Organizations are collections of interacting and inter related human and non-human resources working toward a common goal or set of goals within the framework of structured relationships. It is a great opportunity to study about the leading mobile operator company, GrameenPhone and their organizational behavior model which is concerned with all aspects of how the company influences the behavior of individuals and how individuals in turn influence the company.
Origin of the Report
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The BBA program under the department of Business Studies offers a course named “Organizational Behavior” (MGT 251) which requires every group to submit a report on a general management related topic determined by the course instructor. The report under the headline “Organizational Behavior Model” has been prepared to serve that purpose.
Objectives of the Study
Several objectives to conduct the study are:
- To study about organizational behavior.
- To study about the Managerial Activities
- To be informed about the levels of organizational behavior and its importance from the view of organizational point
- To learn about each potential outcomes of effective functioning of the organization as well as inspiring employees towards their job.
- To build a bridge between the theoretical & practical education of marketing.
To prepare this report we have used all the managerial data, different official documents as well as papers available of that particular institution which were made for the relevant field(s).
We have taken help from some employees of GrameenPhone who helped us to enrich this topic. We also talked to our teachers about it and they have also helped to improve and enhance the report.
We have faced some usual constraints during the course of our preparation for the report. The major limitations are as follows:
- Information is not available: The data required for sufficient analysis for preparing the report was not available. We could not get all the data from a single source.
- Lack of skills: Our skill is not sufficient, that is why we could not present it more attractively
The Company Overview
Grameenphone is the leading telecommunications service provider in Bangladesh. With more than 27 million subscribers (as of October 2010) Grameenphone is the largest cellular operator in the country. It is a joint venture enterprise between Telenor and Grameen Telecom Corporation, a non-profit sister concern of the internationally acclaimed microfinance organization and community development bank Grameen Bank. Telenor, the largest telecommunications company in Norway, owns 55. 8% shares of Grameenphone, Grameen Telecom owns 34. 2% and the remaining 10% is publicly held.
It signed its license agreement with the Government on 11 November 1996 and began operations on 26 March 1997. Grameenphone was the first company to introduce GSM technology in Bangladesh. It also established the first 24-hour Call Center to support its subscribers. With the slogan Stay Close, stated goal of Grameenphone is to provide affordable telephony to the entire population of Bangladesh Managerial Values of the company Garmeenphone always tried to keep promises from its inception till today, which has bought a different dimension to its managerial techniques.
Best Network Coverage, well built management, Efficient and Effective Manpower- all these brought the company to its destiny. Promises can be made easily; but keeping those promises is much harder than it previously. GP has come across with those promises very successfully with its Outstanding and Specialized Managerial Techniques. Grameenphone is always being respectful to others; especially to the prominent social Personalities those who directly motivating themselves into various social, economic, educative and other positive field with eye-catching role-play.
GrameenPhone is the official sponsor of Bangladesh cricket team. Only this example may easily indicate the inspired to raise-up this kind of inspirations.
Mission of the company
Mission of GrameenPhone is to Leading the industry and exceed customer expectations by providing the best wireless services, making life and business easier. Vision the company GrameenPhone exists to help customers to get the full benefit of communications services in their daily lives. The company wants to make it easy for customers to get what they want, when they want it. They are here to help.
Product and Service
Offered by the company Mobile telephony Grameenphone was the first operator to introduce the pre-paid mobile phone service in Bangladesh in September 1999. It offers followings pre-paid subscriptions.
- Smile pre-paid: Smile is a general package provides widest coverage & clarity of speech keep user connected anytime, anywhere at an affordable rate.
- Djuice: Djuice is a popular international brand, exclusively designed for young generation which provide full of fun and entertainment elements. Xplore Post-paid: Xplore is for someone who wants freedom and takes decison independently. With Xplore user can experience flexibility.
- Business Solutions: Business Solutions is a complete, quality business communications service from grameenphone designed especially for business community in Bangladesh. It can provide user a customized soluation.
