Last Updated 15 Apr 2020

Csr of Mnc

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Table of Contents INTRODUCTION1 UNILEVER2 PHILANTHROPY DETAILS2 CSR IN BUSINESS PROCESS3 DEALING WITH SUPPLIERS3 CONTRIBUTING TO THE COMMUNITY4 REDUCTION IN ACCIDENT RATE4 SOURCING OF RAW MATERIAL4 SIGNATORY ISSUES5 AWARDS5 UNILEVER IN INDIA5 PROJECT SHAKTI5 SANJIVINI6 PROCTER & GAMBLE6 PHILANTHROPY DETAILS7 CSR IN BUSINESS PROCESS8 CSR: COMPANY POLICIES9 INDUSTRY ANALYSIS (FMCG)10 CITIGROUP INC. 11 PHILANTHROPY DETAILS11 FINANCIAL LITERACY11 Microfinance12 Community Relations12 ‘Plant-a-Tree’ initiative12 CSR IN BUSINESS PROCESS12 Diversity12 Technology13

Climate Change13 Environment and Social Risk Management Policy (ESRM)14 SIGNATORY INITIATIVES14 HSBC15 CSR AT HSBC15 GLOBAL EDUCATION PROGRAMMES16 INDUSTRY ANALYSIS (BANKING)18 VODAFONE19 CSR IN BUSINESS PROCESS19 COMPLIANCE WITH GRI GUIDELINES22 CONCLUSION23 REFERENCES24 Introduction Within the world of business, the main “responsibility” for corporations has historically been to make money and increase shareholder value. Although for decades, business has also been engaged in charity, philanthropy, and civic activities including social investments in health.

Many times these investments were less than strategic, and were not directed to real social change. Is then Corporate social responsibility planting trees in some vague corner of the world or supporting a certain cause? Today, business understands “doing well by doing good,” In the last few years, a movement defining broader corporate responsibilities– for the environment, for local communities, for working conditions, and for ethical practices–has gathered momentum and taken hold. The era of new corporate responsibilities have emerged.

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Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is about how businesses align their values and behavior with the expectations and needs of stakeholders - not just customers and investors, but also employees, suppliers, communities, regulators, special interest groups and society as a whole. CSR demands that businesses manage the economic, social and environmental impacts of their operations to maximize the benefits and minimize the downsides. CSR is not only about fulfilling a duty to society; it should also bring competitive advantage. Through an effective CSR programme, companies can: •improve access to capital sharpen decision-making and reduce risk •enhance brand image •uncover previously hidden commercial opportunities, including new markets •reduce costs •attract, retain and motivate employees But in India most of the CSR Activities are philanthropic in nature, but globally it forms only a small percentage of total CSR. What if Indian companies also started looking at CSR as more than money donations and can we push them. this where CSRidentity is positioning itself. CSRIdentity is a resource that can be used to •teach managers and to-be-managers about "the real" CSR provide a tool/resource/database for CSR depts to refer to for CSR activities •Highlight "good" CSR practices from cos. to motivate them •use this to motivate Indian cos to match global standards CSRidentity. com Services a. Project identity for the corporate b. Project identity for the brands c. NGO Research d. CSR Research The first purpose of CSRidentity. com is to build capacity of the corporates on CSR. And the second purpose is to help corporates project their identity. The portal takes the mode of information, research, analysis, views and interviews.

It invites thought leaders to share a path which can be followed by others, share innovations in business, and share what went wrong. And while doing this, it will ensure that corporates think of the larger purpose than being myopic money makers. CSRidentity. com has rich information on CSR in philanthropy, CSR in business processes, CSR policies, Global trends in CSR ... It plan to share CSR case studies of all the global fortune 500 companies, leading 200 Indian companies & SMEs, and leading companies in about 20 countries. Each case study offers great learning and replication potential.

Unilever Unilever is a Fortune 500 company and a global leader in the Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) category. As Unilever products touch a huge number of consumers worldwide every day, the company believes it has an opportunity to impact many lives through its CSR program. Globally Unilever lays more emphasis on CSR in the true sense i. e. a reduced emphasis on philanthropy. To ensure this, all brand managers in Unilever constantly work towards initiating CSR Initiatives for their brand to reduce the impact of its brands on the environment.

Mission : Unilever’s mission is to add Vitality to life. To meet everyday needs for nutrition, hygiene and personal care with brands that help people feel good, look good and get more out of life. To understand the vast program, it has been categorised into sub categories which include initiatives in Philanthropy, Business Processes, Impact on Environment, Company Policies and Signatory Issues. Philanthropy Details Food Donation In 2005, nearly two billion pounds of food and grocery products were provided through the Second Harvest network.

Available through food pantries, soup kitchens, emergency shelters and other distributions centres, the foods helped over 25 million Americans stave off the risk of hunger. Nine million of these were children. Unilever's product donations made up 7. 6 million pounds of the charity's total food basket – a threefold increase on our previous year's donation. In total, Unilever US gives away products worth around $12. 5 million every year, around 70% of which goes to the Second Harvest's hunger-relief work. Donations during Natural Disasters – Katrina and Rita

Unilever donated $1 million to relief efforts following the hurricanes - divided equally between the American Red Cross and the Salvation Army. Employees also dug deep, contributing over $600,000 as part of a matching-gift programme. Conservation of National Parks In May 2008, Unilever contributed grants of over $240,000 to 12 national parks across the United States in an effort to aid wild life preservation. Orphaned and Abused Child Welfare Unilever donated an industrial washing machine to the Durban’s Children Society which is a care centre for children in the age group of 8-18 years and have been orphaned, abused or neglected.

