed to the work to the extent to which the job inherently contains tasks that are awarding to them. Data around intrinsic motivation was first acknowledged within experimental studies of animal behavior. Deci and Ryan (2000) explain that scientists discovered that many organisms engage in exploratory, playful, and curiosity-driven behaviors even in the absence of reinforcement or reward.
Furthermore, Deci and Ryan (2000) further note that “these spontaneous behaviors, although clearly bestowing adaptive benefits on the organism, appear not to be done for any such instrumental reason, but rather for the positive experiences associated with exercising and extending ones capacities. ” Some scientists argue that intrinsic motivation exists in a natural form, or state, at birth. Deci and Ryan (2000) note, “ From birth onward, humans, in their healthiest states, are active, inquisitive, curious, and playful creatures, displaying a ubiquitous readiness to learn and explore, and they do not require extraneous incentives to do so. This leads to the idea that humans, at birth, begin to complete such activities like attempting to walk, talk and touch things due to intrinsic motivation. Kaplan et al (2007) agree with the above research “Intrinsic motivation is clearly visible in young infants, that consistently try to grasp, throw, bite, squash or shout at new objects they encounter. As a result, humans continue to grow and are intrinsically motivated to acquire hobbies like solving puzzles, reading and/or dancing.
As maintained by some researchers, intrinsic motivation is not something that exists on its own; rather it can be diminished or improved by different factors. According to Deci and Ryan (2000), there are three psychological needs that motivate the self to initiate behavior and specify nutriments that are essential for psychological health and well-being of an individual. These needs are said to be universal, innate and psychological and include the need for competence autonomy, and psychological relatedness, forming the Self-Determination theory (SDT) (Insert source).
Through SDT, motivation can then be viewed as a process that is taking place at a unit rather than a broader concept that encompasses all tasks. For example, a person could be intrinsically motivated to complete a particular task at a particular moment. On the other hand, a person could never be intrinsically motivated to complete a task at any given moment. Furthermore, Deci and Ryan (2000) further explain that the Cognitive Evaluation Theory (CET) specify the factors in social contexts that produce variability in intrinsic motivation.
They state “CET, which is noted to be a sub-theory of SDT, contends that interpersonal events and structures that conduce toward feelings of competence during action can enhance intrinsic motivation for that action because they allow satisfaction of the basic psychological need for competence” (Deci & Ryan, 2000, p. 58). Based on the CET actions like positive feedback, freedom of choice and recognition can actually increase intrinsic motivation. On the other hand, negative feedback, threats and tangible rewards can decrease intrinsic motivation.
Extrinsic Motivation Extrinsic motivation is what many deem as the complete opposite of intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation can be characterized as motivation based on the desire to expend effort to obtain outcomes external to the work itself, such as rewards or recognition (insert source). Akanbi (2001) notes that an extrinsically motivated person will be committed to the extent that he can gain or receive external rewards for his or her performance or completing of the task. Unlike intrinsic behavior, the haracteristics of extrinsic behavior cannot be traced to birth. “Indeed much of what people do is not, strictly speaking, intrinsically motivated, especially after early childhood when the freedom to be intrinsically motivated is increasingly curtailed by social pressures to do activities that are not interesting and to assume a variety of new responsibilities” ( Deci & Ryan, 2000, p. 71). Extrinsic motivation is not just stimulated by the receipt of tangible rewards or recognition, but it can also be driven be the fear of consequences and negative rewards.
For example, a person may not enjoy driving the posted speed limit, but he or she will drive the speed limit to avoid receiving a speeding ticket from the police. Yet, according to Deci and Ryan (2000) getting people to act and regulate their own behaviors without having to impose negative consequences up them deems to be a problem. “Internalization is the process of taking in a value or regulation, and integration is the process by which individuals more fully transform the regulation into their own so that it will emanate from their sense of self’ (Deci and Ryan, 2000, p. 60).
