Last Updated 02 Apr 2020

Moral Education

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Final Report On Quality in School Education for Quality Council of India New Delhi Institute for Studies in Industrial Development 4, Institutional Area, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi CONTENTS S. N. i ii iii iv v 1 Content List of Tables List of Boxes List of Figures Abbreviations Chapter 1: Introduction 1. 1 Quality Concern in Education 1. 2 School Education System under Different Boards 1. 2. 1 School Boards in India 1. 3 Education system under CBSE, ICSE, IB and Delhi Govt. Schools 1. 3. 1 CBSE - Central Board of Secondary Education 1. 3. 2 Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE) 1. . 2. 1 Indian Certificate of Secondary Education 1. 3. 2. 2 Indian School Certificate 1. 3. 3 International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO) – International School Education Boards in India 1. 3. 3. 1 IB Programmes 1. 3. 4 Delhi Board (DB) 1. 4 Basic Items Covered Under Study 1. 4. 1 Curriculum 1. 4. 2 Extracurricular activities 1. 4. 3 Co-Curricular Activities (CCAs) & Extracurricular Activities (ECAs) 1. 4. 4 Pedagogy 1. 4. 5 Syllabi at Different Stages 1. 4. 6 Affiliation 1. 4. 6. Is School Affiliation necessary? 1. 5 Accreditation standards 1. 5. 1 Is school accreditation necessary?

Chapter 2: Need for the Study 2. 1 Objectives of the study 2. 2 Review of Literature 2. 2. 1 Research in Curriculum 2. 2. 2 General Curriculum 2. 2. 3 Co-curricular Activities 2. 2. 4 Pedagogy 2. 3 Methods of Study 2. 3. 1 Area of the Study 2. 3. 2 Literature Survey 2. 3. 3 Sample Size and the list of the Schoosl covered under the Study 2. 3. 4 Study Framework 2. 4 Field study 2. 4. 1 Comparative Methods 2. 4. 2 Tools and Techniques used for the Data Collection 2. 4. 3 Observation Methods 2. 5 Comparative Assessment of Good Practices (in CBSE, ICSE, IB, and i Page No. v vi vi vii-ix 1-16 2 17-36 S. N. Delhi Govt. Schools) 2. 5. 1 School Routine Activities 2. 5. 2 School Safety and Vigilance Measures 2. 5. 3 School Governance and Monitoring Activities 2. 5. 4 School Health and Hygiene 2. 5. 5 Co-curricular Activities 2. 5. 6 School Teaching-Learning Processes 2. 5. 7 School Sanitation and Gardening Activities 2. 5. 8 Learners Performance Monitoring Activities 2. 5. 9. School Hobby Development Programme 2. 6 School-wise Quality Percentage Achievement with Reference to Some Major Quality Indicators 2. 6. 1 Infrastructure 2. 6. Physical Environment 2. 6. 3 Teaching-aids 2. 6. 4 Classroom Dynamics 2. 6. 5 Quality Parameters 2. 6. 6 Work Culture 2. 6. 7 Monitoring and Supervision 3 Chapter 3: Accreditation and Affiliation 3. 1 How the affiliation bodies carry out inspection? 3. 1. 1 Council for the Indian School Certificate Examination (CISCE) 3. 1. 2 Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 3. 1. 3 Delhi Government Schools 3. 1. 4 International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO) 3. 2 Is the Inspection one time or Continuous? 3. 2. 1 Council for the Indian School Certificate Examination (CISCE) 3. 2. Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 3. 2. 3 Delhi Board 3. 2. 4 International Baccalaureate Organisation (IBO) 3. 3 Actual Compliance Status of affiliated Schools Chapter 4: Curriculum and Syllabus 4. 1 Curriculum: CBSE, ICSE, IB and Delhi Government Schools 4. 2 Comparative Study of Curriculum in Different Boards 4. 2. 1 Curriculum of CBSE, ICSE, IB and Delhi Govt. Schools – Similarities in Objectives and Approaches 4. 2. 2 Curriculum of CBSE, ICSE, IB and Delhi Govt. School – Differences in Objectives and Approaches 4. 3 Syllabi of CBSE, ICSE and IB – A Comparative Study 4. What is the main Difference between ICSE, CBSE and IB syllabus? 4. 5 Concluding Remark Chapter 5: Examination and Evaluation Procedures 5. 1 Examination 5. 2 Evaluation / Assessment 5. 3 The Concept of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCCE) 5. 4 CBSE Examination and Evaluation Pattern ii Page No. 37-47 4 48-57 5 58-91 S. N. 5. 4. 1 Evaluation Pattern 5. 4. 2 Continuous Assessment (60%) 5. 4. 3 Final Examination (40%) 5. 4. 4 MOTS to HOTS (CBSE) 5. 4. 5 Different Streams 5. 5 Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CICSE) Examination 5. . 1 Classes I-VIII Examination and Evaluation System 5. 5. 2 Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) Examination (IX-X) 5. 5. 3 Indian School Certificate (ISC) Examination (XI-XII) 5. 5. 4Different Streams 5. 6 IB Examination and Assessment 5. 6. 1 Primary level (Grade I – V) 5. 6. 1. 1 How IB PYP students are assessed? 5. 6. 1. 2 Type of Assessment 5. 7 Middle year Programme (Grade VI- X) 5. 7. 1 MYP Assessment 5. 7. 2 Continuous Assessment 5. 7. 3 Final Assessment 5. 7. 4 Validation of Grades 5. 7. 5 How IB MYP students are assessed? 5. 7. The role of examiner 5. 7. 7 Training 5. 8 Diploma Programme (Grade XI-XII) 5. 8. 1 Nature of the Assessments 5. 8. 2 Grading 5. 8. 3 Assessment of Diploma programme 5. 8. 4 The Diploma Programme goals provide students with: 5. 8. 5 Basic skills: 5. 8. 6 GPA weightage of IB Courses 5. 8. 7 IB Diploma Continuous Assessment 5. 9 Delhi Govt. School: Examination and Evaluation Procedure 5. 10 Examination and Evaluation in different Boards (CBSE, ICSE, IB and Delhi): A Comparative Analysis 5. 11 Some Common Types of Questions in CBSE, ICSE, IB and Delhi Govt.

