I have chosen the subject of HIV/AIDS. In this written assignment, Firstly, I will get down by presenting what are HIV and AIDS and the influence of them. Second, I will bring forth some figure of the universe and besides in Hong Kong. Then, I will utilize the biopsychosocial theoretical account to depict the causes of HIV. Last but non rent, I will discourse the wellness publicity and Motivation Strategies.
2. Definition of HIV and AIDS:
Definition of HIV
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The short term of Human Immunodeficiency Virus is called HIV which is a virus and it is reported by Dr. Luc Montagnier in 1983. They can non reproduce and turn by themselves, they have to trust on a life being and infect the cell of them in order to retroflex. Viruss normally are found and killed by the human immune system rapidly, nevertheless, HIV could straight assail the human immune system which would impact our organic structure wellness and can non acquire rid of a virus.
Definition of AIDS
AIDS - Acquires Immune Deficiency Syndrome which is caused by inflexion of HIV which would destruct the human ability to contend with the diseases and malignant neoplastic diseases. AIDS is non a individual disease and it combine with timeserving infection which would occupy the unrecorded organic structure easy when the immune system is destroyed.
Peoples with HIV are non equal to infect AIDS. For the people who inflect HIV can besides stay hibernating in organic structure for several old ages. During the average incubation period, for grownup, it would take ten old ages to develop AIDS on norm. And a batch of people with HIV may be unaware of their inflexion position and look healthy.
For the people who have infected HIV are they are higher hazard to acquire septic and malignances because the immune system is harm which is called 'opportunistic infects ' .
The most common HIV-related timeserving infections and diseases includes the bacterial diseases and protozoal diseases, fungous diseases, Viral diseases and HIV-associated malignances.
There are different status would look in different phase of HIV infection. For the first phase patient, they have higher rate to infect TB, bacterial pneumonia, malaria, staphylococcal tegument infections, herpes shingles and blood poisoning and more hard to retrieve. For the ulterior phase of the patient, the immune system is being more and more weak, it is easier for them to infect PCP, cryptococcosis and toxoplasmosis which can be fatal.
4. Figure of HIV/AIDS
HIV is a planetary epidemic. They affect different state of the universe. It could hold negative effects in households, communities and the whole states.
From the above saloon chart, we can happen that the figure of people populating with HIV addition from 8 million in1990 to 34 million in 2010. Besides, in recent old ages, the overall figure of growing of the epidemic has become more stable and the one-year figure of the new inflexion has continuously decreased because of the increasing figure of people has received antiretroviral therapy. Furthermore, AID-related deceases figure has besides lessening.
From the above saloon chart, it is clearly to see the bulk people populating with HIV is largely unrecorded in low and in-between income states, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa where has two-thirds of all septic people of the whole universe which carries the greatest load of the epidemic. Besides, South and South-East Asia is the 2nd highest figure of people who are infected HIV.
Figure in Hong Kong
This research is done by The Virtual AIDS Office ( VAO ) of Hong Kong. In Hong Kong, the first instance of HIV infection was reported in 1984. From the above artworks, we would happen that the figure of instance of people infected HIV maintain on increasing in recent old ages. The figure of instances has a mild bead in 2009 and 2010, nevertheless, the figure of instance in 2011 addition to a record high of 438 instances. Besides, it is clearly to happen the most inflexion were in grownup, male and Chinese. In 2011, there is 79 % of the reported instances were work forces and 66 % of reported instances is Chinese and the 83 % of the reported instances aged between 20-49 which is the highest.
This pie chart show the suspected path of HIV transmittal in 2011, we would happen that the big proportion of people acquiring septic HIV is from sexual transmittal which includes 39 % of homosexual, 27 % of heterosexual and 4 % of bisexual. Besides, 3.5 % is infected from blood contact which includes contaminated blood, blood merchandises and acerate leafs.
Transmission of HIV
- Sexual contact
During the sexual contact, the seeds or vaginal discharge of the inflected spouse would straight in contact with the mucose membrane of the male and female 's generative organ. Therefore, homosexual and homosexual contact can convey HIV, such as vaginal, unwritten or anal sex. And the hazard of HIV transmittal would increase when there is ulcer and blood during the sexual contact.
