Last Updated 17 Apr 2020

Imperialism in Africa and India

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Section 1: A Scramble For Africa • European nations needed to fuel industrial production • Competed for new markets for goods and took huge interest in Africa • Imperialism- Seizure of a country or territory by a stronger country o Occurred throughout most of Africa o Europe came in and dominated • Mid 1800’s Africans divided into ethnic and linguistic groups • Some converted to Islam and Christianity • Most kept traditions and religion For 400 years African army able to keep Europeans out • Until late 1800’s Europe only dominated coast of Africa • Couldn’t navigate rivers • Disease also kept them out • Specialized trade networks • Introduction of steam powered river boats allowed Europeans to dominate more of Africa’s interior • Those who did get in were against slave trade • People learned about Africa through their publications The Congo Sparks Interest: • Dr. David Livingstone traveled with group of Africans into deep Africa to promote Christianity • Several years past and people thought he was dead Henry Stanley went to find him and succeeded • Stanley wanted to trace course of Congo River • In 1879 and 1882 Stanley signed treaties with local chiefs of the Congo River Valley • Gave King Leopold II of Belgium control of these lands • Leopold II claimed wanted to abolish slave trade and promote Christianity • Brutally exploited Africans by forcing them to collect sap from rubber plants • About 10 million Africans died due to abuse In 1908 Belgian govt.

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. • Also had direct and indirect control • Britain and U. S. preferred indirect France and most other European nations preferred direct • Indirect control: o Relied on existing political rulers o Rulers adopted British Authority o Rulers handled much of daily management of colony o Each colony had legislative council: ? Colonial officials ? Local merchants ? Professionals ? Colonial governor • Direct Control: • French and other European didn’t think Africans could run country • Paternalism- the idea that the people in authority restrict freedoms to their subordinates for the subordinates’ good • Gave them needs but not rights Europeans brought in own bureaucrats • Didn’t train Africans in European methods of govt. • Assimilation- the idea that the local population would adopt the superior culture in order to become more like them • Africans adopted French culture • All schools, courts, and businesses patterned after French institutions • In practice idea of assimilation abandoned • French resided to indirect control • Recognized African culture but saw it as inferior |Indirect Control |Direct control | |Local govt. fficials used: |Foreign officials brought in to rule | |Limited self-rule |No self rule | |Goal: to develop future leaders |Goal: assimilation | |Govt. institutions based on European styles but may have |Govt. institutions are based only on European styles | |local rules | |

A British Colony: • Britain gained control of southern Nigeria • Some local rulers agreed to sign treaties of protection and accept British residents • Others opposed intervention and rebelled against it • British defeated rebellions • Royal Niger Comp. gained control of palm oil trade over Niger River Delta • In 1914 British claimed entire Nigeria as colony Managing the Colony: • Nigeria culturally diverse • Three main groups were: o Hausa-Fulani: ? Muslim ? Had strong central govt. o Yoruba Followed traditional religion ? Relied on chiefs for control o Igbo ? Same as Yoruba • Didn’t have enough British troops to govern such complex area • British resided to indirect control • Worked well with Hausa-Fulani but not with other two groups • Local chiefs of Yoruba and Igbo resented limited power African Resistance: • Africans resisted European attempts to colonize • But Europeans had more advanced weaponry • Therefore, Africans didn’t succeed in most cases Unsuccessful Movements: There was resistance and resistance through religious movements • Algeria’s almost 50 year resistance against France • West Africa’s Samori Toure’s 16 year resistance against France • African villagers resisted Germans in spiritual defense o Believed magic water would turn German’s bullets to water o 20 groups came together and fought against Germans o Fighters believed God and their ancestors would return to life and assist them o Over 75,000 Africans died o Twice that many Africans died in famine to follow o Germans shocked and passed some reforms

Ethiopia: A successful Resistance • Only African nation that successfully resisted Europeans • Menelik II- became emperor of Ethiopia in 1889 • Successfully played Italians, French, and British against each other • Built up large arsenal of modern weapons he purchased from Russia and France • Menelik II signed treaty with Italy while Italians were invading the country • Menelik II declared war in 1896 • Battle of Adowa was largest battle in history of Africa • Ethiopians won and kept independence Legacy of Colonial Rule: • Negative effects: Africans lost control of land and independence o Lost many people to disease and rebellion o Famine o Breakdown of traditional culture o Traditional authorities replaced o Homes and properties transferred o People lost jobs o Identity issues o Division of Africa o Unnaturally divided groups o No Unity • Positive Effects: o Local warfare reduced o Sanitation improved o Hospitals o Schools o Lifeps increased o Literacy increased o Economic expansion o Railroads, dams, telephone, telegraph lines built in Africa o However, this only really benefited the Europeans