Schools 5. 12 Compliance Status of Examination and Evaluation of Studied School 5. 13 Concluding Remarks References Annexure 6 7 8 Annexure 1: Some Basic Queries on Curriculum (CCA, ECA and pedagogy), Syllabus, Examination, Affiliation and Accreditation Standards Annexure 2: Norms for Affiliation as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Affiliation Bye-Laws Annexure 3: Affiliation Requirements according to the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE) Affiliation Guidelines iii Page No. 92-299 92-97 98-104 105-111 S. N. 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 IB School Authorization Procedure Basic Items Covered under Study List of some of the Good Practices School-wise Status Study of Curricula, Pedagogy, CCA and ECA in Different Boards (Similarities) Annexure 9: Study of Curriculum, Pedagogy, CCA and ECA in Different Boards (Differences) Annexure 10: Class-wise CBSE Syllabus Annexure 11: Class-wise ICSE Syllabus Annexure 12: Class-wise IB Syllabus Annexure 13: Different types of curricula used in schools today Annexure 14: NABET Accreditation Checklist Annexure 15: CBSE Examination and Evaluation Pattern Annexure 16: CBSE Evaluation Pattern Class I-XII Annexure 17: CISCE Examinations and Evaluation Pattern Annexure 18: ICSE Evaluation Procedure at class IX-X Annexure 19: “How will we know what we have learned? Assessment in the PYP (Grade I – V) Annexure 20: IB MYP (Grades VI-X) Assessment Annexure 21: IB Diploma Examination and Assessment Annexure 22: IB Examination and Evaluation Pattern Annexure 23: Sample: (Chemistry) IB Internal Assessment Marking Scheme Annexure 24: Questionnaire Examination and Evaluation System Annexure 25: Summary of Key Features of CBSE Annexure 26: Summary of Key Features of CISCE Annexure 27: Summary of Key Features of IB Annexure 4: Annexure 5: Annexure 6: Annexure 7: Annexure 8: Page No. 112-116 117-182 183-191 192-200 201-204 205-210 111-219 220-224 225-231 232-233 234-237 238-243 244-245 246-248 249-252 253-255 256-271 272-291 292-295 296 297-299 300 301 302 iv List of Tables S. N. 1 2 3 4 5 5 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Title Table: 2. 1 Sample size and the list of schools covered under the study Table: 2. 2 Hariharanand Public School Table: 2. Konark Public School Table: 2. 4 Kendriya Vidyalaya Table: 2. 5 Sanskriti School Table: 2. 6 GBSS, R. K. Puram Sec-2 Table: 2. 7 GBSS, R. K. Puram Sec-3 Table: 2. 8 American School of Bombay Table: 2. 9 Poddar International School Table: 2. 10 American Embassy School, Delhi Table: 2. 11School-wise Status (Quality %Achievement) of Some Good Practices Table: 2. 12 School-wise Status (Quality %Achievement) Table: 3. 1 The Frequency of Inspection of Schools by Different Boards Table: 3. 2 Actual Compliance Status of affiliated Schools Table: 3. 3 Comparative Study of Affiliation / Accreditation Standards of CISCE, CBSE, IB and Delhi Govt. Schools. Table: 4. Designing Curriculum and Syllabus of Different Boards Table: 4. 2 Class- wise and school-wise pedagogy of CBSE, CISCE, IB and Delhi Govt. Schools Table: 5. 1 Class- Wise Distributions of Subjects, Tests and Examination (CBSE) Table: 5. 2 Classes X and XII: Examination and Marks Division (CBSE) Table: 5. 3 Instruction Time per Week of Teaching Time: Class X (CBSE) Table: 5. 4 Instruction Time per Week of Teaching Time: Class XII (CBSE) Table: 5. 5 Types of Questions and Value Points (CBSE) Table: 5. 6 Value Points and Grades(CBSE) Table: 5. 7 Grade point Range and Grades (CBSE) Table: 5. 8 Classes VI-VIII: Examination and Marks Division (CBSE) Table: 5. 9 Types of Subjects (CBSE) Table: 5. 0 Classes X and XII Different Dimensions of Question Papers and respective Weightage (CBSE) Table: 5. 11 Stream Wise Subjects for Classes XI-XII (CBSE) Table: 5. 12 Exam Schedule (ICSE) Table: 5. 13 Evaluation Pattern from Classes I to VIII (ICSE) Table: 5. 14 Grading Scale and Weightage System (IB) Table: 5. 15 Assessment Weight of Coursework (IB) Table: 5. 16 Evaluation Procedures in Delhi Board (Delhi Govt. Schools) Table: 5. 17 Similarities in Examination and Evaluation in Different Boards (CBSE, ICSE, IB and Delhi) Table: 5. 18 Differences in Examination and Evaluation in Different Boards (CBSE, ICSE, IB and Delhi) Table: 5. 19 Compliance Statuses of Schools Affiliated with Different Boards v    Page No. 5 27 28 28 28 29 29 29 30 30 31 36 41 43 44-47 49 52-53 63 63 64 64 65 65 65 66 66 67 69 70 70 79 81 84 86-87 88-89 90 S. N. Title Page No. Boxes 1 Box: 1. 1 Definitions of Key Concepts Box: 5. 1 Key Definitions in the context of School Education Box: 5. 2 Major Sources of Students’ Testing by CBSE, ICSE, IB and Delhi Govt. Schools Box: 5. 3 Some Key Features of Different Boards Box: 5. 4 ‘HOTS’ Questions make Students Think Before Writing Answers Box: 5. 5 IB Diploma Courses for Examination Box: 5. 6 IB Internal Assessment Marking Scheme Box: 5. 7 Common Features of Questions in CBSE, ICSE, IB and Delhi Govt. Schools 3 58 59 62 68 77 82 85 Figure 1 Figure: 2. 1 Study Framework Flow Chart 26 vi Abbreviations