HIV would be transmitted by contaminated blood, blood merchandises and acerate leafs because there is the high concentration of HIV in blood of the people inflected.
It is common to happen that blood-borne transmittal of HIV frequently occurs when the drug users who infected HIV portion the acerate leafs with others. Besides, we would happen some instances in the wellness attention puting, such as needlestick hurts and the HIV transfuse to the blood or blood merchandise.
Mother to infant infection
During gestation, bringing or breasting eating, there is 15-40 % alteration that HIV can convey the baby if the female parent is infected.
There are a batch of psychological causes would increase the hazard of HIV. For illustrations, the personal depression, self-destructive ideas, deficiency of slumber would take to an addition of emphasis and may do some psychiatric jobs which would decelerate down our immune systems and we have to put more discoloration on it. Besides, for the people who have infected HIV it would take to high HIV viral tonss. Furthermore, addition of emphasis will do a batch of jobs. When people acquiring more and more nerve-racking, some people may take to travel to the recreational topographic point to loosen up themselves, such as clubbing, saloon and game centre. It is easier for them to run into some bad friend and they may misdirect them to take the drugs or have the sexual relation which would increase the hazard of HIV transmittal, such as blood contact and sexual contact.
In add-on, for the people who have infected HIV, eating wont would besides impact the procedure from HIV to AIDS which is base on the diet of the patient. It would be faster if the patient is malnourished.
- For the underdeveloped state
In the underdeveloped state, there is a deficiency of antiretroviral interventions and hapless wellness attention system which leads to the rate of people septic HIV remains in a high degree. Peoples in the development states are unawareness of HIV,
For the modern society
In the modern society, people are more open-minded. A batch of people may take to travel to the nine or saloon to loosen up after work and they may believe there is nil job to hold sex with person and it would take to an addition to the figure of people acquiring sexual contact.
The mass media ever play the cardinal function of the whole society and it would impact the head of the citizen. In the modern society, one of the causes that people acquiring more and more open-minded is affect by the media. Although they are non aim to direct whose messages to them, but when they watch the films or a Television programmes that the histrions can easy hold the sexual relation to others or they are taking drugs which would straight impact their head and they may desire to copy. It would increase the hazard of infect HIV through blood contact and sexual contact.
6. Health publicity
- Information and instruction
The effectual AIDS programme should advance the information and proviso of instruction which is the cardinal requirements. It should cover the all sectors of the society and educate them in a manner that they can easy understand and acceptable. Besides, it should be put attempt continuously to accomplish the result.
HIV and AIDS instruction in schools
For educating the immature about HIV and AIDS, the most common topographic point is to larn from school which is a important scene to educate the immature. School normally pays an of import function in determining the young person 's attitudes, sentiments and behaviour. Therefore, learning in school about the biological facets of HIV and AIDS is ideal environment for learning the societal.
HIV and AIDS instruction in the workplace
To forestall HIV/AIDS, the cardinal location is to educate them in the workplace. It is an of import manner to give them the information about what are HIV/AIDS, the causes and some bar. Besides, learning them at the workplace can make people who have non larn it before at school. Furthermore, there are some researches found that there are nine out of 10 people who are infected HIV are working. Therefore, supplying instruction at the workplace can assist the people live healthier.
For the authorities, they can advance some plans of the International Labour Organization ( ILO ) for some company to fall in. One of the purpose of the International Labour Organization is to advance different prevent solutions at the workplace and back up the workers with HIV, such as supplying intervention and attention.
-HIV and AIDS instruction through the mass media
Besides the other effectual manner is educating the populace through the mass media. Mass media ever play the cardinal function in a batch of states in respond to HIV and AIDS. For illustration, UK authorities in order to raise the consciousness of the populace about the HIV and AIDS, they use the progamme called 'blanket instruction ' which make good usage of the mass media that can cover the whole society, and it is truly successful in advancing HIV and AIDS.