Section 4: British Imperialism in India: • Area controlled by East India Company grew overtime • Both directly and indirectly governed southern India, Bangladesh, and territory along Ganges River in north • British govt. regulated East India company • Company ruled India without British interference until 19th century • Had own army with British officers • Sepoys- Indian soldiers • Army was dangerous because could easily turn against British Britain’s “Jewel in the Crown”: • Industrial revolution turned Britain into world’s workshop • India supplied Britain with many raw supplies India’s 3,000,000 people also large potential market for British made goods • India was “brightest jewel in crown” because it was the most valuable of all Britain’s colonies • British made restrictions that prevented Indian economy from operating on its own • Indians could only produce raw materials for Britain • Indians were not allowed to compete with Britain British Transport Trade Goods: • Railroad system built in India • India became more valuable • Most of raw materials transported included: o Tea o Indigo o Coffee o Cotton Jute o Opium • Sold trade opium for tea from China • Sold tea in England Impact of Colonialism: Negative impact on India: • British held most of economical and political power • British restricted Indian owned industries • Many villagers couldn’t be self sufficient due to emphasis on cash crop • Food production reduced • Famine • Racism • Forced conversion to Christianity Positive impact on India: • Had world’s third largest railroad system • Railroad system united brought modern economy that India • Sanitation and public health improved India modernized by railroads, telephones, telegraphs, dams, bridges, irrigation canals • Schools and collages founded • Literacy increased • Idea cleared of bandits • Local welfare amongst competing rulers The Sepoy Mutiny: • British controlled most of India • Believed British were trying to convert Indians to Christianity • There was so much racism • Nationalist idea emerged • The Indians decided to rebel • Gossip spread amongst sepoys that the cartridges of their new rifles were greased with beef and pork fat • To use cartridges Indians had to bite off ends Cows were sacred to them and Muslims didn’t eat pork so they were very angered • Soldiers who refused cartilages were imprisoned • Next day they rebelled • Sepoy Munity- rebellion of the Indian soldiers • Uprising spread from Delhi to much of northern India • British and sepoys tried to slaughter each others armies • Took company more than a year to regain control of country • Indians couldn’t unite against British due to weak leadership and conflict between Hindus and Muslims • Hindus preferred British rule over Muslim rule

Turning Point: • After munity Britain took direct control over India • Raj- British rule after India came under British crown during reign of Queen Victoria • To reward many princes who stayed loyal to company during munity, Britain promised to respect all treaties they had with them • Also promised that Indian states that were still free would remain independent • Regardless, British gained control of free states unofficially • Munity fueled racist attitudes of British Munity increased distrust between Indians and British • Hindus and Muslims felt they were being ruined under British rule Nationalism Surfaces in India: • In early 1800’s some Indians began demanding modernization • Ram Mohum Roy, a modern thinking, well educated Indian began campaign to move away from traditional Indian practices • Ram Mohum Roy believed that if practices weren’t changed India would continue to be controlled by outsiders • Ram Mohum Roy’s writings inspired other Indians to press for social reforms and adopt western ways • Nationalist feelings also began to surface in India Indians hated system that made them second class citizens in own country • Made much less money than British workers Nationalist groups form: • 2 nationalist groups formed: o Indian National Congress in 1885 o Muslim League in 1906 ? Focused on Indian’s concerns ? Wanted self government ? Divided in to Hindu and Muslim section ? Separation made it hard for them to unite in calling for independence ? In 1911 British regained control and divided them differently • Conflict over Indian control continued to develop between Indians and British Key Terms: Imperialism- Seizure of a country or territory by a stronger country • African goods: copper, tin, gold, diamonds, rubber, cocoa, palm oil, and peanuts • Racism- the belief that one race is superior to others • Social Darwinism- theory that those who were fittest for survival enjoyed wealth and success and were superior to others • Berlin Conference- 14 European nations who met to lay down rules for the division of Africa • Shaka- was a Zulu chief used highly disciplined warriors and good military organization to create large centralized state in South Africa.

His successors weren’t as successful • Boers- Dutch settlers (Boer=farmer in Dutch) who took African’s land and established large farms • Boer War- War between British and Boers over land and minerals in which British won • Colony- a country or territory governed internally by a foreign power • Protectorate- A country or territory with its own internal government but under the control of an outside power • Sphere of influence- an area in which and outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privileges • Economic imperialism- an independent but less developed country controlled by private business interests rather than other govts. |Indirect Control |Direct control | |Local govt. officials used: Foreign officials brought in to rule | |Limited self-rule |No self rule | |Goal: to develop future leaders |Goal: assimilation | |Govt. institutions based on European styles but may have |Govt. institutions are based only on European styles | |local rules | | • India was “brightest jewel in crown” because it was the most valuable of all Britain’s colonies • Indian goods: Tea, Indigo, Coffee, Cotton, Jute, and Opium • Menelik II- became emperor of Ethiopia in 1889.

He was the only one who was successful at preventing his state (Ethiopia) from being conquered

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