This researcher indicated that motivation is classified into two factors. The two factors were motivators and hygienes. Motivators are such as recognition and achievements, which cause job satisfaction while hygiene for example job security, result in job dissatisfaction (Lindner, 1998). Vroom’s theory This theory recognizes the efforts of the employees. It is based on the belief that the efforts of the employees lead to organizational performance, which make the employees be rewarded. It means therefore that the employees are rewarded according to their contribution to the organization.
Motivation results from the rewards givens, which means the more positive the reward is the more motivated the employee will be. If the reward is negative, the employee will be less motivated (Lindner, 1998). According to this theory, employees are just like any other human being who has needs to be satisfied. Human needs are satisfied one after the other. Marslow’s theory of human needs indicate that one human need can only be satisfied after the more basic is satisfied. It therefore has a hierarchy of five levels. Employees have these five levels of needs too.
They are; physiological, ego, safety needs, social and self-actualizing (Lindner, 1998). The lower level needs are satisfied before the higher level following it. According to this theory, the highest level of need is self-actualization, followed by ego, social, safety and physiological needs being the lowest. Marslow argued that the knowledge of this kind of human need satisfaction criteria, would help managers understand employee needs. If their requirements are understood, they are motivated more (Lindner, 1998). Adam’s theory
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Adam notes that employees strive to be equal to other employees. This is by measurement of the ratio between the inputs and the outputs (Lindner, 1998). Skinner’s theory According to this theory, it is the employee’s behavior that leads to positive and negative outcomes. The behaviors that lead to positive outcomes are repeated, while those that lead to negative outcomes are not repeated. Those behaviors that lead to positive outcomes should therefore be identified and reinforced (Lindner, 1998). Importance of Motivation Motivation has effects on the output of an organization.
It is both the quality and quantity of output that is affected. Generally as had been noted, the performance or production of quality and high number of products depend on the employees. If they are not motivated, then the performance of that organization will be low. The employee discretion behavior determines the efforts they put in their work. This behavior is affected by the amount of satisfaction the employees get (Bruce and Pepitone, 1998). Employers should learn how to study employees’ characteristics, which will help them use the different skills and talents to the maximum.
Utilization of the talents leads to high quality production, as well as increased production hence success. Just one single move in management leads to success. There are other factors to be considered in improving performance or maintaining high performance, but employees are the major concern. If for example culture is considered, the employees have to be involved, if organization experiences change, the employees have to be involved. The main point is; employees form part of the organization and their management contributes a lot to the organizational performance therefore have to be motivated (Bruce and Pepitone, 1998).
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