-Clinical and support service
Information and instruction is non sufficient to inform to public. The most critical measure is to supply the guidance, advice, medical interventions and support services which should besides cover the whole society, particularly for whole who are high hazard to infect HIV, such as the drugs users, commercial sex workers. These interventions and services are both indispensable to the AIDS programme which can contend against the disease.
For illustration, for the bar of sexual Transmission of HIV, there are some sexually transmitted diseases ( STD ) clinics can advance some AIDS information and instruction to be informed to the patients, such as inform the people who have high hazard of infecting HIV should hold a regular trial. Besides, an effectual AIDS programme should develop some wellness professional to supply effectual interventions to the patients.
7. Motivation Schemes
-For the people who have non inflect HIV
To forestall sexual contact
Apart from abstention, safe sex should be reciprocally monogamous sexual relationship with an clean individual. If you do non cognize your spouse is affected or non, you should utilize the rubbers from the beginning whatever which types of sexual intercourse. Using rubbers can cut down the hazard of infecting HIV. To protect yourself and to love your sexual spouse, rubbers have to utilize decently and systematically.
To forestall blood contact
For drug user:
There are 4 things that they can make to forestall the blood contact.
First, they should avoid taking drugs and every bit shortly as possible to seek the drug intervention and rehabilitation services. Second, if person can non avoid taking drug instantly, the shooting method of taking drugs should be adopted and they should fall in the dolophine hydrochloride intervention programme. Third, if the drug users can non halt to shooting drugs, they should non portion panpipes and acerate leafs to other and they should utilize once-only panpipes and acerate leafs. Last, if the drugs users do non hold their ain syringe and acerate leafs, they should utilize bleach to unclutter the syringe twice and twice with H2O to avoid infection.
For wellness attention workers:
In the wellness attention puting, wellness attention workers are easier to hold some blood borne diseases such as HIV through needlestick hurt. If the accident occurs, to cut down the hazard of infection, first-aid direction is really of import. Furthermore, the most effectual manner to cut down the hazard of infection is to utilize cosmopolitan safeguards to all patients, such as have oning the protective barriers and rinsing manus often.
To forestall female parent to infant infection
For the adult females who are sing holding a babe or have been pregnant, if they are suspected to be infected with HIV, they should speak to their physicians or the AIDS counsellor and should hold an HIV antibody trial.
Furthermore, to forestall mother-to-child transmittal, there is a manner to utilize antiretroviral drugs which can cut down the hazard of the kid acquiring septic HIV.
For the people infected HIV:
Have the Medical direction of HIV infection
Although from now on, there is no such method to root up the disease, but there is some intervention have been made of AIDS. It includes two types, one is the antiretroviral drugs acceptance which can command the activities of the HIV, aid to reconstruct the unsusceptibility maps and minimise the harmful consequence of the virus. The other 1 is to hold some intervention and prophylaxis to minimise the hazard of timeserving infection. Using the above methods can better the wellness of the septic people and better their measure of life and endurance in people. Therefore, for the people infected, they should hold the regular medical followup for monitoring of the disease, so that the wellness attention professional can follow the instances. It can observe the complications earlier and have appropriate intervention which can better the endurance alteration.
Control your emotion
When the patients face the unwellness of HIV/AIDS, they must experience fear, uncertainness, guilt, anxiousness, choler and depression. However, it may something decline the state of affairs. Therefore, they should non deny their feeling. Ventilation of feeling may assist them to deciding the emotional job. You may portion your feeling and concern to person you trust. They may besides seek to derive reding support, there will be the societal worker to assist you.
To reason, from the above transitions, we would establish that the figure of people acquiring septic HIV is remind in a high degree. And the causes can divide into the biological, such as the transmittal of HIV, psychological, such as the emphasis and eating wont and sociological causes which depend on the different states and society. Furthermore, there is some wellness publicity which should educate the populace and supply some clinical intervention and services to them. Last, we have discussed the motive schemes which design for the people have non inflected and the patient with HIV. And I believe that with the above methods, the jobs of HIV/AIDS would be improved in foreseeable farther.
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