Environmental Assessment of the Asopos River Basin
Presentation of Asopos River Basin
Etymology – Mythology
Asopos: ( Grecian: ????I?? ) from Asis, Greek: I†??? ( = ??I?? ) , intending “marsh ( or Moor ) ” and Opsis Greek: I???? , intending “appearance” .
ASOPOS ( or Asopus ) was a River-God of Boiotia in cardinal Greece, and Sikyonia in the Peloponnesos, southern Greece.Naiades, Asopos’ 20 girls, were H2O nymphs who had names of Greek island towns.
In a study of Ministry of Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works ( MoEPPW ) in 2006, it is referred that a entire country of 12,341 kilometers2is occupied by Water District 07 of East Sterea Ellada.This country consists of the Prefecture of Evoia, major parts of the Prefectures of Fthiotida ( 83.1 % ) , Voiotia ( 98.5 % ) , Fokida ( 41.9 % ) and smaller parts of the Prefectures of Magnisia ( 14.9 % ) and Attica ( 7.2 % ) .
River Basin of Voiotikos Kifissos River, River Basin of Sperchios River and River Basin of Asopos River are the chief River Basins of the Water District referred above. Other important H2O organic structures located in that country are lakes Iliki and Paralimni.
In the Figure below is presented the Water District 07 of East Sterea Ellada.
The entire surface country of Asopos River Basin – which is located in East Attica and Voiotia Districts ( Central Greece ) and flows from West to east – is 450 kilometer2and extends to Evoikos Gulf. The entire length of Asopos is 57 kilometer, holding its beginnings in Elikona mountain, and some watercourses from Parnitha and Dervenochoria Mountains. Its flow watercourse base on ballss through Asopia, Inofyta, Schimatari, enters the part of north-east Attica and eventually meets the sea near Oropos laguna, in north Evoikos Gulf, as shown in the Figure below.
Vertical tectonic motions, of different grades of strength resulted in the creative activity of Asopos’ River Basin. That is the ground why the basin is non homogeneously developed and has differences in deposit in different places.
The part studied – piece of the Sub-Pelagonian zone – has a particular geological formation. More specifically it is constituted by three chief units:
- the crystalline cellar stone ( schists, schists with psammitic stones, schists with marbles and sipoline embolisms )
- the alpine cellar stones ( limestones and dolomites of Triassic and Jurassic age )
- the post-alpine deposits ( Neogene lignite-bearing sedimentations, marly formations with lignite embolisms, pudding stones, marly limestones and travertines, and other coarse unconsolidated stuff ) .
A hydrogeological analysis of Asopos’ River Basin, concluded that semi-pervious formations of Neogene-Quarternary, extremely pervious formations of calcite and other imperviable formations cover the 55 % , 41 % and 4 % of the River Basin severally. The unequal spring H2O flow every bit good as the extended being of formations made by karst convert precipitation to direct infiltration further restricting surface H2O flow. As a consequence, the bulk of the H2O flow derive from natural or semi-processed industrial or domestic wastewaters. In dry periods, the H2O flow eliminates highly and the sea H2O enters the estuary of the river for 100s of metres.
In a research of the Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration ( I.G.M.E. ) in 1996 the coefficients of the surface drainage and infiltration were estimated to 0.19 and 0.25 severally. In the same research the appraisal of the one-year discharge is 70.1 hectometer3.
Surface and Groundwater
The fact that the H2O of the downpours penetrates into the constructions of groundwater, due to the widespread parts of limestone made by karst, consequences in an disconnected interaction between the two sides of the channel. As a consequence the hydrographic web of Asopos is non peculiarly good developed. In the yesteryear, despite its big catchment country, Asopos itself held H2O merely for a really short period. The ground was the fast incursion of the H2O from the surface into the aquifer. Nowadays, there are sections of Asopos that have H2O event in the summer, as a consequence of smaller subdivisions that enter the river.
The Asopos’ River Basin has merely specific countries with impenetrable formations ( clay sedimentations, schists ) . As a consequence the H2O flow of the watercourse is non uninterrupted, apart from little downpours that keep a H2O flow for a specific clip period ( i.e. the Lantikos and thes Gouras ) . Streams like the Liveas ( in the Northwest of Malakasa ) have seasonal H2O flow. Other streams – the longest 1s – are the Potisiona, the Sklirorrema and the Vathi ( drain in its north side ) . Streams that drain of the south side of the basin are the Lykorrema, the Xerias, the Bresiko etc.
A study conducted by Ministry of Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works ( MoEPPW ) in 2006, reports that there is an indicant of pollution caused by high organic tonss caused by industrial and urban wastes every bit good as agricultural tally offs in Asopos’ catchment country. The consequences – findings of that research were high concentrations of nitrates and P in Asopos River.