- Internet: Grameenphone provides internet service in its coverage area. As it has EDGE/GPRS enabled network, any subscriber can access to internet through this network. Grameenphone was the first mobile operator in Bangladesh to offer EDGE services to its subscribers.
- Bill Pay: A service to enable users to pay their utility bills Electricity/Gas through mobile.
- Cell Bazaar: Services to enable users sell or buy products through mobile or internet.
- Various other services like Stock Information, Instant Messaging, SMS Based Alerts/Services, Voice-based Services, Downloads, Music, Cricket Updates, Web SMS, and Mobile Backup etc.
Organization Behavior Model
An organization is a social group which distributes tasks for a collective goal. Organizational behavior is concerned with all aspects of how organizations influence the behavior of individuals and how individuals in turn influence organizations. Organizational behavior is an inter-disciplinary field that draws freely from a number of the behavioral sciences, including anthropology, psychology, sociology, and many others. The unique mission of organizational behavior is to apply the concepts of behavioral sciences to the pressing problems of management, and, more generally, to administrative theory and practice. Model is an abstraction of reality.
A simplified representation of some real-world phenomenon. Basic OB model include three level are individual level, group level and, organizational system level. These three basic levels are analogous to building blocks; each level is constructed on the previous level. For example, group concepts grow out on the foundation laid in the individual section. Each level holds several factors that make a complete organizational behavior model. Individual level’s factors are Biographical characteristic, personality, emotions, values, attitude, ability, perception, motivation, learning which leads to individual decision making.
Group level includes group decision making, leadership and trust, group structure, work team, power and policies, communication and conflict. Organizational system level holds Organizational structure, organizational culture and human resource policies. OB Model from the view point of Grameenphone Organizational System Level
Human resource policies
GrameenPhone is the pioneer in the field of human resource management, employee care and competence development in Bangladesh. GrameenPhone is currently employing approximately 5000 people of which 84 % is under 31 years old.
The employees are spread out in six office zones throughout the country, with Dhaka being the largest with 3561 employees. Most of the staff has university backgrounds within fields such as management, marketing, economics, finance and engineering. The turnover rate of employee in 2006 was 8%, and a preliminary 4% so far for 2007. The number of resignations peaked in 2005 when new operators penetrated the market and offered higher salaries to GrameenPhone employees, but this was still relatively low. One could argue that low turnover rates are a good indicator of a healthy work environment.
Human Resource Development
GrameenPhone offers employee guidance on several stages, in addition to a general introduction for new employees. At junior management level, GrameenPhone in collaboration with the British Council offers in house training in basic management skills and workshops. Furthermore management training at junior and middle levels is offered in collaboration with the Indian Institute of Management. Finally for senior management GrameenPhone offers a module based program in cooperation with Stockholm School of Economics. This program is custom made for GrameenPhone.
In addition to a relatively high salary, GrameenPhone employees are offered several bene? ts. In an annual survey comparing 10 competitors and similar companies in other industries, GrameenPhone identifies the wage distribution and bases its own wage levels on those in the upper quartile. As a part of the employee policy, GrameenPhone is also providing monthly education grants to children of all employees‘until the age of 21. This grant is monthly sum for each child. In compliance with the local legislation GrameenPhone is building a pension fund for its employees.
In addition to the required minimum level, GrameenPhone also invests in provident funds. 10 % of the employee‘s salary is paid on a monthly basis into the fund. All employees are entitled and covered by health and medical insurance. This also applies to family members.
Code of Conduct
Upon entering the company, all employees must sign a code of conduct. The document presents guidelines for proper conduct and ethical behavior. It is divided into four parts: Firstly, general guidelines describe the rationale behind this document, namely the importance of communicating corporate values and for employees to adopt them.
This section includes broad, overarching topics such as human worth, working environment health, loyalty and confidentiality and reporting/disclosure among others. The second section refers to the relationship with customers, suppliers, competitors and public authorities. The main message here is that all stakeholders should be treated with respect and that unethical interaction, such as receiving expensive gifts and services are unacceptable. The third section looks at the employee's private interests and actions in relation to the company.