The washing machine helps fulfil the cleaning needs for over 60 children in the society on a daily basis. Child Education Unilever donated $1 million for the Families of Freedom Scholarship fund – a fund initiated to assist the education of children who lost parents to the September 11 attacks. CSR in Business Process Nutrition Value in Food Products Unilever initiated the Nutritional Enhancement Programme to improve the nutritional quality of food and beverage products by assessing the level of four nutrients (based on international guidelines) – Saturated Fats, Trans Fats, Salt and Sugar.

The move has resulted in several changes in products like: •Reduction of 20% added sugar in brands for children such as twister •Reduction in salt levels in soup products from European markets by 10% •Breyers Ice cream launched a fat free range in North America with 50% less saturated fats Initiating Hygiene Unilever believes in developing products that would deliver benefits to people and make a difference to their health while promoting best practices for hygiene by partnering with local, government and international bodies.

Behaviour change is a high priority on Unilever’s campaign and includes The Global Handwashing Day Campaign by Lifebuoy, Safe Drinking Water – Pureit, Improving Oral Health Care – Pepsodent and Close Up, Enhancing Self Esteem and Better Skin – Dove and Vaseline. Influence on Consumers Includes inculcating best practices among consumers (Hygiene Campaign), Promoting outdoor learning and development in children (Dirt is Good Campaign), breaking stereotypes (Dove’s Real Beauty Campaign) Dealing with Employees

The company lays emphasis on certain key areas of employees such as Leadership Development, Health and Safety of Employees, People Vitality, Global Diversity, Continued focus on Gender, Diversity Planning and Listening to employees. Dealing with Suppliers The expectations of Unilever’s suppliers are codified in the Business Partner Code. It specifies guidelines which suppliers must follow in order to continue business with Unilever which include health and safety of workers, labour standards, consumer safety and impact on the environment. Unilever also conducts a Supplier Audit Programme to identify areas of improvement and non compliance.

Contributing to the Community Unilever measures its contribution to the community using the London Benchmarking Group model. In 2008 a total of 91 million Euros was contributed to commercial initiatives in the community (27%), social investment (35%) and charitable donations (38%) with the greatest emphasis on health (52%) and Educations (13%). Reduction in accident rate Unilever has continuously strived to reduce the accident rate at its production centres. It has succeeded in reducing the accident rate from 0. 26 to 0. 21 per 100,000 hours worked over one year. CSR in Company Policies

Advertising The company policy restricts marketers from using ‘size zero’ models in any of the ad campaigns of Unilever. Sourcing of Raw Material Unilever has decided to purchase all palm oil from certified sustainable sources only, in this regard it has already purchased the first batch in November 2008. It has also decided to procure tea for Lipton bags only from Rainforest Alliance Certified farms by 2015. Choice of Suppliers Unilever has a stringent expectations manual which their suppliers are expected to adhere to, if they wish to continue business with Unilever.

The company has identified eleven parameters for the suppliers to adhere under the sustainable agriculture policy. Already a third of the suppliers have registered with the electronic system to adhere to the norms. CO2 Emission control The company has targeted to reduce emission by 25% measured per tonne from production plan by 2012. Water Conservation The company has also committed to reduce water usage in the production process, during the years 1995-08 the company has reduced water consumption by 63%. It has also introduced product variants like Surf in India which equired less water to wash clothes to conserve water. PVC Usage The company has decided to eliminate the use of PVC (where sustainable alternatives are available) in an effort to reduce the impact of PVC on the environment. Waste Reduction Through the continuous efforts of the company, the production process has reduced its waste per tonne of production by 68% in the 1995-2008 period. Signatory Issues Global Compact Unilever has instituted a senior management position to ensure that labour standards are upheld and the company continues to support the UN Global Compact’s principles on human and labour rights.

This aspect has been given high priority by the executive committee. GRI The assessment of Unilever’s Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) reporting has been certified to be B+. The same has been verified by third party – Corporate Citizenship. Awards •Awarded Two ‘Good Egg’ awards by Animal Welfare NGO Compassion in World Farming in recognition of their decision to source eggs only from cage free sources •Unilever was awarded for the tenth year running, the leader in food sector in the Dow Jones Sustainability Index. Secured the Platinum standard award in the UK Business Community Corporate Responsibility Index •Included in Global 100 Most Sustainable corporations in the world for the fifth year running, a 2009 list compiled by Corporate Knights and Innovest Strategic Value Advisors •Gained joint first place in VBDO (Association for Investors in Sustainable Enterprises) 2008 rating for sustainable supply chain management, ahead of 34 other companies listed on the Dutch Stock Exchange Unilever in India Commitment to UN Global Compact

HUL has separately reaffirmed its commitment to the UN Global Compact and its ten principles. They support institutionalization of the principles enshrined in the Global compact amongst companies in India and are a founder member of the UN Global Compact Society of India. Project Shakti Hindustan Unilever's Project Shakti is a rural initiative that targets small villages populated by less than 2000 individuals. It is a unique win-win initiative that catalyses rural affluence even as it benefits business. Lifebuoy Swastya Chetna

Lifebuoy Swastya Chetna (LBSC) is a rural health and hygiene initiative which was started in 2002. LBSC was initiated in media dark villages (in UP, MP, Bihar, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Orissa) with the objective of spreading awareness about the importance of washing hands with soap. Fair and Lovely Foundation The Fair & Lovely (FAL) Foundation aims at economic empowerment of women across India by providing information, resources and support in the areas of education, career and enterprise. It specifically targets women from low-income groups.