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ADB AES AIEEE AIMT AIPDT AIU ASB C CABE CAS CBSE CCA CCE CISCE CPF CTSO DA DF DIDA DIET DOE DP DTB EC ECA EE EVS FN GA GBSS GPF HL : Asian Development Bank : American Embassy School : All India Engineering Entrance Examination : All India Pre Medical Test : All India Pre Dental Test : Association of Indian University : American School of Bombay : Computation : Central Advisory Board of Education : Community, Action, Service : Central Board of Secondary Education : Co-Curricular Activities : Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation : Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations : Contributory Provident Fund : Central Tibetan Schools Organization : Dearness Allowance : Discovering Facts : Department for International Development Authority : District Institute for Elementary education : Directorate of Education : Diploma Programme : Delhi Textbook Bureau : European Commission : Extra Curricular Activities : Extended Essay : Environmental Studies : Forming of Numbers : Group Activity : Government Boys Senior Secondary School : Gratuity and General Provident Fund : Higher Level vii HOTS IA IBO ICSE ID IGCSE JNU KPS KV KVS LA LKG MOTS MYP NABET NCC NCERT NCF NCFSE NEP NSS NTT NVS OB OCC PIN PSA PSU PWD PYP RDCD SA SC SCERT Higher Order Thinking Skills : Internal Assessment : International Baccalaureate Organisation : Indian Certificate for Secondary education : Identification : International General Certificate of Secondary Education : Jawaharlal Nehru University : Konark Public School : Kendriya Vidyalaya : Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan : Long Answer : Lower Kindergarten : More Of The Same : Middle Year Programme : National Accreditation Board for Education and Training : National Cadet Corps : National Council of Educational Research and Training : National Curriculum Framework : National Curriculum Framework for School Education : New Economic Policy : National Service Scheme : Nursery Teacher Training : Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti : Observation : Online Curriculum Centre : Postal Index Number : Problem Solving Skills : Public Sector Undertakings : Public Works Department : Primary Year Programme : Research Development and Consultancy Division : Short Answer : Scheduled Caste : State Council of Educational Research and Training viii SEE SHPS SL SSA SSLC ST SUPW TOK UBC UCAS UN UNDHR UNESCO UNGA UNICEF UT VSA : Session Ending Examination : Swami Hariharanand Public School : Standard Level : Sarv Shiksha Abhiyan : Secondary School Leaving Certificate : Scheduled Tribe : Socially Useful and Productive Work : Theory of Knowledge : Understanding Basic Concepts : Universities & College Admission Service : United Nations : Universal Declaration of Human Rights : United

Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization : United Nations General Assembly : United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund : Union Territory : Very Short Answer ix Chapter – I Introduction "Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world. " Nelson Mandela Education plays an important role in the progress of an individual’s mind and country. People are made aware of what is going on in the world and can understand these issues and take necessary measures, if they are educated. Education tames the astray mind, nurturing its capabilities the same way, training builds a clever dog. Webster defines education as the process of educating or teaching (now that's really useful, isn't it? ‘Educate’ is further defined as “to develop the knowledge, skill, or character of... ” Thus, from these definitions, we might assume that the purpose of education is to develop the knowledge, skill, or character of students. Education being one of the most important factors responsible to shape the personality of an individual has manifold functions. It is the potent source of material and human development. Quality is the most cherished goal in human endeavour and especially in the field of education. The right to education has been well recognised by the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) under Article 26 of Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UNDHR) as: I.

Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in elementary and fundamental stages …. II. Education shall be directed to the full development of human personality and to the strengthening of respect of human rights and fundamental freedoms. III. Parents have a right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children. Education has now become a global concern. The world conference on ‘Education For All’ held in March, 1990 in Jomitien, Thailand adopted a declaration calling upon all member states and international agencies to take effective steps for achieving Elementary Education for All by the 2000.

India was one of the participants to the declaration. The ultimate goal affirmed by the world declaration on ‘Education For All’ it to meet the basic needs of all children, youth, and adults. The government of India has launched an integrated educational programme. ‘The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan’ (SSA), which is a flagship programme for universalising elementary education and a National mission constituted with the Prime Minister as its Chairman. The programme initially aims to provide eight years of quality elementary education for all children up to the age of 14 years in a mission mode with a thrust on community ownership, disadvantaged groups and quality education for girls.

In order to meet the increased demand of quality education, the private institutions came up to support and work for it. The growing population pressure and   1 universalization of primary education also have contributed to the growth of private educational institutions. 1. 1 Quality Concern in Education The aims of education reflect the current needs and aspirations of a society as well as its lasting values, and the immediate concerns of a community as well as broad human ideals. Locating the term quality in educational discourse is now a universal concern today. “Quality is somewhat problematic: like beauty, it lies in the eyes – or rather the mind of the beholder” (Cliff. et al. (1987). Quality has been extensively defined by Dewney et al. 1994) as, “meeting, exceeding and delighting customer’s needs and expectations with the recognition that these needs and desires will change over time. ” The belief that quality goes with privilege is clearly irreconcilable with vision of participatory democracy that India upholds and practises in the political sphere. Its practice in the sphere of education demands that the education available to all children in different regions and sections of society has a comparable quality. J. P. Naik describes equality, quality and quantity as the elusive triangle’ of Indian education. Dealing with this metaphorical triangle requires are deeper theoretical understanding of quality in education than has been what available in schools today.

United Nations educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization’s (UNESCO) recently published global monitoring report which discusses systematic standards as the appropriate context of the quality debate (see Global Monitoring Report 2006 – Literacy for Life, UNESCO, 2006). From this point of view, the child’s performance needs to be treated as an indicator of systematic quality. The quality dimension also needs to be examined from the point of view of the experiences designed for the child in terms of knowledge and skills. Assumption about the nature of knowledge and the child’s own nature shapes the school ethos and the approaches used by those who prepare the syllabi and textbooks and by teachers as well. The representation of knowledge in text books and other materials need to be viewed from the larger perspective of the challenges facing humanity and the nation today.

No subject in the school curriculum can stay aloof from these larger concerns, and therefore the selection of knowledge proposed to be included in each subject area requires careful examination in terms of socio-economic and cultural conditions and goals. Quality in education includes a concern for quality of life in all its dimensions. For the parents and students, quality education means, “improving the quality of education invariably means raising the levels of academic performance usually measured in the test scores in the various subjects which form part of school curriculum. With reference to education quality is a relative term and hard to define and even more difficult to measure. That is why   2 educationists, scholars, educational policy makers and administrators do not come to same conclusion while discussing what makes good quality education or a qualitative education.

However, parental aspirations for education are belied by endemic poverty and unequal social relations, and by lack of adequate provision of schooling of equitable quality. Box: 1 Definitions of Key Concepts Curriculum: In formal education, a curriculum (plural curricula) is the set of courses, and their content, offered at a school or university. Syllabus: A syllabus is an outline and summary of topics to be covered in a course. Examination: To examine somebody or something is to inspect it closely; hence, an examination is a detailed inspection or analysis of an object or person. In an academic or professional context, examinations (or exams for short) are tests which aim to determine the ability of a student or a prospective practitioner.

Exams are usually written tests, although some may be practical or have practical components, and vary greatly in structure, content and difficulty depending on the subject, the age group of the tested persons and the profession Extracurricular activities*: Extracurricular activities are those activities that do not fall within the scope of or regular curriculum and usually carry no academic credits. Activities pertinent to student life, but not part of the regular classroom study. For example: athletics, publications and social organizations. It is an organized student activity connected with school and usually carrying no academic credit, such as sports, clubs, volunteer activities, etc.

