Describe the background and corporate use of the following international financial markets: Foreign exchange market International money market International credit market International bond market International stock markets Foreign Exchange Market.
- A worldwide decentralized market for trading currencies that determines the relative values of foreign currencies.
- Assist international trade, investments, foreign traveling.
- Foreign exchange dealers act as intermediaries.
- Spot Rate & its features;
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The rate at which one currency is traded for another is spot rate. SUDS is the most commonly accepted currency especially in countries with weak currencies.
- Spot market liquidity Spot Market Structure; Company 'A' purchases supplies on the first day of every month priced at 100,000 Euros from Company 'B'. Chi 3 International Financial Markets 1 By pm month ago, Euro was worth $1. 08. 'A' needed $108,000 (Euro to pay. Sank transferred money to 'B'.
- Today a new payment is due.
Euro is valued at $1. 12. Company 'A' needs $112,000 (Euro $1. 2) to make payment to 'B'. Time Zones & Spot Market Attributes of Banks Providing Foreign Exchange Offer cash management services for the clients.
- May provide an assessment of foreign economies.
- Provide a forecast of the future value of exchange rates. Foreign Exchange Quotations
- Bid-Ask Spread: Commercial banks charge a fee for conducting foreign exchange transactions. Ask rate - Bid rate
- Bid-Ask Spread % Ask rate - Bid rate Ask rate - Spread is higher for an illiquid currency that is not traded frequently as compared to the liquid currencies.
X 100 Exercise
- Utah Banks bid price for Canadian dollar is $0. 7938 and its ask price is $0. 81. What is the bid/ask percentage spread? Compute the bid/ask percentage spread for Mexican Peso retail transaction in which the ask rate is $. 11 and the bid rate is $. 10. Solution
- ($. 81 - $. 7938)/$. 81 = . 02 or ; [($. 11 - $. 10)/$. 11] = . 091, or 9. 1%.
Interpreting Foreign Exchange Quotations
- the Ever-changing value of exchange rates throughout the day leads to direct and indirect quotations at a point of time.
- No. Of dollars per currency 1 = $1. 0
- Indirect Quotations
- No. Of units of currency per dollar (Reciprocal of Direct Quotation) 1 / 1. 20 Example
- If the spot rate of the Euro is the US $1. 031 Direct Quotation 1 = $1. 031
- Indirect Quotation = 1/ Direct Quotation = 1/ $1. 031 0. 97=$1 Cross Exchange Rate
- It is the exchange of two non-US dollar currencies. Tourist at the airport who is from Mexico and is on his way to Canada.
He is willing to buy your C$200 for 1,300 pesos. Should you accept the offer or cash the Canadian dollars at the airport? Explain.
Today you notice the following exchange rate quotations:
- $1 is equal to 3. 00 Argentine pesos
- 1 Argentine peso = 0. 50 Canadian dollars
- You need to purchase 100,000 Canadian dollars with U. S. Dollars. How many U. S. Dollars will you deed for your purchase? International Credit Market
- Sometimes, Macs obtain medium-term funds
- Funds are obtained through term loans from local financial institutions. Funds may be obtained through the issuance of notes in their local markets.
- NC may obtain funds through banks located in foreign markets.
- Reoccurred Market.
Euro credit loans:
- Loans of one year or longer extended by banks to Macs/Gobo. Agencies in Europe are called Euro credit loans.
- Loans are denominated in dollars or other currencies with a maturity of 5 years.
The market dealing with Euro credit loans is called Floating Rate Loans:
London Interbrain Offer Rate (LABOR) with premium up to 3% depending upon credit worthiness of a borrower. LABOR is the rate commonly charged for loans between banks.
- Labor Syndicated Loans.
- When banks are unwilling/unable to process a huge loan they form groups know as syndicates.
- Lead banks negotiate terms with borrowers.
- The underwriting fee is paid by the borrower.
- A commitment fee of 0. 25% or 0. 50% P. A.
Is paid for the unused portion of the available credit. Interest rates are determined by:
- Creditworthiness of borrower
- Maturity period Currency denominating the loan.
Read about the disadvantages of Single Currency
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International Financial Markets. (2018, May 17). Retrieved from https://phdessay.com/international-financial-markets-2/