Sanjivini HUL started Sanjivani – a free mobile medical service camp in the year 2003 near its Doom Dooma factory in Assam. The aim was to provide free mobile medical facility to the interior villagers in Assam. This was done keeping in mind the lack of quality medical facilities available in the villages in and around Doom Dooma. PROCTER & GAMBLE Procter & Gamble Co. is a Fortune 500, American MNC headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio As of 2008, P is the 8th largest corporation in the world by market capitalization and 14th largest by profit.

It manufactures a wide range of consumer goods. It has one of the strongest portfolios of trusted, quality, leadership brands including Pampers, Tide, Ariel, Always, Whisper, Pantene, MACH3, Bounty, Dawn, Gain, Pringles, Folgers, Charmin, Downy, Lenor, Iams, Crest, Oral-B, Actonel, Duracell, Olay, Head & Shoulders, wella, Gillette, Braun, and Fusion Vision: Be, and be recognized as, the best consumer products and services company in the world. Purpose: Company wants to be the innovation leader in every business, product category and country where P competes.

P views sustainability as a significant responsibility — and a continual source of opportunity. 2012 SUSTAINABILITY GOALS OF P Strategy 1: Products Develop and market at least $20 billion in cumulative sales of “sustainable innovation products,” which are products with a significantly reduced (;10%) environmental footprint versus previous or alternative products. Strategy 2: Operations Deliver an additional 10% reduction (per unit production) in CO2 emissions, energy consumption, water consumption and disposed waste from P plants, leading to a total reduction over the decade of at least 40%.

Strategy 3: Social Responsibility Enable 250 million children to Live, Learn and Thrive. Prevent 80 million days of disease and save 10,000 lives by delivering 2 billion liters of clean water through Children’s Safe Drinking Water program Strategy 4: Employees Engage and equip all P employees to build sustainability thinking and practices into their everyday work. Strategy 5: Stakeholders Shape the future by working transparently with stakeholders to enable continued freedom to innovate in a responsible way. P follows CSR activities in following categories Philanthropy Details

Education Over the past 12 years, P has built over 140 schools across rural China, helping tens of thousands of children access better education facilities and an improved learning environment. Through this program, P builds and maintains facilities, trains teachers, and provides health and hygiene education programs. P Hope Schools engage employees on multiple levels, even encouraging participation from employees’ families. It uses cause-related marketing efforts, more than 320,000 retail outlets and 100 million consumers have also supported P Hope Schools.

Shiksha (India) Through Shiksha, which means “education,” P is providing children in 15 cities and 75 villages across India with access to education. This program commits a portion from the sale of P brands toward the education of children in need in India. P India has also launched the Shiksha Ambassador Program, allowing employees to lead a word-of-mouth campaign to raise awareness of the issue. Infant health Pampers/1 Pack = 1 Vaccine campaign helps babies in underdeveloped regions, especially Africa, get off to a healthy start.

Each time a consumer purchases a package of Pampers, a vaccination is provided via UNICEF to a child in need. So far, more than 50 million vaccinations have been funded. P hopes to eradicate maternal and neonatal tetanus through this effort, saving tens of millions of lives. Safe Drinking Water Children’s Safe Drinking Water initiative provides safe drinking water for children in need around the world, with an emphasis in Africa. It provides emergency relief and establishes safe drinking water technology to children and their families.

This program is on the ground in developing nations such as Uganda, Kenya and Malawi. Thus far, technology has provided more than a billion liters of clean drinking water. Goal is to provide up to 2 billion liters of water by 2012. Community Welfare Enfance Mal-Logee (France) Program supports families with children living in sub-standard housing. This Live, Learn and Thrive program helps move families from sub-standard living conditions to safe, accessible housing, allowing children to stay with their families rather than being placed in orphanages. T. O. U. C. H. Together for Our Community Here) program has resulted in thousands of hours of voluntary work to help disabled, sick, and underprivileged children in Geneva. CSR In Business Process Waste Management P Gattatico Plant instituted a “War on Waste” program in January 2008 to reduce the trend in liquid waste due to increasing change-over sanitizations as production lines “produced to demand. ” Gattatico is a waste “lead site” for EMEA. At the end of FY 07/08 the site avoided 3,000 tons of disposed liquid waste. By the end of FY 08/09 they plan to reduce by another 2,200 tons.

This plan will have over a 50 percent reduction impact on the waste footprint by FY11/12. The key interventions include: recycling wash water back into the process; improved washout procedures; and adding wastewater treatment to reduce the COD levels prior to sewer discharge. Energy saving and Emission reduction P operations pioneered breakthrough technologies to reduce energy consumption. Among the simple, low-cost steps were the following: oUsing water spray instead of electric power to cool water oRecovering waste heat from washout and sanitization water Using high-efficiency long-life lighting Over the year, these changes helped to reduce mean output energy by 6 –10 percent for each site. They are currently being reapplied across other business units. In addition, energy training and energy audits were conducted at all sites this year, making each self-sufficient in delivering sustainability opportunities. There has been a decrease over the past three years in CO2 (Direct): 2. 9 million metric tons, 2. 9 million metric tons and 2. 8 million metric tons in 2006, 2007 and 2008, respectively.