Extracurricular activities exist at all levels of education, from 4th-6th, junior high/middle school, high school, college and university education. Curricular activities: Curricular activities are those activities which are integral to the classroom and result in a course grade and credit. Co-Curricular activities: Co-curricular activities are those activities which are in addition to classroom instruction and do not result in a grade nor credit. Any activity for which a grade is issued is not considered a co-curricular activity. The Co-Curricular activities are enforced for all students whenever they are acting as a representative of the school (e. g. practices, games, trips, camps and tours, etc. ).

Pedagogy: Pedagogy is the scientific teaching/instruction strategy through which knowledge is imparted in the classroom. The term generally refers to strategies of instruction, or a style of instruction. Pedagogy is also sometimes referred to as the correct use of teaching strategies. Educational Accreditation: “Educational accreditation is a type of quality assurance process under which services and operations of an educational institution or program are examined by a third-party accrediting agency to determine if applicable standards are met. Should standards be met, accredited status is granted by the agency. ” (Wikipedia) Affiliation: Affiliation is one possible way of getting formally associated with an organization or agency.

School affiliation as such is a kind of partnership between the school and some other educational institution. *Now this has been merged with Co-curricular Activities 3 Merely providing adequate infrastructure, teaching-learning material, adequate teaching and non-teaching staff, providing conducive atmosphere in the school for learning are not sufficient requirements towards the quality education. Along with this, components of the curriculum, viz. syllabus, pedagogy, examination, affiliation and accreditation standards (for brief definitions see Box: 1) are also important factors which need to be addressed while dealing with quality issues in education. These issues have been discussed separately in the light of different education boards.

Some of the basic items covered under the study (see Annexure 5) to understand the quality concern in education. How the different education Boards prepare their curriculum and design syllabus, conduct examination systems and evaluate/assess the student’s performance, etc. has been explained systematically (see Annexure 5). Some of the good practices of the different schools have been listed to understand the quality concern in education system (see Annexure 6). In the light of quality indicators in the context of education, school-wise % achievement is measured in the 5 point Likert’s Scale (see Annexure 7). The details about good practices and quality % achievement is discussed in Chapter II. . 2 School Education System under Different Boards In general, Board is a council convened for business; a number of persons appointed or elected to sit on a committee. A board of education or a school board or school committee is the title of the board of directors of a school, local school district or higher administrative level. The elected council helps determine educational policy in a small regional area, such as a city, state, or province. It usually shares power with a larger institution, such as the government's department of education. The name of the board is also often used to refer to the school system under the board's control.

In educational system the formal institutional roles assigned to school boards, and the designated position board members play as representatives of the community, would lead one to believe that the school board has a decisive role in public education policy and school system administration. In the minds of many people, school boards have considerable influence over educational decisions and provide a key social and political connection to the schooling process. In India, though there is the provision of central authority, but primary education is a state system and power officially resides with the states, concerns about efficiency and local involvement are addressed through the delegation of authority from the legislative branch to the local school board. Although the powers and duties f the education system vary by state jurisdiction, governance structure governed by an elected or appointed board. States also govern through state boards of education, administer through state departments of education,   4 and typically provide for an elected or appointed chief Minister for Human Resource Development. Sources of authority that influence the duties and responsibilities of the school board include state and union constitutions, legislative enactments, rules and regulations promulgated by the Government of India Department of Education and the state board of education, and legal interpretations by judges, and administrative agencies.

A school board functions locally, within the confines of the state’s delegation of power and the geographical boundaries of the district, but is a legal agency of the state and thus derives its power from the state’s constitution, laws, and judicial decisions. By state legislative enactment, school boards delegate power and authority to develop policies, rules, and regulations to control the operation of the schools, including system organization, school site location, school finance, equipment purchase, staffing, attendance, curriculum, co-curricular activities, and other functions essential to the day-to-day operation of schools within the district's boundaries. 1. 2. 1 School Boards in India In India many states have their Education Boards. In our education system there are different education boards and they differ in their structure and functioning.

The following boards of education have been recognized by Government of India. 1. Andhra Pradesh Board of Secondary Education 2. Andhra Pradesh Board of Intermediate Education 3. Assam Board of Secondary Education 4. Assam Higher Secondary Education Council 5. Bihar School Examination Board 6. Bihar Intermediate Education Council 7. Central Board of Secondary Education 8. Council for the Indian School Certificate Examination 9. Goa Board of Secondary & Higher Secondary Education 10. Gujarat Secondary Education Board 11. Haryana Board of Education 12. Himachal Pradesh Board of School Education 13. J&K State Board of School Education 14. Karnataka Secondary Education Examination Board 15.

Karnataka Board of the Pre-University Education 16. Kerala Board of Public Examinations 17. Madrasa boards 18. Maharashtra State Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education 19. Madhya Pradesh Board of Secondary Education 5 20. Manipur Board of Secondary Education 21. Manipur Council of Higher Secondary Education 22. Meghalaya Board of School Education 23. Mizoram Board of School Education 24. Nagaland Board of School Education 25. Orissa Board of Secondary Education 26. Orissa Council of Higher Secondary Education 27. Punjab School Education Board 28. Rajasthan Board of Secondary Education 29. Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education 30. Tamil Nadu Board of Higher Secondary Education 31.

Tripura Board of Secondary Education 32. Uttar Pradesh Board of Education 33. West Bengal Board of Secondary Education However, our major concern in this study is about the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), Indian Council of Secondary Education (ICSE), International Baccalaureate Organizations (IBOs) and Delhi Government Schools. Along with the government schools, the private educational institutions have come up in India in response to growing educational requirements of the pupil, expressed in terms of the desire for good quality education. The private education institutions have their own management and Board, for instance ICSE.

Besides these private educational institutions, the global agencies like United Nations (UN) Bodies (World Bank, (United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund) UNICEF, etc. ), Asian Development Bank (ADB), etc. have been striving for universalization of elementary education without compromising with the quality. The bilateral grants have also been obtained from a number of donors such as European Commission (EC), Department for International Development Authority (DIDA), etc. In addition to international support, private agencies and government efforts, many religious institutions, voluntary organizations have established many primary and elementary schools so that the objectives of universal enrolment, universal retention and quality type primary education is realised.

