The following scenario relates to Q86-90.
Salty Co wants to amend its dividend policy. They have called all the board of directors to gather their views before finalizing the policy. The statements made by the following directors are as follows:
Xerox: We should keep in mind the available cash in the company. A shortage of cash would result in the low level of dividends. If the situation occurs we should issue scrip dividends.
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Lenox: When I invested in my first company, I expected to receive an increment in wealth every time. As of now, the expectation remains the same for any investor.
Renoir: We must keep in consideration that the investors are very dependent on the level of dividends received. If dividends do not meet their expectation they will be forced to sell their shares in the market & move to a competitor.
Banta: We should all focus on the underlying values of the projects which are taken up now & what we expect from them in the future.
Q86. Which director is considered about the signaling effect? (MCQ)
Q87. Which of the following does Banta support? (MCQ)
- Dividend irrelevancy
- Dividend relevancy
- Scrip dividends
- Right issue
Q88. If the company has fewer assets than its liabilities it indicates liquidity problems. Which director keeps this concern in mind? (MCQ)
Q89. Renoir supports which of the following factors? (MCQ)
- The risk of breach of bank covenants
- Fear of inflation effect
- Consideration of government policies
- Investors are unable to survive without dividends
Q90. Select the appropriate option in relation to scrip issuance. (HA)
Scrip issue can make shares marketable by the issuance of more shares ultimately reducing market values TRUE FALSE
A scrip issue holder will receive more cash than a normal shareholder TRUE FALSE
The following scenario relates to Q91-95.
Shaman Co is a manufacturer of gym clothing. Recently the company seems to have incurred a loss but the owner seems satisfied with its company's progress. The current share price is $4.17/share. The year 2017 has 365 days. The year 2017 Financials are as follows:
- Year 2015 2016 2017
- PBIT $29.3m $26.6 $25.3m
- Finance Cost $4.8m $5.3m $5.5m
- PAT $17.2m $14.9m $13.9m
STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL POSITION
- Ordinary Shares ($1/share) $19m
- Retained profits $88.5m
- 8% Bonds redeemable in two years $107.5m
- Dividends of the company for the Year 2016 were $9.5m and will continue for the next couple of years. Share prices are as follows: the
- Year 2014 ($5.94), the Year 2015 ($5.10) ; Year 2016 ($4.59).
Q91. Calculate the interest cover for the year 2016? (MCQ)
- 4.6 times
- 5 times
- 6.1 times
- 6.6 times
Q92. Calculate the average change in PAT? (MCQ)
Q93. Calculate the shareholder return for the year 2015? (MCQ)
Q94. Calculate the debt to equity ratio? (MCQ)
Q95. Calculate the payout ratio for the year 2016? (MCQ)
- (2 marks)
TERP OPTIONS + SOURCES OF FINANCE
The following scenario relates to Q96-100.
Dafoe Co wants to raise finance for an investment project. The financial controller has asked for the right issue being the best option in raising the finance. The company currently has 6,000,000 shares ; has been profitable for its shareholders. It expects all shareholders will agree. The issue of right shares will be two new shares for every six held at a price of 80% of the existing market value. The market value is the cumulative right price of $16/share.
Gary, a shareholder is unhappy with discounts offered to the shareholders. He suggests that by looking at the prior year's performances the company should have its shareholders investing hefty amounts in the company.
Q96. Calculate the theoretical ex-rights price per share? (MCQ)
Q97. If assumed, that shares were offered at a 40% discount while raising the same amount of finance. What effects will it have on TERP? (MCQ)
- It would rise
- It would remain unchanged due to unchanged finance amount
- It would drastically fall
- It would fall
Q98. Select the appropriate option in relation to a discount of right issue. (HA)
- A deeply discounted shares are usually acceptable for all existing shareholders TRUE FALSE
The amount of discount is irrelevant until the shareholder exercises its right TRUE FALSE
Q99. Which of the following options is not suitable for a shareholder? (MCQ)
- Accepting the shares in order to resale it back in the market
Ignorance of the right issue
Propionate its shares into selling some shares & ignoring the rest
Acceptance of the right issue option
Q100. The dilution of control is one of the main concerns for an existing shareholder. Which option will be favorable for the shareholder? (MCQ)
- Accepting the right issue
- Sale of shares
- Diversifying in multiple options
- Do nothing
The following scenario relates to Q101-105.