Also there has been a decrease over the past three years in water consumption: 91 million m3, 90 million m3 and 87 million m3 in 2006, 2007 and 2008, respectively. Technology/ Information Technology Managing innovation sustainably begins with the use of comprehensive analysis tools. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) generates a complete environmental footprint, extending beyond carbon impact to measure total energy and water use and waste production. Also included are the impacts of consumer use of P products, as well as all emissions into the air, water and land.

This detailed review pinpoint areas where our innovation efforts can be most effective. Recycle At manufacturing site for perfume in Avenel, New Jersey, P developed a new process for blending scrap material for reprocessing as an ingredient for potpourri. As a result, annual generation of scrap waste at the site has dropped from 50,000 kg to zero. Each site monitors total suspended particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur oxides (SOx). Overall, the total air emissions decreased from last year to 15. 9 thousand metric tons.

P continues to find innovative recycling methods to change the trend to be more efficient. CSR: Company Policies Disclosure policy Disclosure controls are systems and processes that help ensure that important information is made available to the right people at the right time. The Company requires every area of the business to maintain disclosure controls to provide adequate assurance that significant information is reported to the appropriate levels of the Company – so that the appropriate business steps can be taken to address any issues, and so that the Company can consider whether the information should be disclosed externally

Antitrust Policy and Compliance Guidelines Antitrust laws are designed to prohibit agreements among companies that fix prices, divide markets, limit production or otherwise impede or destroy market forces. P policy is that all employees strictly comply with antitrust laws and the competition and anti-monopoly laws of all countries, states and localities in which they conduct P business. Supervisors and managers are responsible for ensuring that employees under their responsibility are aware of and comply with this policy. Child Labor and Worker Exploitation Policy P does not use child or forced labor in any of our global operations or acilities. P do not tolerate unacceptable worker treatment, such as exploitation of children, physical punishment or abuse, or involuntary servitude. The Company respects employees’ right to freedom of association, third party consultation and collective bargaining where all P by law. P expect our suppliers and contractors with whom P do business to uphold the same standards. HIV/AIDS Policy All employees, including those who are HIV infected or with AIDS, are treated consistently with the Company's Purpose, Values & Principles (PVP) by the Company, their managers and coworkers.

P&G treat employees with HIV/AIDS the same as P&G treat those with other serious illnesses. Specifically, an employee who is HIV-infected or with AIDS: have the same employment rights and responsibilities as other employees, has the same eligibility for employee benefits and programs, including medical care and disability coverage, as non-infected employees, is afforded privacy and confidentiality protection consistent with the Company's handling of confidential, medical or other sensitive information, and is provided management support to remain productive Fair Competition

P compete strictly on the merits of our products and services and make no attempts to restrain or limit trade. P do not enter into agreements with competitors concerning prices, production volumes, customers or sales territories. P do not disparage the products or services of a competitor. P collect competitive information through proper public or other lawful channels but do not use information that was obtained illegally or improperly by others, including through misrepresentation, invasion of property or privacy, or coercion. Advertising/Promotion Policies

Neither deceptive advertising nor questionable promotional activity can ever be justified. These are vital tenets of P dedication to consumers and essential to gaining and keeping their continuing loyalty to our brands. P observes standards of commercial fairness in devising, using and selecting advertising and promotions, so the products succeed based on their own quality and performance and our reputation as a company, rather than by false or deceptive statements or comparisons. AWARDS 1. In December of 2007, P was honored with the highly prestigious Presidential Ron Brown Award for Corporate Leadership. . International Health Communication Gold Medallion Award, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health — for building market-based relationships that sustain and deliver safe drinking water. 3. Children’s Environmental Health Excellence Award, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency for outstanding leadership in protecting children from environmental risk. 4. Global Leadership Award, United Nations Association of the USA — in part, for providing clean water for millions around the world through the Children’s Safe Drinking Water program.

Report is prepared using the Global Reporting Initiative’s (GRI) G3 Guidelines. INDUSTRY ANALYSIS (FMCG) FMCG industry primarily deals with the production, distribution and marketing of consumer packaged goods. Some of the prime activities of FMCG industry are selling, marketing, financing, purchasing, etc. The industry also engaged in operations, supply chain, production and general management. With increased competitiveness in the sector, it is critical for an each organization to leverage its social activities in order to gain a competitive advantage.

The increased credibility and goodwill earned from the customers and associates is an invaluable intangible asset for the FMCG organization. CSR has now become a part of the corporate strategy thinking. A CSR activity of FMCG companies generally involves improving their processes and brings out change through policy measures. Most of the companies use communication medium and channels partners to showcase their activities and sensitize the population about the issue. Global FMCG companies have presence in more than 50 countries and CSR activities are designed according to the local issues and problems.

Business Process: Innovation is the key for P and through innovation company brings efficiency in overall operations. Use of technology to reduce the inventory, waste management and emission reduction issues are some of the activities undertaken. Unilever mainly concentrates on providing more nutritional value to its product and promoting good practices for hygiene. Unilever is also involved in waste management and emission reduction. Company policies: P strongly advocates CSR through its policies and follows the same across all the offices and manufacturing units.

