Management and organizations facing constantly changing problems, diverse managerial styles, and ever present information needs offer a challenging context for developing computer based information systems. A management information system (MIS) is a system or process that provides information needed to manage organizations effectively. Management Information Systems (MIS) employs the integration of information technology in achieving the needs and objectives of the general workforce, managers and their organization.
The development of MIS in organizations helps corporate executives in applying efficient and effective information technology-based business and economic decisions. With new trends in information technology, managers and organizations will face more advance and flexible management of organizational information. Management information systems are regarded to be a subset of the overall internal controls procedures in a business, which cover the application of people, documents, technologies, and procedures used by management accountants to solve business problems such as costing a product, service or a business-wide strategy.
Academically, the term is commonly used to refer to the group of information management methods tied to the automation or support of human decision making, e. g. Decision Support Systems, Expert systems, and Executive information systems. The terms MIS and information system are often confused. MIS is sometimes referred to, in a restrictive sense, as information technology management. That area of study should not be confused with computer science. IT service management is a practitioner-focused discipline.
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MIS has also some differences with Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) as ERP incorporates elements that are not necessarily focused on decision support. MIS uses computer technology to provide information and decision support to managers, helping them becomes more effective. Developments in the young computer industry are changing corporate management style. Managers at all levels use similar data. Operating managers require data which is timely, precise, detailed, internal and historical.
Upper level managers need data which is aggregated, external as well as internal, future oriented as well as historical and covering a longer p time. An effective MIS cannot be built without viable data management tools. Such tools were not generally available previously. Moreover, most organizations did not effectively use DBMS technology until two decades before. Most organizations these days rely heavily on their IT systems. An important key to a successful MIS is the effective management of an organization's data resources. hapter 02 Management information system 2. 1 MIS definition- Management information system is the combination of men, machine and procedures for collecting related information from the internal and external sources of an organization, and use these information for the purpose of decision making. Another way it can say it is the integrated system of man and machine which provides information support for the decision making in the organization.
MIS also can define as a computer-based information system. According to Jorge M.Scott, “MIS is comprehensive and coordinated setoff information subsystems which are rationally integrated and which transform data into information in a variety of ways to enhance productivity in conformity with the manager’s style and characteristics on the basis of established quality criteria. ” 2. 2 Applications of MIS MIS has become an integral part of the organization's existence and application on several specific areas. These include strategy supports, data processing and job performance development. MIS transforms data into useful information to formulate effective management decisions.
Data processing by MIS allows organization of enormous quantity of business data and provides valuable time-saving benefits for the organization. Job performance of the organization's human resources is greatly affected with the establishment of an MIS. Employees will have more efficient and effective ways in handling data and information. 2. 3 Elements of a Functional MIS A functional MIS has five elements which include timeliness, accuracy, consistency, completeness and relevance. The efficacy of an MIS will be deterred whenever one or more elements are compromised.
The element of timeliness signifies that an organization's MIS can provide and distribute current information to its users. Processed information from MIS must be accurate and free from flaws. MIS consistency in handling data must be taken into consideration for well-defined, documented processes and ability to adapt with a dynamic environment. Management needs complete and related information in a summarized format to eliminate information overload. The MIS must be able to provide the management with relevant data for effective planning and decision making. 2. 4 Advantages of MIS An MIS provides many benefits to the organization.
Primarily, it facilitates organizational planning. MIS enhances the sound decision-making skills of the management by providing relevant information. Secondly, MIS minimizes information surplus by summarizing this in standard formats for managers to have detailed and concise reports. Thirdly, MIS facilities bring integration to an organization as it keeps other departments abreast with existing problems and needs. Lastly, MIS makes managerial control easier. This gives management the ability to assess and improve the organization's performance. 2. 5 MIS classification MIS is a concept, which is a matter of degree rather than an absolute one.
Thus it is important to have an understanding of the MIS followed in an organization by all levels of management in order to take effective decisions. A management information system collects and processes data (information) and provides it to managers at all levels who use it for decision making, planning, program implementation, and control. 2. 9 Risks of MIS Management risks show the likelihood of economic events that could negatively affect the operations or earnings of the organization. Management decisions based on erroneous, ineffective or imperfect MIS may boost the risks in specific areas such as commodity pricing, company's liquidity, interest rates or foreign currency.
Effective transaction processing system is working in Grameenphone for official transactions, customer dealing, etc Payroll TPS Grameenphone’s payroll TPS is designed to get information and record about employers and employees stored in computers. It get information about the employee from the employee’s department and send it to payroll TPS from where it links that information with the previous record and prepare a report which is forwarded to management. Decision making about organizational function taken throw managing all this information. Management takes record of the employee’s efficiency to work and may declare added bonus or other incentive. And the record is updated in the general ledger as well as the master payroll (HUB).
At customer care centers data storage about customers this company also use computer technology. Collecting and gathering information about customers, dealing with them for products and services, offering new services to them, solving their problems for service by customer managers all are provided by computer application systems. Online Activity GP allows the customer the option of online uses. Purpose: Career with the organization. Input: Name, resume. Process: The information will send to organization server (HUB). Output: evaluate and select candidate. Sim card operations Different sim card operations and transaction maintain by computer programs.
Call rate, SMS rate, Voice messages record and flexi load transactions, handset facilities, additional service- all are maintain by computers which depends on information systems. MIS uses on these functions gives company better option to reach its own destiny. Telecommunication networking cannot thinkable without information system management. Every call, call-charges, talk-time duration, GSM Features and Value Added Services (all control by computer applications which is set before by computer application programs including different information. Relationship of MIS with TPS: MIS reports and summarizes the organization’s basic operations and these reports come from the basic transition processing systems.
In case of GP organization the TPS’s of Recharge Cards, Payroll and Customer identification etc. provide the basic information about the organization’s activities. These activities are then summarized in the form of reports for the manager so that they can check whether the firm is working properly or not. If there are some flaws then they take control measures to fix those flaws. chapter 04 CONCLUSION It would appear that the role played by MIS within the study companies is undergoing a period of intense transformation—for many this involves a total rethink of their systems, and the way in which they are managed. IT representatives would appear to be ‘shedding’ their image of pure technologists.
Instead, all displayed a keen interest in, and awareness of, the competitive pressures facing their organizations, and how managing information system could be used to assist in combating them. As part of the recognition of the importance of business issues, there is a concurrent recognition of the importance of information, and it play improving customer service—a key differentiator in environments where products are essentially the same. The relationship between management attitudes and the role played by information system is an interesting one. Without support from management it would appear that MIS will never be deployed in innovative ways.
But if MIS does not prove its potential then management will remain distinctly cool and unenthusiastic about its use. This would seem to be particularly true in areas where the company is operating in a relatively stable climate with little or no opposition. If information systems are to be deployed effectively in the organizational arena, and to realize their full potential, strategic or otherwise, such issues must continue to climb up the corporate agenda. Similarly, senior managers must realize that in the continuing search for competitive advantage in an ever more dynamic climate, IS management could, as has been widely maintained, be one of their most valuable (yet underdeveloped) organizational capabilities.
This is a universally accepted fact that all managerial functions are performed through decision making. For taking rational decisions, timely and reliable information is essential and is procured through a logical method of information collecting, processing and disseminating to decision makers. MIS assist decision makers, by providing the required information at various stages of decision making and thus greatly help the organization to achieve its goals and objectives. On the other hand, if an MIS is poorly planned and constructed, it may provide inaccurate, irrelevant or obsolete information, which may even prove fatal for the organization.
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