Ramadi Co is a newly formed company. The company will manufacture a vast range of products. It wants to obtain sources of finance but is unable to decide which of the sources is appropriate. The options available are Equity & Debt. The company does not want to breach the sharia law as well & also keeps in mind any Islamic sources of finance.
Q101. Which of the following factors will need consideration before any option is selected? (MRQ)
- The relationship between risk & reward
- The liquidity position
- Trade Zones
- Accessibility to a financial institution
Q102. Which of the following equity option will have the highest price? (MCQ)
- Using the saved earnings
- Offering in a private bank
- Initial public offering
- Issuance of shares to existing shareholders
Q103. Which of the following debt sources contain no interest? (MCQ)
- Convertible bonds
- Hybrid bonds
- Zero coupon bonds
Q104. Which of the following will result in Riba becoming haram as per sharia law? (MCQ)
- Bearing the cost of extra payment over the capital amount even when there is no available income
- The distribution of funds fairly in the economy
- The rewards distributed will be based on the level of risk
- A lender claiming money above the capital amount only for the cost it incurred
Q105. Which of the following statement relates to Murabahah? (MCQ)
- The Rabb-ul-mal bearing all the losses
- Sale of a commodity for a deferred price
- Sale of a proportionate share in an asset
- The issue of shares by a company to its investors from its reserve free of charge
Scrip issue can make shares marketable by the issuance of more shares ultimately reducing market values TRUE A scrip issue holder will receive more cash than a normal shareholder FALSE
The script issue holder has more shares but instead, a fall in share prices compensates the extra benefit. An increase in marketability is one of the benefits of scrip issue.
- Interest cover = 26.6 ÷ 5.3 = 5 times
- Average change in PAT = [(13.9 ÷ 17.2) 1 ÷ (3-1) – 1] × 100 = (10.1) %
- Total shareholder return = [0.5 + (5.10 – 5.94)] ÷ 5.94 = (0.057)
(0.057) × 100 = (5.7%)
- Debt/Equity Ratio = (50 ÷ 107.5) × 100 = 46.5%
- Payout Ratio = (9.5 ÷ 14.9) × 100 = 64%
- Issue price = 16 × 80% = 12.8
- TERP = [(16 × 6m) + (12.8 × 2m)] ÷ (6m + 2m) = $15.2
- The numerator will decrease due to the discount and when divided by the number of shares, each share price will fall but not drastically.
- A deeply discounted shares are usually acceptable for all existing shareholders TRUE The amount of discount is irrelevant until the shareholder exercises its right TRUE The higher the discounted price of shares the more the shareholder willing to accept the shares.
- Ignoring the right issue will result in a loss of control as well decrease in the share price as when other shareholders exercise the right, the shares in the market increase which will result in the decrease in the price of each share.
- Accepting the right issue will have no effect on the control of a shareholder.
- The relationship between risk & reward
- The liquidity position
- Using the saved earnings (Retain earning, no attributed price)
- Offering in a private bank (Placing option usually very low price)
- Initial public offering (High price as per market)
- Issuance of shares to existing shareholders (a Right issue where discounts are offered)
The payment of the capital amount even having no source of income is transferring the total risk on the borrower which makes riba (interest) haram.
- The Rabb-ul-mal bearing all the losses (Mudaraba)
- Sale of a commodity for a deferred price (Murabahah)
- Sale of a proportionate share in an asset (Sukuk bonds)
- The issue of shares by a company to its investors from its reserve free of charge (Scrip Issue)
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