Providing right information to consumers, no discrimination of employees on social status or on health issues like AIDS. Unilever mainly controls its supply chain through strict policy measures and make them also socially responsible. Philanthropy Most of the P activities across the globe concentrate on Child welfare. Through Live, Learn and Thrive Program Company provides education, scholarship, safe drinking water to millions of children. Unilever is providing to relief to disaster affected areas.

Also wild life preservation and environment conservation initiatives are undertaken. CITIGROUP INC. About the Company: Citigroup Inc. , a global financial services company, provides consumers, corporations, governments, and institutions with a range of financial products and services, including consumer banking and credit, corporate and investment banking, securities brokerage, and wealth management. The core citizenship priorities of Citi include microfinance, financial education and asset preservation, and the environment.

These are the areas in which Citi holds specific expertise and has an opportunity to make a material difference. We will be discussing the CSR activities undertaken by Citi under two major heads – philanthropy and CSR in business practices. Philanthropy Details Financial literacy The Citi Foundation supports programs that provide individuals with access to knowledge and incentives that help them take control of their financial future by making informed decisions, acquiring and preserving financial assets, and responding to major life events that can affect income and expenses.

The specific goals of Citi Foundation program are: •Invest over $200 million over ten years in financial education; •Support programs to help low income families build and preserve assets. Performance highlights for 2008: Total funding till date has been $149 million. In 2008 alone, Citi invested $28 million in 73 countries. The total number of individuals reached through this program by the year 2008 is 22,344,441. Microfinance The Citi Foundation has been supporting the expansion and evolution of the microfinance industry for decades.

Its approach is to: •Expand outreach to millions more low-income borrowers •Build and preserve borrowers’ assets via savings, housing finance, remittances, insurance, and financial education •Build global awareness of microfinance as an effective poverty alleviation tool The highlights of the microfinance initiative of Citi are as follows: Citi Foundation sponsored the Microfinance Banana Skins Survey 2009 that describes the risks facing the microfinance industry. Citi launched an innovative micro-savings product called Citibank Pragati in India.

It utilizes a biometric ATM, which can identify customers not only on the basis of a card and a pin, but also by their fingerprints, and it displays and speaks to customers in up to six languages. On May 9, 2007, SKS Microfinance and Citibank announced a $40 Million (Rs. 180 crores) financing program involving Citibank India purchasing loans that are originated by SKS. Community Relations Under its community relations initiative, one of the major programs of Citi has been its Office of Homeownership Preservation (OHP).

Through this, Citi is working hard to keep distressed homeowners whose mortgages it owns or services in their homes and out of foreclosure. It established its Office of Homeownership Preservation (OHP) in 2007, as the foreclosure crisis began to emerge. This initiative has helped approximately 440,000 homeowners since 2007 through loss mitigation and proactive loan modification. In the year 2008 OHP: •Reached out to 88,000 borrowers •Participated in 106 borrower outreach program in 72 cities •Trained more than 600 counselors from 304 non-profit organisations •Worked with 18,240 borrowers to find foreclosure solutions ‘Plant-a-Tree’ initiative

In April 2007, Citi adopted a ‘Plant-a-Tree’ initiative to create environmental awareness by encouraging its credit card holders to switch to paperless statements, planting a tree for each conversion made. CSR in business process Diversity Citi strives to be an ‘Employer of Choice’ by: a. Hiring, training, mentoring and championing individuals from diverse backgrounds. b. Offering training to employees on topics such as “Championing Diversity," “Valuing Diversity and Inclusion at Citi" and “Leadership Through the Lens of Diversity. " It strives to be a ‘Business Partner of Choice’ by a.

Maintaining a diverse supplier base. Its supplier diversity team tries to identify and hire qualified business enterprises owned by minorities, women, and people with disabilities, veterans and disabled veterans. Energy Citi has undertaken various initiatives to conserve energy by following certain practices in its business process. It has developed a ‘Green Energy Community Investment Fund’ which supports the installation of solar electric systems on commercial buildings, especially the ones which are under privileged. Also, between the year 2006 and 2008, it centralized its recycling of e-waste operations in New York.

More than 0. 1 million devices were recycled between these two years itself. Citi is also looking at increasing the component of purchases with recycled content in its office supplies. In the year 2008, it increased from 33% to 38%. Employees Citi is particularly focused towards its employees. It provides Employee Assistance Plan (EAP) to help employees manage stresses related to job loss, personal counseling etc. It also offers Flexible Work Strategies program through which the employees can decide when they want, from where they want and how they want to work.

Technology In the year 2008, Citi launched ‘log off for Savings’ program. This program involves centrally managing PC sleep settings. This initiative would cut down GHG emissions and save costs too. Another of its initiative, Desktop Standardization Initiative (DSI) deployed ‘Thin Client’ technology which uses anywhere from 6 to 50 watts, versus the 150 to 350 watts used by a standard PC. Citi also plans to reduce number of overall datacenters from 52 to 24. In the year 2008, it has come down to 32 datacenters.

Citi has also been adopting ‘virtualization’ to reduce the need for physical resources. It is also trying to conserve energy resources through travel substitution by Using Tele- and video conferencing wherever possible. Climate Change On May 8, 2007, Citi announced that it will direct $50 billion over the next 10 years to address global climate change through investments, financings and related activities to support the commercialization and growth of alternative energy and clean technology among the clients and markets it serves, as well as within its own businesses and operations.

