In this regard, the paper is going to look at the different theories such as sex, drugs, and disaster.. Focusing on the theories used to determine the causes of extinction of these big mammals, one of the critical theories that Gould considers is sex. In this theory, it said that since testes function under low temperatures that are biologically friendly, the sudden increase in temperate during the cretaceous era may have caused the testes to become dysfunctional (Gould). As such dinosaurs disappeared from the earth due to lack of procreation.
Another theoretical approach asserts that around the same time, vegetation produce contained contaminated agents which affected the survival of the animals. Additionally, the occurrence of certain disasters such as comet hitting the earth may have created a shade of powder in the sky thereby suppressing the photosynthesis process and fundamentally lowering globe temperature, which made dinosaurs to vanish. On account of logos appeal, the author of the author chooses a previous study that was conducted during the sass. This study focused on one of the close relatives of the dinosaur.
The aim was to establish functional traits, especially those focusing on the biological attributes of the animal that can be associated with the dinosaur. In this regard, the study focused on the tolerance of the alligator to extreme heat. The study assessed the amount of heat that alligators can absorb and how this can affect their existence. As such, using an example of an alligator, Gould shows that temperature can cause them to loose the functionality of their physiological system, which is critical for maintaining their temperature.
This implies that these creatures have experience suffering during the experience and this causes them to become dysfunctional. Still on the logos appeal, the study also focused on the experience of large mammals such as the dinosaur when there are extreme temperature fluctuations. Gould asserts that large mammals that have fairly small areas can release heat through a gradual process that enables them to maintain constant temperatures. This only takes place when there are ordinary fluctuations of weather conditions.
The author uses a logical appeal to convince the reader that the dinosaur hat became extinct years back had a hefty size, which was too big to be affected by temperature fluctuations. The author uses the study to support his claims. Gould also asserts that large dinosaurs lived in favorable climates where temperature was normal. In this regard, the author recommends that any rise in universal temperatures before the Cretaceous annihilation may have caused the dinosaurs to warm up than their premium tolerance.
Since they were bulky, this surplus heat may not have been extreme to kill or even to hamper functionality of the great beasts. However, Gould seems to agree with the previous theoretical position regarding the impact of temperature on testes. Earlier, it was suggested that they work best within a slim range of temperature. As a result, this surplus heat may have sterilized all the male dinosaurs. As such, they were unable to procreate successfully and give rise to future off springs.
On ethos appeal, the author brings into light the truth about the drug overdose theory, which claimed that dinosaurs disappeared because their nutrition was interfered with the growth of these bitter and toxic plants. The author agrees that indeed blossoming plants did not develop until tardy in the dinosaurs’ regime. He adds that the shrubs produced pungent amino-acid-based alkaloids. However, to claim that these plants could have poisoned the dinosaurs and caused them to disappear was unethical. Gould claims that majority of mammals are able to use their instincts
Even though the plants may have been bitter, mammals have livers that are able to produce antidotes to attack the poison. Indeed, this claim makes sense because it is unethical to overlook the biological functionality of the body and its ability to protect the body against toxins. The original study by Siegel claimed that dinosaurs could neither accommodate the flavor of the bitter plants nor cure the food they ingested. Indeed, the only way these animals may have been poisoned was through an overdose. Is there such evidence of an overdose?
On pathos appeal, the author attempts to appeal to the emotional centre of the reader by looking at the outer space probes that have a deep association on the literature of dinosaurs destruction, The argument rose yet again in 1979, after a long pause, when the father-son, physicist-geologist squad of Luis and Walter anticipated that an asteroid, some 13 km in thickness, struck the ground 66 million years ago. The strength of such a crash would be massive, greater by distant than the Jumbo tonnage of all the world’s nuclear arms.
In trying to rebuild a scenario that would elucidate the synchronized disappearing of dinosaurs on terrain and so many creatures in the aquatic the team proposed that a gargantuan grime shade, caused by particles blown up in the illusion would so dim the earth that photosynthesis (growing of vegetation) would stop and temperatures drop abruptly. The single-celled photosynthetic marine plants, with existence cycles calculated in weeks, would expire completely, but land plants might stay breathing throughout due to the capability of their seeds.
Dinosaurs would die by malnourishment and glacial atmosphere; miniature, warm- blooded mammals, with added humble necessities for food and better guideline of body hotness, would yelp through. Indeed, the author figuratively brings out the Lloyd destruction in a way that makes it look like an end of the existence of living things. The reader is left with a vivid image of a humongous object flying from the outers pace, coming at a great speed, and hitting directly on the habitat of dinosaurs.
As such, the reader is able to associate this story to similar stories such as those found in the bible, for example, the destruction of the Babylon city. In conclusion, the author does a great Job of analyzing the theories by focusing on the background information, present belief system, application of science, and reality. The theories proposed by the scientists give rise to a number of questions such as how could we likely settle on whether the idea that the rise of temperatures caused testes of the dinosaurs to become dysfunctional and consequently unable to give rise to new offspring?
Can this be applied in consideration to the biological realities that we know about? Indeed, this theory carries weight to make a logical appeal to the reader. Could they keep away from the high heat by staying in the shade or caves? On the other hand, the article leaves the reader wondering whether the dinosaurs had a pacific diet that they relied upon and whether this disappeared at the time the bitter shrubs were sprouting.