The complexity of the business environment is increasing with the passage of time. The environment is competitive and demanding, making it necessary for organizations to adapt and evolve within a blink of an eye. Formerly traditional organizations had a well defined role and task division for each employee . In fact sub tasks were also clearly demarcated. Tasks were simple and well defined and people had to be hired for working like robots on the assigned jobs. This was also referred to as functional organizations wherein work units worked on specific tasks. This evolved to forming special departments with specialized functions.
In today’s context, simple defined tasks do not exist and demarcated task functions are not tenable. The demand of the day is for innovation, flexibility, and broad integrated tasks with a focus on multi skilled individuals and tasks. Jobs are seen as interlinked building blocks of work within organizations. They are patches of tasks and responsibilities that, together, are intended to cover the work that needs to be done (Bridges, 1994). JOB ANALYSIS The HR architecture of any organization has multiple key components two of which are Job Analysis & Reward systems.
Human Resource Management (HRM) is concerned with the effective and efficient use of the organizations human resources. Job Analysis deals with the determination of the jobs requirements in terms of skill sets and duties and finding the person who best fits the profile developed. Job Analysis is the foundation stone of HR practices and an important point to note is that Job Analysis is about the job not the person. Job Analysis is used to establish and document the relationship between the duties or requirements of a job and employment procedures such as training, selection, compensation (rewards) and performance appraisal.
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When job analysis is carried out for determining the reward structure this function is called job evaluation. The methods commonly used to carry out job analysis are interviews with the functional heads or supervisors, with prospective candidates/incumbents, questionnaires, observation of existing supporting functions , historical information . Job Analysis in recent times is found to be a culmination of a combination of activities such as carrying out a historical analysis , administering a questionnaire , talking to co workers and the supervisor and then with prospective candidates and finally creating a working profile of the job.
Industrial Psychologists are the preferred choice to conduct job analysis especially for jobs being created at senior levels. In a nutshell job analysis is basically the gathering of raw data to enable the proper functioning of the HRM function. If for no other reason a job analysis is done for legal reasons. There may be instances when the organization is taken to court alleging unfair selection procedure. Job analysis steps in at this point to showcase that the organization has a well documented and structured selection procedure.
Job analysis is also important for organizational communication as it gives employees a specific idea of what is expected of them and how their performance is warranted. Relative skill level is important in setting relative compensation within the organizational structure. The job analysis establishes the degree of skill required within the function. Job Analysis and Job Description are interrelated functions as the second is basically an organized statement of the raw data generated by the first function. The depth of the job description therefore is dependent on the depth of the job analysis carried out.
The request for job analysis can be initiated by the leader or supervisor or by the functional/departmental head or could be a need based exercise felt by the HR department. REWARDS It is being discovered in modern times that traditional systems of reward are costly and limited in their ability to motivate employees. In many companies the reward system is a bottomless pit into which millions of dollars are invested and yet employees are seen to be disgruntled with the system. Creation of a tailor-made effective reward system is one of the most important challenges facing HR today.
Rewards are seen to be barriers to motivation in many a case, where the employees feel that a bad job done is just as well rewarded as a good job. Rewards need to focus on recognizing performance and in every work done the employee should be satisfied with the reward for a job well done. The reward system should focus on the following: • Foster the desired outcomes of the organization; • Make people feel good about their current and past accomplishments; • Energize them to achieve even more; • Work synergistically with intrinsic motivation; and
• Do these things cost-effectively. Rewards are seen to be one of the most effective motivational tools as the employee gets a tangential benefit which inspires the person to do better especially if the reward system is well designed and effective. JOB ANALYSIS & REWARDS As in selection, job analysis plays an increasingly important role in designing performance appraisal systems. This is specifically the case in the United States where any performance appraisal instrument should be based on a systematic job analysis procedure in order to satisfy legal challenges.
The legal requirements for performance appraisal systems in the US are basically no different from those for any selection test. Such systems must be based on a job analysis that facilitates decisions with reliability and validity (Latham & Wexley, 1994). Job Analysis Template Job Analysis Worksheet: Requisition Name (Name of job)
1. Bridges, W. (1994). Jobshift: How to prosper in a workplace without jobs. Reading, M. A. :Addison-Wesly. 2. Latham, G. P. & Wexley, K. N. (1994). Increasing productivity through performance appraisal. Reading, M. A. : Addison-Wesly.
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