In 2008, Citi eliminated six million square feet of office space through the Alternative Workplace Strategies program. Environment and Social Risk Management Policy (ESRM) This policy was developed in 2003 to help address environmental and social issues from both a credit risk perspective and a reputation and franchise risk perspective. The CMB ESRM Policy’s core elements are based on the Equator Principles. The ESRM policy assesses the proceeds from the financial transactions into three categories: ? Category A: Use of proceeds is expected to have a significant adverse impact on society and/or environment. Category B: Use of the proceeds is expected to have limited adverse impact on society and/or environment. ?Category C: Use of proceeds is expected to have minimal adverse impacts. Signatory initiatives Equator Principles In adopting the Equator Principles, Citi agreed to provide loans only to those projects whose borrowers can demonstrate their ability and willingness to comply with comprehensive processes aimed at ensuring that projects are developed in a socially responsible manner and according to sound environmental management practices.

Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Citi uses Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) G3 Sustainability Guidelines in Citi’s 2008 Citizenship Report. It is a self-declaring a “B” Application level. The carbon Principles Through its commitment towards the Carbon Principles, Citi has sworn in to •Encourage investments in cost effective demand reduction to reduce the amount of CO2 emissions. •Encourage clients to invest in cost effective renewable sources of energy and distributed technologies. Assess and reflect the risks in the financing of certain fossil fuel generation in the light of the need to substantially reduce greenhouse gas pollution through its Enhanced Due Diligence process. On September 14, 2009, Citi announced that it has been included in the Dow Jones Sustainability World Index (DJSI) for the ninth consecutive year, affirming Citi's position as a global sustainability leader. Associations Citi has many NGO partners: Friends of the Earth (U. S. ), EcoLogic Finance, Forest Trends, Rainforest Action Network, Wildlife Habitat Council, World Wildlife Fund etc. Awards Citizenship

Best Corporate Citizen, Second Place in Foreign Company Category Common Wealth Magazine, Taiwan Best Bank for Corporate Social Responsibility The Bank of the Year Competition, Hungary Honorable Mention for Best CSR Award Taiwan Academy of Banking and Finance Diversity 100% Corporate Equality Index Human Rights Campaign (United States) – fifth time on the list Employees Best Flexible Work Practices Hong Kong HR Awards 2008 The City Foundation The Citi Foundation is committed to the economic empowerment of individuals and families, particularly those in need, in the communities where it works so that they can improve their standard of living.

Citi is particularly interested in supporting program innovations in the following priority focus areas: Microfinance: Help individuals and families improve their lives through economic self-sufficiency and reduce financial vulnerability Small and Growing Businesses: To create employment opportunities and support broad economic growth Education programs: To help improve quality and access to primary and secondary education in Citi markets internationally, and in the United States programs that increase the number of low-income and first-generation students who enroll in postsecondary education and earn a degree Financial Education and Asset Building: To help individuals and families develop the knowledge they need to achieve financial stability HSBC HSBC Holdings plc is a public limited company incorporated in England and Wales in 1990, and headquartered in London since 1993.

As of 2009, it is both the world's largest banking group and the world's 6th largest company according to a composite measure by Forbes magazine. HSBC has an enormous operational base in Asia and significant lending, investment, and insurance activities around the world. The company has a global reach and financial fundamentals matched by few other banking or financial multinationals CSR at HSBC The focus of HSBC’s work on environmental issues primarily addresses the risks and opportunities associated with climate change and natural resources, including energy, water management, waste and biodiversity. The social initiatives they prioritise include making financial services available more widely and providing access to education.

HSBC believe this is the best way to help communities build capacity, financial independence and long-term prosperity. Sustainability at HSBC is overseen by the Corporate Sustainability Committee of the HSBC Holdings Board. The Corporate Sustainability Committee is responsible for advising the HSBC Holdings Board, committees of the Board and executive management on sustainability policies, including environmental, social and ethical issues. Focus Area The main focus of HSBC’s commitments is on two main themes – education and the environment. HSBC believes that we are dependent upon the skills of future generations; if we do not prepare them adequately, we limit our future potential. Access to education can be life changing and helps to equalise opportunity.

It is also a prerequisite for economic growth and the development of stable societies. Their educational support focuses on: •Disadvantaged children •Financial and business literacy •Environmental education and understanding They equally believe that the needs of today’s society should not be fulfilled at the expense of future generations. It believes that we are dependent upon the state of the environment, and if we degrade it, we damage our future prospects. Our environmental support focuses on: •Climate change •Freshwater (e. g. rivers) •Biodiversity (plants, forests and animals) Global Education Programmes Opportunities for disadvantaged children – Future First

The flagship programme, Future First, has taken on the challenge of helping homeless children, orphans and children in care around the world. For this they are working in partnership with the charity SOS Children’s Villages, among others, with the shared aim to provide access to education and life skills training. This helps the children to grow in confidence and, in time, to make their own contribution to society. Our presence in over 80 countries and territories presents us with a large network of people and resources capable of making a significant difference to these children’s lives. Rural Children Programme China has seen impressive economic growth over the last two decades but a vast disparity remains between the prosperity of rural and urban regions.

To help support the ongoing success of the country, HSBC has identified a need to build up the educational infrastructure in rural areas where 95 per cent of primary schools are located. HSBC’s Rural Children Programme aims to improve facilities and provide training to teachers in curriculum design, computer-aided teaching, nutrition and counselling to help support a modern and rounded education for rural children. Financial Literacy Programme – JA More than Money As household debt rises throughout many developed countries and the world faces economic uncertainty, gaining an early understanding of how to create and manage a sustainable income is ever more important for individuals and for society as a whole. HSBC launched JA More than Money™ in 2007 in partnership with Junior Achievement Worldwide®.