In addition to the efforts made by the central and state governments in establishing a number of schools all over the country, the different types of schools emerged in private sector too, having more or less same educational objectives. These schools normally differ in their methods of teaching, infrastructural and man power facilities, curriculum, medium of instruction, discipline, curricular and co-curricular activities, pedagogy, syllabus, examinations and evaluation procedures, their affiliations and accreditations standards, etc. In order to have an idea about the quality dimensions in primary education, these differences need to be addressed carefully. 6 1. 3 Education system under CBSE, ICSE, IB and Delhi Govt.

Schools There are 33 different educational boards in the country, including the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE) which is the umbrella for ICSE and ISC and the various State Educational Boards. A relatively smaller number of schools in the country are affiliated to various other boards like the Madrasa boards of the various states, the Central Tibetan School Administration and so on. (From EducationBangalore. com – Edupedia) 1. 3. 1 CBSE - Central Board of Secondary Education Central Board of Secondary Education is an eminent board of school education in India. The CBSE prepares the syllabi for Classes IX-XII for the students of affiliated schools. CBSE suggests its affiliated schools to follow syllabi of NCERT for the students from Lower Kindergarten (L. K. G) to Class VIII.

It conducts India's two important board examinations: the All India Secondary School Examination for Class X and the All India Senior School Certificate Examination for Class XII, which is a school-leaving examination. There are many private schools across India and other countries which have CBSE affiliation. The medium for education prescribed by CBSE is either English or Hindi. CBSE All India Senior School Certificate Examination for Class 12 is widely recognised internationally for direct admission to university undergraduate courses. CBSE also conducts the All India Engineering Entrance Examination (AIEEE) which is a common entrance examination on all-India basis for admission to engineering and architecture/planning programmes in the country.

Similarly Pre-medical and Pre-dental Tests AIPMT (PMT/PDT) are conducted for medical and dental colleges after the 10+2 exams. In the process of development, significant changes took place over the years in shaping up the Board to its present status. During the British period, U. P. Board of High School and In response to the representation made by the Intermediate Education was the first Board set up in 1921. It has under its jurisdiction Rajputana, Central India and Gwalior. Government of United Provinces, the then Government of India suggested to set up a joint Board in 1929 for all the areas which was named as the ‘Board of High School and Intermediate Education’, Rajputana.

This included Ajmer, Merwara, Central India and Gwalior. The Board witnessed rapid growth and expansion at the level of Secondary education resulting in improved quality and standard of education in institutions. But with the advent of State Universities and State Boards in various parts of the country the jurisdiction of the Board was confined only to Ajmer, Bhopal and Vindhya Pradesh. As a result of this, in 1952, the constitution of the Board was amended wherein its jurisdiction was extended and the Board was   7 given its present name ‘Central Board of Secondary Education’. It was in the year 1962 finally that the Board was reconstituted.

The main objectives were those of: serving the educational institutions more effectively, to be responsive to the educational needs of those students whose parents were employed in the Central Government and had frequently transferable jobs. Presently, the jurisdiction of the Board is extensive and stretches beyond the national geographical boundaries. As a result of the reconstitution, the erstwhile ‘Delhi Board of Secondary Education’ was merged with the Central Board and thus all the educational institutions recognized by the Delhi Board also became a part of the Central Board. Subsequently, all the schools located in the Union Territory of Chandigarh.

Andaman and Nicobar Island, Arunachal Pradesh, the state of Sikkim, and now Jharkhand, Uttaranchal and Chhattisgarh have also got affiliation with the Board. From 309 schools in 1962 the Board today has 9824 schools as on date on 11. 11. 2008 including Kendriya Vidyalayas, Government Schools, Independent Schools, Jawahar Novodaya Vidyalayas, and Central Tibetean Schools. In order to execute its functions effectively Regional Offices have been set up by the Board in different parts of the country to be more responsive to the affiliated schools. The Board has regional offices in Allahabad, Ajmer, Chennai, Guwahati, Panchkula, (Patna and Bhubaneswar newly added) and Delhi. Schools located outside India are looked after by regional office Delhi.

The Headquarter constantly monitors the activities of the Regional Offices. Although, sufficient powers have been vested with the Regional Offices. Issues involving policy matters are, however, referred to the head office. Matters pertaining to day-to-day administration, liaison with schools, pre and post examination arrangements are all dealt with by the respective regional offices. The Central Board of Secondary Education was set up to achieve certain interlinked objectives: • To prescribe conditions of examinations and conduct public examination at the end of Class X and XII. To grant qualifying certificates to successful candidates of the affiliated schools. • To fulfil the educational requirements of those students whose parents were employed in transferable jobs. To prescribe and update the course of instruction of examinations To affiliate institutions for the purpose of examination and raise the academic standards of the country. The prime focus of the Board is on: • Innovations in teaching-learning methodologies by devising student’s friendly and student centered paradigms. 8 • • • • Reforms in examinations and evaluation practices. Skill learning by adding job-oriented and job-linked inputs. Regularly updating the pedagogical skills of the teachers and administrators by conducting in service training programmes, workshops etc. 1. 3. Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE) The Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations - CISCE, is a board of school education in India, like CBSE. It conducts two exams: ICSE - Indian Certificate of Secondary Education and ISC - Indian School Certificate. The CISCE was set up in 1956. At the meeting of the Inter-State Board for Anglo-Indian Education a proposal was adopted for the setting up of an Indian Council to administer the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate's Examinations (examination under University of Cambridge) in India. It is based in New Delhi. It is an all-India, but not a government affiliated board (unlike the CBSE). Both CBSE and the CISCE, more or less, follow a similar pattern of education, though there might be ignificant differences in some areas. A common belief is that the CISCE syllabus is a bit tougher than the CBSE syllabus. The CISCE does not accept private candidates, and they must come only through the (English medium) schools affiliated to the CISCE. The medium of examination is English, except the Indian language paper. Apart from the CBSE and CISCE, all states in India also have their own state boards for High School education. 1. 3. 2. 1 Indian Certificate of Secondary Education The Indian Certificate of Secondary Education - ICSE examination is an examination conducted by the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations for Class X.

It has been designed to provide education and conduct examination in a general course in accordance with the recommendations of the New Education Policy 1986 (India), through the English medium. The examination allows suitable representation of Governments responsible for schools (which are affiliated to it) in their States/Territories. Private candidates are not permitted to appear for this examination. In all subjects other than Science and Computers, students must submit compulsory coursework assignments. In groups I and II they count for 20% of the students’ performance in the subject; in group III the assignments count for 50%. In Science and Computers, students are tested on their laboratory work.

