Mexico is geographically destined to have a difficult economy due to the deserts, forests, and mountains that makes only twelve percent of Mexico’s land arable, as well as, the fact that there are no major rivers in Mexico. These factors all contribute to making it difficult for Mexico to develop because it inhibits transportation, directly affecting Mexico’s ability to export goods.
Modernization and Dependency theory stand on the ground that Western countries are the world leaders due to their higher level of development, which affects practically all spheres of life, including economic, political, social, and even cultural life (Leys, 210). As a result, there exist a strong link between developed and developing countries.
Furthermore both theories state that the experience of developed countries is followed by developing and undeveloped countries, which basically develop in the same direction as developed countries but still they cannot catch the latter up and remain in the rearguard of the world development. In stark contrast, developed countries play the key role in the development of the entire world and the integration of all countries of the world in the global economy is one of the major ways of interaction between developed and developing countries and both theories agrees that this interaction constantly increases.
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At the same time, both Modernization and Dependency theories underline that the relationships between developed and developing countries is unequal and there exist a kind of dependence of developing countries on developed ones, though the views on this dependence vary considerably. Nevertheless, both theories underline the dominant position of Western countries in the modern world and leave little room for the alternative ways of the development but the western one, which is viewed as the only way of the development of the future world in the context of the global economy.
It is worthy of mention that both theories are ethnocentric in a way because they practically ignore the possibility of the alternative development of developing countries but, instead they insist that the development of western countries will be the example developing countries, willingly or not, will follow, while, at the same time, they do not really admit the alternative ways of development of countries of the Third world (Preston, 137). However, it is worthy of mention the example of China which economy is progressing rapidly but its way of development differs considerably from the dominant western way, but this country does not meet to the basic assumptions of either of the theories.
Modernization theory views the development of the world and relationships between developed and developing countries as the relationships of potentially equal countries which are just at a different stage of development at the moment. To put it more precisely, Modernization theory stands on the ground that western countries are well-developed and western way of development is viewed as the most successful and perspective while there is practically no other alternatives to this way of the development.
This is why the supporters of this theory insist on the necessity to develop the cooperation between developed and developing countries in order to make the latter closer to the former. What is meant here is the fact that Modernization theory underlines the necessity of borrowing the experience of western countries by developing countries of the Third world (Scott 196). Basically, developing countries should follow blindly the example of more developed western countries and this will bring them economic, social, and cultural prosperity.
Naturally, to achieve this goal, developing countries should develop their cooperation in all spheres of life, including economy, politics, culture, education, and social relations, with western countries, while the latter, being more advanced compared to developing countries should help them achieve the highest level of development through education, technological assistance and consulting of countries of the Third world. In such a way, this theory views modernization of socio-economic and political life of developing countries on the basis of the example of western countries as the only possible solution of the problem of backwardness of poor countries since western way of development is, according to Modernization theory, is the only correct way to prosperity.
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