Equally far as the groundwater quality is concerned, its features were classified into two separate classs: the ions and the hint elements. Some of the consequences of the survey of the Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration ( I.G.M.E. ) ( Gianoulopoulos, 2008 ) are:
- the chief beginning of the nitrates are the N fertilisers, which are used in the agricultural sector. Additionally, the being of ammoniacal and nitrite ions is due to the urban and industrial pollution beginnings.
- There is increased concentration of Cl–and PO4ions, which are consequence of industrial pollution beginnings.
The figure below shows the precipitation and the average temperature of the part of Asopos for the period October 1999 to September 2010. The informations are taken from the meteoric Stationss at Kallithea, Tanagra and Marathon. As we can easy detect the one-year mean precipitation degrees are 534.5 millimeters, 502.9 millimeter and 625 millimeter severally. Equally far as the mean one-year air temperature is 16.7OC and 17.5OC at the Tanagra and Marathon Stationss severally.
Areas of Asopos categorized by usage
The country of Asopos has H2O demands for industry, agribusiness, abode and touristry. The survey about Asopos River Basin has to take into consideration that H2O demands and measure the distribution of that needs among the utilizations. There is a demand to specify the sectors that put more force per unit area in H2O usage. For the industrial sector, H2O usage takes topographic point for rinsing and colourising ( fabrics ) , steel production, cement production, oil processing, energy production etc.Sing the touristry sector of economic system and domestic sector ( families ) H2O usage concerns the H2O supply for place usage by the authorized provider. The prioritization of H2O usage in Asopos River Basin is as follows:
- Water supply of families, touristic units and vacation place
- Irrigation of cultivated countries and farm animal units
- Industrial H2O usage
In the figure below the land usage of Asopos River Basin is presented. More specifically, the ecru colour represents the agricultural usage and the light purple the industrial usage.
The lasting population of Asopos River Basin as reported at 2001 Census is given in the tabular array below:
For the Municipalities / Communes that do non fall entirely within Asopos River Basin, merely the lasting population of the subsequent Municipal Departments and urban vicinities that are included in Asopos River Basin was calculated.
Taking a expression at the Table below, which is harmonizing to informations from the Labor Force Survey of the National Statistical Service of Greece, we observe that the entire population of working age is divided into two big classs – the economically active population and the economically inactive population. The economically active population is divided into the employed and the unemployed. The employed are people with age greater than or equal to 10 old ages, who had worked even for merely an hr during the mention hebdomad ( for wage or net income or in household concern ) . Unemployed are people with age greater than or equal to 10 old ages, who did non hold work during the mention hebdomad, were presently available for work and were either actively seeking work in the past four hebdomads or had already found a occupation to get down within the following three months. In economically inactive population belong those individuals who neither classified as employed nor as unemployed.
Taking into consideration the information given by the Table above in combination with the definitions given, we can easy detect that the entire economically active population – in other words the work force – of Asopos River Basin in 2001 was 31,764 people. Out of these people 28,837 are employed – 90.8 % of the entire economically active population – and 2,927 are unemployed – 9.2 % of the entire economically active population. Equally far as the employing sectors is concerned, in the primary sector are employed about 19.8 % of the sum of employed people and about 9.8 % of the entire population ( economically active and economically inactive people ) . In the secondary sector are employed about 28 % of the sum of employed people and about 14 % of the entire population of Asopos River Basin. Finally, in the third sector are employed about 35.2 % of the sum of employed people, whereas about 17.4 % of the entire population of Asopos River Basin.
As shown in the Table below people that work in the primary and secondary sector are about 24 % ( 9.8 % + 14 % ) of the resident population of Asopos River Basin over 15 old ages old, whereas in the third sector is occupied about the 18 % of the resident population of Asopos River Basin over 15 old ages old. On the other manus in Athens country occupants over 15 old ages old who are occupied in the primary and secondary sector are 11 % , whereas those who are occupied in the third sector are about the 32 % . Overall we can detect that the primary and secondary sector are more developed in Asopos River Basin than in Athens country, whereas the third sector is much more developed in Athens country.
Taking into history the fact that Asopos part supports 1300 industries and related installations – nutrient and drink industries, agrochemical, metal processing etc. – it is considered as the largest industrial part of Greece. 1970 was the decate that industrial activity started in the country of Asopos and more specifically in Schimatari and Inofita. To show some Numberss for the significance of the job of this country, we refer that 130 units of the bing 1s produce waste Waterss during their operational maps ( production ) . Equally far as the waste Waterss are concerned, the entire day-to-day produced measure is about 9,044 m3/day. 84 % of that measure is due to industrial waste Waterss. More specifically, this measure is split in 7,605 m3/day and 1,439 m3/day, the entire day-to-day measure of waste Waterss of the industrial units of the country and the entire day-to-day measure of waste Waterss of the employees of these units severally. Taking a glimpse at the Table below, which is a study from a study of M. Loizidou in 2009, we can easy detect that the chief sectors from which the bulk of waste Waterss come from are the sectors of “Textile and leather industries” , “Metallurgy related industries” and “Industries of Foods and Drinks” at 25 % , 21 % and 30 % severally.