In subjects where there is more than one paper, the marks in the subject are calculated by taking the average of all papers in the subject. (For details Annexure 11 & 17) 9 1. 3. 2. 2 Indian School Certificate The Indian School Certificate (ISC) is an examination conducted by the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations for Class XII. The examination has been designed in accordance with the recommendations of the New Education Policy (NEP) 1986 (India), through the medium of English. Candidates therefore have to attempt the subjects of English and Environmental Education, and must also attempt three, four or five other subjects that may be chosen by the candidate from a wide range of subjects ranging from Fashion Designing to Biology to Political Science.

Schools generally offer a limited number of these subjects depending upon their logistical requirements. Socially Useful and Productive Work (SUPW) is also considered important, with students getting a grade for this along with their mark sheets. 1. 3. 3 International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO) – International School Education Boards in India In recent times, the concept of some schools being affiliated to the International Baccalaureate (IB) too is catching on, though the number is limited to a few affluent schools. The IB, founded in 1968 by the International Baccalaureate Organisation based in Geneva, Switzerland, offers programmes of international education to over 2,257 schools in 126 countries.

In 1994, in a meeting attended by the secretary general of the Association of Indian Universities (AIU) and the IBO, a revised recognition and acceptance agreement was approved of the IB Diploma as an entry qualification to all universities in India. The IB is a non-profit making Swiss Foundation registered in 1968. The activities of the organization are determined by an Act of Foundation approved by the Swiss authorities. 1. 3. 3. 1 IB Programmes: Following are the 3 major programmes of studies offered by IB Primary programme At the primary level, the focus of the study is on the students’ ability to understand connections between different phenomena taught in the curriculum for the conceptual clarity or understanding of the matter. Here the emphasis is on the students’ understanding and on the reflection where student can construct meanings reflect and take action.

Middle year programme This is more of a balanced curriculum where student is exposed to the academic vigor through more holistic and inclusive curriculum for the holistic learning. Importantly here the assessment of learning is essential part or feature in the curriculum, concept of community services is   10 interwoven in curriculum so that the holistic growth of student takes place. This course generates the research and reflection skills among the students. Diploma programme Diploma course under IB is an internationally acclaimed broad and holistic course which provides the flexibility in the structure for multi faced learning avenues in different streams. It encourages concurrency of learning with understanding of the international understanding.

This course is based on the rigorous assessment along with community services, unlike other boards it emphasises on the development of the research skills along with critical thinking and reflections. On the whole diploma course focuses on the broader learning. 1. 3. 4 Delhi Government School Towards the last part of 1920s and beginning of 1930s when the state boards were coming up, the jurisdiction of the CBSE shrunk. Finally, in 1952, the CBSE was reconstituted with its present name and was meant to take care of the educational needs of children of people employed in central government services across the country with transferable jobs. During its reconstitution, the Delhi Board of Secondary Education was merged with the CBSE in 1952. 1. Basic Items Covered Under the Study Some of the basic items covered under the study are Curriculum (ECA, CCA, and Pedagogy), Syllabus, Examination, Affiliation and Accreditation standards of different Boards (CBSE, ICSE, IB and Delhi Govt. Schools) are studied through a designed check list (see Annexure 5). These items have been also explained in the following section with reference to both primary and secondary sources of data collection. 1. 4. 1 Curriculum Curriculum is all the planned, guided and implemented learning that occurs in a school. A school curriculum plan gives details of the what, when and how of the teaching-learning process in a particular school across the different years and phases of schooling.

In formal education or schooling, a curriculum is the set of courses, course work, and content offered at a school or university. A curriculum may be partly or entirely determined by an external, authoritative body like National Curriculum Framework (NCF). Curriculum means two things: (i) the range of courses from which students choose what subject matters to study, and (ii) a specific learning program. In the latter case, the curriculum collectively describes the teaching, learning, and assessment materials available for a given course of study. In education, a core curriculum is a   11 curriculum, or course of study, which is deemed central and usually made mandatory for all students of a school or school system.

Core curricula are often instituted, at the primary and secondary levels, by school boards, Departments of Education, or other administrative agencies charged with overseeing education. According to Wikipedia, curriculum, as an idea, has its roots in the Latin word for racecourse, explaining the curriculum as the course of deeds and experiences through which children become the adults they should be, for success in adult society. Furthermore, the curriculum encompasses the entire scope of formative deed and experience occurring in and out of school, and not experiences occurring in school; experiences that are unplanned and undirected, and experiences intentionally directed for the purposeful formation of adult members of society. The word curriculum from its early Latin origin, means literally to run a course.

Oliva (1997) has analysed curriculum as: That which is taught in schools A set of subjects Content A programme of studies A set of materials A sequence of courses A set of performance objectives Is everything that goes on within the school, including extra-class activities, guidance, and interpersonal relationships Everything that is planned by school personnel A series of experiences undergone by learners in a school That which an individual learner experiences as a result of schooling (Oliva:1997:04) Wilson’s (1990) interpretation about different types of curricula used in schools today are given in Annexure 13. 1. 4. 2 Extracurricular activities (Now this has been merged with the co-curricular activities) Extracurricular activities are activities performed by students that fall outside the realm of the normal curriculum of school or university education. Extracurricular activities exist at all levels of education, from 4th-6th, junior high/middle school, high school, college and university education.

On average, in India, students are advised to participate in a minimum of one extracurricular activity throughout the course of one school year. Such activities are generally voluntary as opposed to mandatory, non-paying, tend to be athletics, social, and philanthropic as opposed to   12 scholastic, and involve others of the same age. Students often organize and direct these activities under faculty sponsorship; although student-led initiatives - such as independent newspapers - are common. The extra-curriculum made its first appearance in American colleges in the nineteenth century. It complemented the curriculum as much as subverted it. The students found in it a kind of laboratory for practical and vocational interests. 1. 4. Co-Curricular Activities (CCAs) This activities facilitate the all round development of children. Cultural programmes, sports, community service, etc. are the examples of CCA. These activities, not only, strengthens the subject-matter, they also nourish students’ attitude, interest and personality. 1. 4. 4 Pedagogy Pedagogy is the art of teaching. According to Wikipedia, pedagogy or paedagogy is the art or science of being a teacher. The term generally refers to strategies of instruction, or a style of instruction. Pedagogy is also sometimes referred to as the correct use of teaching strategies. For example, Paulo Freire referred to his method of teaching adults as "critical pedagogy".