To understand both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, STD must be viewed as a continuum with progressions that range from amotivation, or a lack of wanting to do something to intrinsic motivation, doing something for joy of completing a task. Figure 1: In the article “Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions” Deci and Ryan (2000) explain the continuum of SDT as a dynamic theory that progresses. External regulation can be summarized as the form of motivation where motivation is driven to fulfill an external demand. This behavior is controlled, or alienated, by the desire to obtain the external reward.
Introjection describes a type of internal regulation that is still quite controlling because people perform such actions with the feeling of pressure in order to avoid guilt or anxiety or to attain ego-enhancements or pride. Put differently, introjection represents regulation by contingent self-esteem. A more autonomous, or self-determined, form of extrinsic motivation is regulation through identification. Here, the person has identified with the personal importance of a behavior and has thus accepted its regulation as his or her own. Finally, the most autonomous form of extrinsic motivation is integrated egulation. Integration occurs when identified regulations have been fully assimilated to the self. This occurs through self-examination and bringing new regulations into congruence with one’s other values and needs. The more one internalizes the reasons for an action and assimilates them to the self, the more one’s extrinsically motivated actions become self-determined. Motivation and Work Performance Birkinshaw (2010) gives motivation a new definition as it pertains to businesses and organizations, “it is what drives an individual to spend time and energy on a particular task or goal. High levels of motivations are directly connected to high levels of productivity. Increasing productivity is always a major goal of managers in any organization. In an effort to provide historical context, the management-employee relationships that exist today can be dated back to the Industrial Revolution. It was during this time period that people were able to work for themselves and offer their trade and skills as a means to earn income. Self-employed workers were able to control factors such as hours worked, working conditions, and wages.
Birkinshaw (2010) adds that large corporations emerged in the 19th century and changed the way people viewed work. There was a major shift in work dynamics where employees began to be paid for inputs rather than outputs. So how did the traditional employment relationship in large industrial firms come to demotivate employees and drive out discretionary effort? Brikinshaw (2010) notes “extrinsic motivation emerged as the de facto norm within large, industrial companies in the early years of the 20th century, and intrinsic motivation is increasingly viewed as a desirable alternative as we move into the 21st century” (p. 50). Extrinsic motivators have long been thought both theoretically and practically, to affect employee motivation and performance (Bjorklund, 2001). A study of volunteer workers found that when they were paid for their efforts, they became increasingly materialistic and less inclined to work for free. Furthermore, Akanbi (2001) notes research the supported the assumption that workers to tend to perform more effectively if their wages are related to performance which is not based on personal bias or prejudice, but on objective evaluation of an employee’s merit.
In a study conducted with 105 sales employees in two retail organizations findings indicated that to the extent that supervisors engaged in positive motivational behaviors, salespersons’ intrinsic motivations were increased, which, in turn, increased their performance. Furthermore, regression results in the relationship between performance and extrinsic motivation indicate that extrinsic motivation had negative relationship with salespersons’ work performance. As compared to extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation is shown to produce relatively a greater impact on performance. insert source) Also, Brikinshaw (2010) asserts studies have also shown that some motivators, particularly those concerned with working conditions and pay, or extrinsic factors, only have an effect up to a certain threshold. Renowned psychologist Frederick Herzberg called these “hygiene” factors because, like washing regularly, they are best suited to preventing ill – health in the workplace rather than as a means of generating good health. More recent studies show that interesting work and sense of accomplishment are some of the greatest motivators for an employee.
While job satisfaction links to many different factors regarding an employee, an article in American Sociological Review finds that “Whether workers obtain intrinsic satisfaction… will have the greatest single effect on their satisfaction with their jobs as a whole” (Kalleberg, 135). Greater job satisfaction has been repeatedly linked to less employee absence and lower turnover rates, both important factors to an organization’s success. According to Dornbush & Fuller, “Intrinsic motivation often has been defined globally… as the worker’s overall level of job satisfaction” (3).