Consequences – Impacts
The estimated impacts of industrial sector on Asopos River Basin are fundamentally environmental and societal impacts.
More specifically the environmental impacts of industrial pollution in Asopos catchment consist in catastrophe of biodiversity – fish and invertebrates, birds on estuary – and in the pollution and decrease of groundwater.
On the other manus the societal impacts of industrial pollution in Asopos catchment are impacts on human wellness – from ingestion of contaminated agricultural merchandises and groundwater, impacts on local economic system, which is because of increased cost for imbibing H2O for families, increased cost for local agricultural manufacturers, increased cost for nutrient industries, and lessening of tourers for local tourer companies. Finally, other societal impacts of industrial pollution of Asopos River Basin are impacts on diversion of local occupants every bit good as visitants ( touristry ) .
Choice Experiment Method on Asopos Case
Using the Choice Experiment Method on the Asopos Case, the research workers targeted to measure a package of betterments, which could take topographic point in the Asopos River Basin.
This package of betterments includes:
- Environmental conditions described in footings of ecological position in all H2O organic structures of the catchment
- Impact on the local economic system in footings of tourism/recreation, demand for local production and cost of life for families and
- Impact on human wellness described as handiness of H2O with a quality and measure sufficient for fulfilling different local utilizations.
The package of betterments is a mixture of usage and non-use values.
As usage value is defined the values that people derive from the direct usage of a good. Examples of usage value are runing, fishing, or boosting. Use values may besides include indirect utilizations. For illustration, a particular part offers direct usage values to the people who visit the country. Others could hold fun watching about this part in a Television show. In that manner they would have indirect usage values.
As non-use value is defined the value that people assign to economic goods ( including public goods ) even if they ne’er have and ne’er will utilize it. Non-use value as a class may include:
- “ option value ” – the value placed on single willingness to pay for keeping an plus or resource even if there is small or no likeliness of the person really of all time utilizing it, happening because of uncertainness about future supply ( the continued being of the plus ) and possible hereafter demand ( the possibility that it may someday be used ) .
- “ bequest value ” – values placed on single willingness to pay for keeping or continuing an plus or resource that has no usage now, so that it is available for future coevalss.
- “ Existence value “ – an unusual and slightly controversial category of economic value, reflecting the benefit people receive from cognizing that a peculiar environmental resource, such as Antarctica, the Grand Canyon, endangered species, Sharri Dogs or any other being or thing exists.
- “ selfless value ” – the value placed on single willingness to pay for keeping an plus or resource that is non used by the person, so that others may do usage of it. Its value arises from others ‘ usage of the plus or resource.
The method of Choice Experiments was chosen because since it is a conjectural survey-based method, it can quantify the public-service corporation every bit good as the Willingness To Pay ( WTP ) for different conjectural degrees of each property examined. In add-on, in Choice Experiments the respondent chooses between options, as packages of properties, doing picks ensuing to a lower danger for strategic prejudice – yeah stating, in the replies. Finally, it is one of the best ways to measure non-market resources, options and properties.
Sampling – Survey Method
Except for the necessitate of rating of the socio-economic and environmental effects related with the debasement of the basin, the survey that took topographic point aimed to look into the manner the two different populations – that of the occupants of Asopos ( rural population ) and that of the occupants of Athens ( urban population ) – give value to the same package of proposed betterments. Apart from the socio-demographic composing that has motivated this sampling, another ground for that is the different manner those populations experience the debasement of the environment due to location and economic dependance on the country.
One of the chief grounds why two different samples were chosen was that the purpose of the survey was to happen out usage and non-use values. As a consequence the mark population was the occupants of the Asopos River Basin, where the study took topographic point, because they would be straightforward affected by possible alterations in H2O direction. On the other manus occupants of Athinais were included in the study, because they were in close propinquity to Asopos River Basin. The study was conducted by door-to-door interviews. The interviews took topographic point in families and one grownup per house participated. Quota sampling was followed harmonizing to 2001 Census informations in order the samples to be every bit representative as possible. Finally, 25 % of the occupants were called. During the procedure of the interview were used suited showcards, which described the alternate scenario utilizing images. The census taker gave simple descriptions of the inquiries, read aloud. In that manner the census takers could break illustrate policy results to respondents in footings of properties and degrees.