HSBC colleagues are involved in classroom activities where they draw on their own skills and experience to teach children about earning, spending, sharing and saving money. Promoting environmental education: Eco – Schools Climate Initiative The HSBC Eco-Schools Climate Initiative is run by the Foundation for Environmental Education (FEE) and with HSBC’s support will be able to expand the programme across the world. The programme involves a tried and tested seven step processes to engage the entire population of the school in practical activities to improve their local environment. Through these seven steps, students, parents, teachers and the wider community are encouraged to take a more active role in environmental decision making. Investing in the Environment

Protecting the environment is central to HSBC’s sustainability strategy as a carbon neutral organization. They focus on reducing the footprint of their own operations and even encourage their clients and suppliers to do the same. They also partner with leading environmental organizations to achieve shared goals. The Climate Group works with corporate and government leaders in some of the world’s cities to tackle climate change. Participation in the HSBC Climate Partnership has enabled the launch of new offices and recruitment of new members in Beijing, Hong Kong and Delhi plus the launch of the UK Together campaign, helping households save carbon dioxide by providing cheap and easy ways for consumers to reduce their carbon footprint.

The HSBC Climate Partnership has helped WWF to support 33 nature reserves in China to tackle increased flooding, reduce pollution and safeguard endangered species in the central and lower Yangtze River. The HSBC Climate Partnership makes up around 80% of HSBC’s overall investment in the environment. It is complemented by a number of local programmes, many of which allow its employees the opportunity to engage in and understand conserving their local environment. INDUSTRY ANALYSIS (BANKING) Banks act as financial intermediaries in our society: they price and value financial assets, they monitor borrowers, they manage financial risks and they organize the payment system. By performing these functions, banks have a huge impact on society.

They usually require firms and households to adopt certain behaviour in order to increase the chances that these lenders will pay interest and amortizations. As such, they also may affect sustainable development. Socially responsible banking is becoming a well-established notion in the financial services industry. Financial institutions are coming round to the idea that there is more to invest than just to check the figures. In the US, every one out of eight dollars invested is subject to some social or ethical screen. In most countries, private households have the opportunity to save or invest their money not only on the basis of financial rewards, but also in the face of the nonmonetary value of savings and investments.

In many OECD countries, specialized banks offer savings accounts to the public while promising that the savings will be used to finance environmentally sound projects or for operations of entrepreneurs who find it hard to get access to finance from institutions that are more conventional. Women and minorities have been targeted specifically in this respect in the US based on so-called community investments. In more than 40 countries – including several developing countries like Brazil and South-Africa – people can put their savings in socially responsible investment funds that in some way or another check for corporate social responsibility (CSR) of the firms in which they invest. Banks increasingly are involved with financing economic activity that aims at sustainable development and offer microcredit to the poor and deprived. Some of the important CSR initiatives taken by various banks are: Reporting Standards

Non-financial reporting is a very popular instrument in the banking sector and this is a partial confirmation of CSR’s maturity of the sector. Banks have developed their own reports and use the ‘Global Reporting Initiative’ (GRI) reporting framework. Financial Literacy With growing business banks and other financial institutions have started realizing of creating awareness about financial planning. To address this issue banks have started with financial literacy programs at various levels. Like HSBC has launched JA More than Money™ program to educate children on financial planning while on the other hand Citi has various programs targeting adults for the financial literacy. Climate Change and Environment Protection

Banking Industry has shown concerns towards changing climatic conditions. Although banks have less impact on the natural environment than, say, the chemical or mining industry, their relatively low impact on environmental sustainability is more than compensated for by their impact on society as a whole. Most of the initiatives are towards reducing the total CO2 emitted not only by them but also by their stake holders forming part of the value chain. Some of the important steps are like commitment of USD50 billion by Citi towards climate control investments, HSBC’s eco-school climate initiative to provide education on climate conservation awareness. Energy

Banks are encouraging investments in green energy. The encouragement is mainly in terms of funds and other financial assistance specifically allocated for installation of green energy sources. Recycling of waste and use of recyclable supplies is been done at the institution level by majority of the banks. Vodafone Vodafone is a British mobile network operator, with its headquarters in Berkshire, England, UK. It is the largest mobile telecommunications network company in the world by turnover, and has a market value of about ? 75 billion (August 2008). Vodafone currently has operations in 31 countries and partner networks in a further 40 countries. Vision :

To be world’s mobile communications leader, enriching customers’ lives, helping individuals, businesses and communities be more connected in a mobile world. Vodafone’s latest Corporate Responsibility Report It highlights how the company's expansion in emerging markets is facilitating economic development by increasing access to communications. The rapid expansion of the network means one of Vodafone's biggest issues is how to control greenhouse gas emissions. To address this Vodafone recently announced a target to reduce CO2 emissions by 50% by 2020 in its established markets. This year's report outlines how the company aims to achieve this ambitious goal.