This quote supports the notion that a relationship between intrinsic motivation, job satisfaction, and increased performance does exist. Furthermore, a recent theory, self-concordance, that examines the relationship of how strongly peoples’ reasons for pursuing goals are consistent with their interests and core values. This implies that people who seek to meet goals based on intrinsic motivators are more likely than those who pursue goals for extrinsic reasons. Based on research, intrinsic motivators are key in building and sustaining highly productive organizations and business.
There is a direct correlation between intrinsic motivation and productivity. Kenneth Thomas (2010) suggests that managing intrinsic rewards in the crucial step for maintaining and attracting good workers. There will be still be room for extrinsic reward system in the workplace, but the majority or resources should be delegated to building internal and intrinsic motivators. My Reflection on How Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation and Work Performance Apply to Education According to David Dunaway (2005), “Few staff issues concern leaders more than motivation. As a leader, I need to be able to identify what factors are needed to be implemented within an organization to address motivational concerns. Based on my findings, it is obvious that intrinsic motivators should be addressed before any incentives or extrinsic motivators are implemented. As a leader, The Job Characteristics Model (JCM) provides a very concrete model that can be implemented school-wide in a timely manner to that approach and influence the motivation to perform. The table below addresses each of the core components and ways that I feel I could effectively implement each of the core components school-wide Core Component |Description according to Essentials of Organizational Behavior |Possible ways that I could implement the core | | | |component on as a school leader | |Skill Variety |The degree to which a job requires a variety of activities so the worker can use |Allow teachers to use their talents to implement | | |a number of different skills and talent |school-wide programs.
Teachers could form can | | | |students organize clubs like a sewing club to display| | | |their talents and provide enrichment for students. |Task Identity |The degree to which a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece | | | |of work | | |Task Significance |The degree to which a job has an impact on the ives or work of other people. |Remind the staff on a consistent basis how each | | | |person’s work contributes to student achievement and | | | |eventually abettor society as a whole. |Autonomy |The degree to which a job provides the worker freedom, independence and |Classroom teachers cloud design their daily | | |discretion in scheduling the work and determining the procedures in carrying it |instructional schedule based around the needs of | | |out. |their students.
For example, rather than requiring | | | |every teacher to teach Math daily for 90 minutes, | | | |allow teachers to have the freedom of deciding how | | | |many minutes to devote to Math instruction based on | | | |student needs. |Feedback |The degree to which carrying out work activities generate direct and clear |When performing teacher observations, guide teachers | | |information about your own performance. |in a process that allows them to look at student data| | | |as a feedback, rather than notes from me as an | | | |evaluator.
For example, if a teacher teaches a | | | |concept and only 10% of the students demonstrate | | | |mastery, allows that teacher to reflect on student | | | |data as feedback rather than me aving to deliver the| | | |message that the lesson was ineffective. | If implemented correctly from a motivational standpoint, Judge and Robbins (2012) indicate that “individuals obtain internal rewards when they learn that they have personally have performed well on a task that they care about” (p. 91. ). References Akanbi, P. (2001). Influence of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation on Employees’ Performance. ttp://www. ilo. org/public/english/iira/documents/congresses/regional/lagos2011/3rdparallel/session3b/motivationworker. pdf Retrieved 27 June 2012. Birkinshaw, Julian. Reinventing Management : Smarter Choices for Getting Work Done. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley, 2010. p 172. Retrieved from: http://site. ebrary. com/lib/stthom/Doc? id=10469646=172 Bjorklund C (2001). Work Motivation: Studies of Determinants and Outcomes, Handelshogsk; Stockholm Deci, E. & Ryan, R. 2000) Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology 25, 54–67 Judge, T. & Robbins S. (2012) Essentials of Organizational Behavior, Eleventh Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ Thomas, K. W. (2002). Intrinsic motivation at work: Building energy and commitment. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc. Walker, Kristen. Intrinsic Motivation in the Workplace Equals Higher Job Satisfaction