In correlation with those teaching strategies the instructor's own philosophical beliefs of teaching are harboured and governed by the pupil's background knowledge and experiences, personal situations, and environment, as well as learning goals set by the student and teacher. Effective teachers use an array of teaching strategies because there is no single, universal approach that suits all situations. Different strategies used in different combinations with different groupings of students will improve learning outcomes. Some strategies are better suited to teaching certain skills and fields of knowledge than are others. Some strategies are better suited to certain student backgrounds, learning styles and abilities.

Effective pedagogy, incorporating an array of teaching strategies that support intellectual engagement, connectedness to the wider world, supportive classroom environments, and recognition of difference, should be implemented across all key learning and subject areas. Effective pedagogical practice promotes the wellbeing of students, teachers and the school community - it improves students' and teachers' confidence and contributes to their sense of purpose for being at school; it builds community confidence in the quality of learning and teaching in the school. 1. 4. 5 Syllabi at Different Stages The National Curriculum Framework (NCF) was approved by Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) in 2005.

The Syllabus Committees set up for various stages of school education involving scholars, subject experts, teachers and the NCERT faculty held several   13 meetings and deliberated on the ideas reflected in the NCF and formulated the syllabi. The NCF 2005 recommends that the multilingual character of our society should be treated as a resource and school teaching should focus on what the child understands. The syllabus aiming at arousing curiosities and interests in children to share their ideas and experiences, to listen patiently others ideas and relate their own experiences with listened stories and poetry, and able to express themselves orally and through paintings. At primary stage, it aims at creating interests in reading books and developing gradually the required language skills.

The focus shifts to preparing children to express their views clearly and confidently about any language, person, object, place, and structure by analysing and explaining them at upper primary stage. At secondary stage the emphasis is placed on oral and written expressions. The syllabus at senior secondary stage is designed to nurture a sense of appreciation, enjoyment and critical vision towards creative literature and use of language for peace in adverse situations. The proposed syllabus tends to integrate the concerns related to environment, gender, peace, health, work and arts. Similarly the syllabuses of other subjects are formulated according to the need of the children. 1. 4. Affiliation Affiliation is one possible way of getting formally associated with an organisation or agency. School affiliation as such is a kind of partnership between the school and some other education institution. There are proper laws that regulate the nature and the terms of school affiliation. The most important ones are those of affiliations of school with education and examination boards such as CBSE, ICSE and State Boards. Affiliation like partnership is based upon some specified support services and benefits rendered by the accredited institution to the one that seeks the affiliation. In Indian school system, the affiliation with the popular examination board is a popular example.

The Examination Boards like CBSE and others conduct the examinations and provide the certificates that have external validity. School affiliation also determines the standard of education in India. This is because the schools that are affiliated have to conform to the rules and regulations set forth by the body that gives the affiliation. For instance CBSE gives affiliation to those schools only that meet the requirements given in the affiliation byelaws. Since these byelaws are related to the management and the administration of the school, therefore particular norms have to be followed by the schools. 1. 4. 6. 1 Is School Affiliation necessary? Government schools need not to be affiliated with any institution. They get affiliated with the CBSE.

But for private schools, situation is quite different. In Indian education system state 14 departments look after primary and secondary education. To graduate from Indian schools, the school has to have sanction from the state board or the recognized boards to conduct the examination. Therefore the choices for any school is either get affiliated with the recognised board or approach the state boards. 1. 5 Accreditation Standards Accreditation means to identify (an educational institution) as maintaining standards to ensure that their certification practices are acceptable and qualify the graduates for admission to higher or more specialized institutional or for professional practice.

This is a voluntary process by which educational institutions meet standards established by an accrediting body. This is the validation of a programme by an independent organisation, which has established standards for judging quality. Accreditation also deals with evaluation of an institution by one of the registered accrediting commissions. Accrediting agencies develop evaluation criteria and conduct evaluation to assess whether or not those criteria are met. Institutions and/or programs that request an agency’s evaluation and that meet an agency's criteria are then “accredited” by that agency. So far there were no accreditation standards for primary and secondary education institutes in India.

Private schools and government-aided schools have set forth their own standards regarding school governance and therefore have remained away from a universal accreditation system. However, the foremost accreditation agency of India, Quality Council of India, has started approaching the schools. The board, called National Accreditation board and Training, has developed the procedures for schools that seek the accreditation. Schools have to apply for the accreditation process, which is followed by the inspection and assessment by a team of professional from the agency. Schools are supposed to be fully prepared for the inspections team checks even minute details.

In case the school or governance is found as non-standard the school is given suggestions to act upon. If the school succeeds in plugging the loopholes and provides the best practices, the school is awarded accreditation. 1. 5. 1 Is school accreditation necessary? School accreditation is not obligatory. But by getting accreditated the school can enhance and improve the quality governance and management in the school. The accreditation provides uniform standards and also helps in identifying well managed and provided schools in India. The system is based on similar patterns as those in US, Netherland, and Australia. 15 The agency has a checklist and awards score to the respective schools.

Some important parameters in the checklist include: • • • • Education Quality Management Governance and Management Resource management Education Service Realization 16 Chapter – II Need for the Study Education plays an essential role in the overall personality development of individual. What is more important is provision of quality education rather than opening schools without taking care about quality issues. With the passage of time it was realized that education is necessary for all without any discrimination on the basis of caste and creed. Gradually various national, international and state boards and organizations of school education came into existence to serve some or the other purposes.

The available literature shows that though various aspects of education have been studied in the context of the quality issues, but what is lagging behind is the study on the role played by various boards offering education with special emphasis on the various components of curriculum, viz. syllabus, pedagogy, examination and evaluation, accreditation and affiliation standards. In this light an attempt is made to conduct a comparative study of four Boards CBSE, CISCE, Delhi Government Schoosl and IBO under certain broad aspects such as curriculum, syllabus, pedagogy, examination and evaluation, accreditation and affiliation and to find out some of the good practices in the schools. 2. 1 Objectives of the Study

Following are the major objectives of the study • To analyse how the curriculum, syllabus, and pedagogy in these schools differ from one another • • • To find out what is the actual compliance status of selected schools To study how the affiliating bodies carry out inspection To study evaluation and examination pattern, conducted by affiliating bodies and their actual operational status in these schools • To make a list of good practices in each of these categories of schools and make a comparative assessment • To measure the quality percentage achievement of studied schools through various quality indicators The field of education, covering ethics, religion, morality, philosophy, literature, skills and general knowledge, is a very broad and very vital one. The importance of learning in enabling the individual to put his potentials to optimal use is self-evident. Without education, the training of the human minds is incomplete. 17 Education makes man a right thinker and a correct decision-maker. It achieves this by bringing him knowledge from the external world, teaching him to reason, and acquainting him with past history, so that he may be a better judge of the present.