Here political activism and other external duties are encouraged up to the level where it will not interfere with their work at GrameenPhone. The last section emphasizes that all misconduct or indeed suspicions of such activity must be reported immediately. It ensures the employee that no reprisals will be undertaken towards them. In other words: whistle-blowing is allowed and promoted. Organizational Culture Organizational culture is a system of shared values, assumptions, beliefs, and norms that unite the members of an organization because it reflects, "What it's like to work here. This becomes apparent through the visible level of the culture, the espoused values that are not observe but rather explained and justified, and through the core beliefs that are widely shared through the organization.
Importance of Organizational Culture
- Employee Self-Management - Induce employees to behave in a particular way without close supervision or formal mechanisms, many of which are informal and unspecified.
- Stability - Cultures creates a sense of continuity in the midst of change and intense competitive pressure
- Socialization - The process of internalizing or taking organizational values as one’s own.
The Culture of Grameenphone Ltd. also known as THE GP WAY is “how GP is doing business” — it’s all about itemizing and reinforcing their vision & values, leadership expectations, codes of conduct and governing principles in GP’s daily life at work and deliver upon the brand promise — Stay Close. The Employee Relations team is responsible for ensuring vibrant Organizational Culture, sustaining GP as the preferred Employer Brand in the country.
Human rights Grameenphone supports the internationally proclaimed human rights including UN declaration and conventions on human rights. Employees shall respect the personal dignity, privacy, and rights of each individual interact with during the course of work and shall not in any way cause or contribute to the violation or circumvention of human rights.
Gramcenphone provide a professional workplace with an inclusive working environment including the international Labor Organization's core conventions. Grameenphone is opposed to discriminatory practices therefore, no direct or indirect negative discrimination have taken place based on race, color, gender, sexual orientation, age, disability, language, religion, legitimate political or other opinions, national or social origin, property, birth or status. Occupational Health, Safety and Employee security Grameenphone is careful about the field of health, safety and employee security to promote good health and safe working environment in compliance with internationally recognized standards.
Employee shares the responsibility for achieving this goal. GP always do their outmost to control hazards and take necessary precautions to prevent accidents and occupational diseases. Freedom of association and the right to collective bargaining Grameenphone recognizes the right to freedom of association and collective bargaining in mature labor environments. In such environments Grameenphone allow its employees to freely elect representatives among the employees, unless this would represent a breach of national laws and regulations.
Such employee representatives shall be allowed to carry out their functions unhindered at the work place. Loyalty, impartiality, conflict of interests and related party transactions Grameenphone respects the individual employee’s right to a private life and private interests. But it demands openness and loyalty to the Company and the Company's interest. Conflicts of interest, wherever possible have been avoided.
Every employee in the Company has a duty of confidentiality by law and written agreement. The duty of confidentiality also applies after the conclusion of employment or contractual relationship with Grameenphone for as long as the information is considered to be of a sensitive nature or in any other way confidential. Private interest and actions An employee of Grameenphone shall not hold another position or carry out work for others during working hours without prior express written permission from his supervisor. Political activity Grameenphone does not give support to political parties, either in the form of direct financial support or paid working time.
Employees who take part in political activities will be granted leave from their work in accordance with the law and any agreements.
The following organogram shows the organizational structure of Grameenphone including hierarchy of authority and responsibility. Group Level GP believe in group task that’s why they separate every department and sub department with group. This group is assigned different or similar task to which helps the department rune fast and smoothly. In Grameenphone there are groups from top level to the bottom.