Without education, man, as it were, is shut up in a windowless room. With education, he finds himself in a room with all its windows open to the outside world. Education is the process of instruction aimed at the all round development of boys and girls. Education dispels ignorance. It is the only wealth that cannot be robbed. Learning includes the moral values and the improvement of character and the methods to increase the strength of mind. Present trend of education in Indian schools is a good example of such learning in which learners are the recipients of sacred and precious values imparted regularly by the teachers. A good moral based education is also a must.

As students want education by which character is formed, strength of mind and knowledge increases and makes them independent. Learners receive this kind of teaching in Indian schools and have every confidence to say that along with prosperity they will also have character due to the quality of education they received. On the global background we are the 3rd largest higher education system, North America being the first and China second. Even though we are the second largest higher education system in Asia, we are the lowest in gross enrolment ratio of the students per lakh population and even in Human Development Index, which is an important and sensitive index of schemes reaching to common man.

India is the third largest higher education system in the world but only 7% of its youth are enrolled in higher education (age group of 17-24); 2. 2 Review of Literature It is a known fact that no other country has left indelible marks of great cultural heritage as India. In ancient India, religion was the main spring of one’s activities (Pritam, 2004). These activities included various other things beside the prayers and worship. It encompassed the entire human intellectual endeavours such as philosophy, mortality and government. The very concept of education emanated from modesty and self-sacrifice. The teacher was the embodiment of all virtues and these virtues were transmitted from the teacher to the students.

This type of education liberated the learners as they learnt to have complete control over their emotions, work and knowledge are interwoven. Non-Brahmins were discouraged to adopt teaching profession. Religion revolved around rituals and was preached in a language not understood by the masses. It gave birth to two new religions Jainism and Buddhism. These two questioned the authority of Vedic system of education. 18 Unlike Gurukulas, the Budhistic institutions were a confederation of schools and monasteries comprising a large number of teachers and schools. These schools were open for all without any discrimination on the basis of caste and creed. There was incorporation of work and knowledge as the education intended to make the students as the productive members of the society.

All the learning experiences whether inside the classroom or outside the school, contributed to the education of the learner. During Moghuls, the education was provided in maktabas (religious preaching) and madarasas (liberal education in arts and science) As the literature shows, due to much focus on religion in education, the Indian education system could not keep pace with the emerging Western influence. During the sixteenth century, the missionaries openly started their educational activities and gradually Indian education system came under the influence of British. The British model of education outmoded the indigenous education system with the enactment of Macaulay’s Minutes (1835) and Wood’s Dispatch (1954).

The western education gave much importance to the western culture and downgraded the eastern civilizations and values which are reflected in Macaulay’s remarks, ‘a single shelf of good European library was worth the whole literature of India and Arabia. ’ (as Quoted in Pritam, 2004). The indigenous education system suffered a lot as the western education led glamour for white collar jobs and western life style, it generated hatred for manual work among the educated youth and they became indifferent to their cultural roots and national pride. This mental slavery was a matter of great concern to the national leadership which was making an effort for swaraj. Gandhiji projected his views on education in the attire of Buniyadi Shiksha or Nai Taleem. He put forth his concept of education as: Drawing out the best in the child, the man, body mind and spirit.

His views got concretised at Wardha conference in 1937. This scheme of education was considered by Education Commission (1944) which considered reconstructing the Indian education. The British system of education was alien to Indian values and culture. It could not meet the desire of Indian masses. There was a mismatch between the contents taught in the class and the living experience of the students. After independence it was decided to reorient its education system so that it could become an instrument of social change and fulfil the needs of the then society. The government of India appointed a series of committees, commissions and study groups.

Secondary Education Commission (1952-53), for the first time took a very broad view of curriculum by emphasizing that: “Curriculum does not mean only academic subjects traditionally taught in the school, but it includes totality of experiences that a pupil receives through the manifold activities that go in the school, the classroom, library, laboratory, workshop, and playground and in the numerous contacts between the teachers and pupils. In this sense whole life of school becomes   19 curriculum, which can touch the life of student at all points and help him in the development of a balanced personality (Pritam, 2004). ” Kothari Commission (1964-66) also interpreted school curriculum as totality of learning experiences provided under supervised conditions. It also emphasized on the inclusion of work experience in the school education to uit the age and maturity level of the students. In an attempt to give the practical shape to the recommendations of Education Commission (1964-66), in 1975 National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) prepared National Curriculum for 10 year schooling. However, this curriculum failed to achieve its objective at the stage of implementation due to lack of resources and regional disparities. To maintain the relevance of curriculum to the societal and individual needs of the learners it was decided by different committees and commissions appointed by government of India to revise it. As a result the revised curriculum was put forth by NCERT in 1988.

In the view of the changing scenario of education, both at national and international levels and the recommendations made in the Ninth Five Year Plan Document (1997-2002), the curriculum framework was revised by NCERT in September 1999. It involved the active participation of Regional Institutes of Education and experts in the field of education. The discussion document finalized in January 2000 was thoroughly scrutinised and discussed at different levels and the National Curriculum Framework for School Education (NCFSE) was published by NCERT in November 2000. Despite the review of Curriculum Framework in 2000, the vexed issues of curriculum load and tyranny of examinations remained unsolved (NCF, 2005).

As a result in 2004 the Executive Committee of NCERT decided to revise the existing National Curriculum Framework as it was realized that there is need to review the National Curriculum Framework for School Education (NCFSE-2000) in the light of the report, Learning without Burden (1993). National Curriculum Framework (NCF, 2005) attempted to address the future requirements of school education. Several interrelated dimensions were kept in mind such as the aims of education at different stages of schooling, the social surroundings of children, the nature of knowledge and information in its broader sense, the nature of human development and the process of human learning.

NCF (2005) proposes five guiding principles for curriculum development: i) Connecting knowledge to life outside the school ii) Ensuring that learning shifts away from rote methods iii) Enriching the curriculum so that it goes beyond textbooks iv) Making examinations more flexible and integrating them with classroom life v) Nurturing an overriding identity informed by caring concerns within the democratic policy of the country. 20 The NCF (2005) recommends significant changes in the four major areas of school curriculum i. e. language, mathematics, science and social

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