This helps the company to take itself in a proper destination Leadership In the organogram of GP, we can see every department has a leader and as well as every team and every department has its own leader. Some top leaders of GP
- Tore Johnsen(CEO)
- Mr. Raihan Shamsi (CFO)
- Mr. Arnfinn Groven(CPO)
- Mr. Arild Kaale(CMO)
- Mr. Kazi Monirul Kabir(CCO)
- Mr. Mahmud Hossain(CCAO)
- Mr. Tanveer Mohammad(CTO)
The AoA of the Company requires the Board to meet at least four times a year or more when duly called for in writing by a Board member. Dates for Board Meetings in the ensuing year are decided in advance and notice of each Board Meeting is served in writing well in advance. The roles of the Board and Chief Executive Officer are separate and delineation of responsibilities is clearly established, set out in writing and agreed by the Board to ensure transparency and better corporate governance. To that end, GP has also adopted “Governance Guidelines for Chief Executive Officer”. The CEO is the authoritative head for day-to-day management in GP.
He acts to reasonably ensure that GP develops and conducts business as per the Articles of Association, decisions made by the Board and shareholder, as well as according to Grameenphone Policies and Procedures, and applicable regulatory legislations. Team work Business is like a game of chess. Every move matters. Time is precious. The location and movement of each piece is a must-know for one to win the game. Today's competitive and fast changing business world demands the same. With Grameenphone’s "Team Tracker", employee can locate his/her workforce and direct them towards the achievement of your business goals.
Team Tracker is a new value-added solution for the Business Market. This solution will help bring about efficiency to the value chain of organizations having field employees. Managing field operations & directing field employees towards the business success has always been a concern for field managements like National & Regional Sales Managers, Area Managers & Distributors. With the services of Grameenphone’s Team Tracker, organizations can now locate its employees, assign tasks to them digitally & also receive task updates electronically.
The system is robust enough to handle data for even a thousand employees.
Features of the Service
- Real-time overview of outdoor employee movements on the map
- Location based task delegation and proactive workload allocation
- Instant task status update
- Business Reports generation on Employee Location & Task status based on organizational hierarchy
By using this solution, a company is expected to gain:
- Faster Actions
- Excellent planning and precise workforce management
- Efficient workload assignment to lead to greater employee satisfaction
- Cost Efficiency
Individual Level Motivation
The job of a manager in the workplace is to get things done through employees. To do this the manager should be able to motivate employees. But that's easier said than done. Motivation practice and theory are difficult subjects, touching on several disciplines. In spite of enormous research, basic as well as applied, the subject of motivation is not clearly understood and more often than not poorly practiced. To understand motivation one must understand human nature itself.
And there lies the problem In Grameenphone as we all know that it’s a government organization so they not give such motivational package which an employee get in private organization . But without motivation package no employee give their maximum to the organization . some motivational package which Grameenphone give there employee free telephone facility, promotion and so on. Dealing with other factors: Employee Training Employee training is the planned effort of an organization to help each employee learn the job related behaviors and skills they will need to do their job properly.
It is a set of planned activities that the organization will have their employees complete in order to increase their job knowledge and skills and to have them get accustomed to the attitudes and social atmosphere of the company. It will help the employee to be familiar with the goals of the organization and the job requirements. There are typical steps that go into a training program. These are outlined below.
Conduct Needs Assessment
A need is described as a "gap" between what is currently known and what will be needed now and in the future. These gaps in knowledge could be between what an organization expects to happen and what actually does, how employees are performing on the job and how the organization desires them to perform, and existing skills and desired skill level . In order to conduct an assessment there are some analyses that must be done * An organizational analyses determines the effectiveness of an organization, where training is needed and under what actually does, how individual employees are performing on the job and how the organization desires them to perform, and existing skills and desired skill level .
In order to conduct an assessment there are some analyses that must be done.
An organizational analyses determines the effectiveness of an organization ,where training is needed and under what conditions the training will be conducted. A task analysis is used to provide data about a job or group of jobs, and the knowledge, skills ,attitudes and abilities that are needed to achieve optimum performance. This information can come from job descriptions, task analyses, employee questionnaires and interviews, performance evaluation, and observation of the workplace. Finally, person analysis analyses how well an individual employee is doing their job and determines which specific employees need training and what kind of training. The methods of this kind of analysis include employee questionnaires and interviews, performance evaluation, skill and knowledge testing and the observation of behavior and results.
Implement Training Methods
Now that the analysis has been done, the training method needs to be chosen. The two most frequently used training methods include:
- Lecture: Lecture involves one-way communication, from instructor to learner -the learner is passive in the process.
- On-the-job-training: This method involves such methods as apprenticeship and mentoring, where the employee is actively engaged in the type of work they will later be doing on their own.
- Programmed instruction: This is a form of instruction that is pre-programmed and then delivered methodologically to an individual. This form of instruction is self-paced -the employee determines how fast they will learn and complete the steps and it is often completed more quickly than group training. It can be delivered via a computer and can be costly toprepare.
- Simulations: This sort of training involves an employee being placed into a simulated situation of what may occur in real on-the-job situations.
- Techniques include: Case studies where trainees analyze a problem outlined in a report and offer solutions; role playing where simulated roles are acted out; and behavioral modeling where trainees observe proper work behavior and then role play it. Part of the implementation of the training is making sure that the training is actually teaching the employees the skills they will need - this is known as the Transfer of Training.
A more technical definition is: the extent to which the knowledge, skills or attitudes learned in the training will be used or applied on the job. There are ways to increase the probability of what employees are being trained will really relate to their actual job behavior. To do this, one can maximize the similarity between the training situation and the job situation, provide a variety of examples when teaching skills and reward trained behaviors and ideas on the job.
Training evaluation is used to evaluate the reactions of the learners, measure the learning that occurred, assess on-the-job behaviors, identify business results that are due to the training and calculate if the investment in training has had any return in the gains of the company. Business results can be measured in "hard" data and "soft" data. Hard data are measures of productivity, quality, material costs, absenteeism and turnover and customer satisfaction. Soft data is items such as job satisfaction, teamwork, and organizational commitment on the part of the employees
Biographical characteristics, personality and emotions perception ability, and value attituds this things in are depends on person to person. Although gpaminphon follow a selection process to choose an employee with positive Biographical characteristic ,personality and emotions perception ability ,and value attitudes Selection & Recruitment: (From external source)
- Management consultant
- Management institute
- Deputation personnel Selection process
- Job analysis
- Initial screening
- Application bank
- Reference check
- Medical final and Recommendation
Roster Management: Working time is different for full time employees and part time employees. Very often it has been seen that part time employees do not get enough flexibility in their work schedule. It’s very hard to get leave or bring change in roster. Resource Management need to give more focus on part time employee too as they are not less competent in comparison to any full time employee. It will create a more harmonious work environment and it will also improve the motivation level of the employees. Remove frequent changes in process: Frequent changes in process make the employees confused.
It also hampers the business performance. It increases the service delivery time and produces low customer satisfaction. To reduce the hassles for both agent and customers it is quite important to adopt a flexible and user friendly process. Establish strong coordination among segments: Coordination among systems helps to serve customer in the very exact way it has been designed. Other than that it creates conflict and misunderstanding scenarios among segments. People from different segment have their own point of view. So it needs to be ensured that all of them have common platform to carry their job Responsibility in right manner.
Maintain organizational behaviors leads an organization to manage its function smoothly at the same time enable it to attain its goal. Through the transfer of technology, managerial expertise and effective business model Grameenphone have established an advance policy for their organization and their employees. This in turns plays a significant role to make the company as a leading mobile operator company.
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on Organizational Behavior Model of Grameenphone
Organizational Behavior Model. In management, the focus is on the study of the five organizational behavior models: Autocratic Model. Custodial Model. Supportive Model. Collegial Model. System Model. Autocratic model.
Almost all organizations develop the models on the basis of which behavior of the people is determined. This model depends on the assumption that organizational behavior management carries about its people, mission, and goals.
In the 1930s, these welfare programs evolved in many fringe benefits to provide security to the employees, which resulted in the development of the Custodial model of organizational behavior.
This model depends on the assumption that organizational behavior management carries about its people, mission, and goals. It is noted that most of the organizations make the assumptions on the basis that people are not to be trusted even in the slightest matter.
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