Vodafone is also exploring how its products and services can help other industries cut their carbon footprint, and is increasing its focus on managing climate impacts in the supply chain. Vodafone's social and environmental performance in 2008/09 is reported in its signature 'We said, We have, We will' format. CSR in business process Decreased like-for-like carbon emissions by 4. 7% In 2008/09, company’s total CO2 emissions was1. 31 million tonnes, 4. 7% lower than last year despite an increase in energy use. The carbon intensity of the Group’s energy consumption has decreased due to our increased use of green tariff energy – energy generated from renewable sources. This Group reduction target applies to our entire local operating companies that active for a full year in 2006/07; and to their CO2 emissions from all energy ources except business flights and other greenhouse gases. Increased the number of sites powerd by on-site renewable energy by 7. 5% across the Group Vodafone now has 429 base stations powered by on-site renewable energy in eight countries, Diesel is often used to power sites that are not connected to the electricity grid, as well as being used in back-up generators in case of power failure. In 2008/09, diesel use accounted for 6. 3% of our total CO2 emissions from network energy use across the Group. This proportion is higher in our Indian operations. Collected 1. 82 million handsets for reuse and recycling Vodafone has exceeded our target to collect 1. 5 million handsets during 2008/09.

Vodafone operating companies continued their efforts to collect handsets for recycling, collecting approximately half a million more handsets than last year – representing a 37% increase. Begun a pilot project to assess capability for recycling e-waste in Mumbai In 2008/09, Vodafone commenced an end-of-life assessment of mobiles in India, particularly in Mumbai, with The Environment Resources Institute. The study aims to assess current practices and devise strategies to improve end-of-life management of mobile phones. Supply chain Vodafone expect all our suppliers to maintain high ethical, environmental and labour standards, and Vodafone work with them to build their CR capability. Our Code of Ethical Purchasing (CEP) sets out our requirements and Vodafone assess new and existing suppliers for compliance with the CEP.

Vodafone also engage in industry partnerships to improve CR standards throughout the supply chain for the ICT sector as a whole. Diversity in workforce The strategy, launched in April 2008, aims to ensure that Vodafone’s workforce reflects its diverse customer base and that the company has an inclusive working environment that embraces the benefits diversity brings. Implementation of the strategy is overseen by a global steering committee. The initial focus is on gender and nationality diversity. In 2008/09, 13% of our most senior managers – including three operating company CEOs were female. A total of 23 nationalities were represented in top management bands, an increase on 2007/08.

Introduced a new health and safety strategy In February 2009, Vodafone developed a three-year strategic plan to prevent fatalities and ensure effective implementation of our product safety policy. To achieve this, Vodafone will introduce initiatives to promote leadership in health, safety extend our online management and reporting systems, and improve health and safety governance and risk management. Consumer Issues Vodafone's reputation depends on earning the trust of its customers. Their loyalty is vital to the long-term success of our business. This section covers a range of issues that Vodafone believe play an important part in maintaining customer trust.

Important consumer issues include the clarity of our pricing, the responsibility of our marketing material, the way Vodafone handle customer privacy and our measures to protect customers from inappropriate content, contact and commercialism. Vodafone also address other consumer issues such as responsible mobile phone use, driving safety and mobile theft. Safety from RF & EMF Developed employee awareness training and awareness initiatives on RF fields Vodafone has made significant investment in e-learning programs, induction briefings and face-to-face training to raise awareness among relevant employees in all our local operating companies to enable them to fulfill their vital role in communicating our approach to RF fields. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has issued guidelines on levels of exposure to RF fields.

Vodafone’s policy on Health and Safety of RF Fields requires that all our base stations – and the mobile phones Vodafone sell – comply with ICNIRP guidelines. In fact, RF field exposure from our base stations is typically hundreds, if not thousands, of times below the limits set by the guidelines. Mobile for blind and deaf people Vodafone is currently focusing on making its services easier to use for customers who are: •Blind or visually impaired •Deaf or hard of hearing •Elderly or have special healthcare needs. This text-to-speech software – enabling blind and visually impaired customers to use text messages – is an updated version of Mobile Speak.

Health Service vial mobile An mHealth services pre-feasibility study in India. A total of ? 450,598 was provided by the Fund towards these initiatives at 31 March 2009. In 2008/09, Vodafone fostered continued developments in mHealth by partnering with and investing in t+medical, the leading provider of mobile phonebased technology used to transfer patient biometric data. t+Medical’s innovative technology enables patients with chronic diseases to record details about their condition and treatment using their mobile phones. The information is quickly and easily relayed to nurses who can monitor the data and take action if Necessary. Corporate Governance

The Board of the Company is committed to high standards of corporate governance, which it considers are critical to business integrity and to maintaining investors’ trust in the Company. The Group expects all its directors and employees to act with honesty, integrity and fairness. The Group will strive to act in accordance with the laws and customs of the countries in which it operates; adopt proper standards of business practice and procedure; operate with integrity; and observe and respect the culture of every country in which it does business. Vodafone Group Plc Annual Report 2008 65 Awards During the year, Vodafone’s 2007 CR report won the main accolade of the Corporate Register Reporting Awards for the best report and was commended by the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (“ACCA”) for the best isclosure in Tax and Public Policy. Vodafone is included in the FTSE4Good and Dow Jones Sustainability Index and rated fifth in the Global Account Ability Rating. The Vodafone Group Foundation The Vodafone Group Foundation is a UK registered Charity established by Vodafone Group Plc in 2002. It has invested over ? 100 million in projects since its creation and currently receives ? 24 million per annum from the Vodafone Group Plc which it distributes between projects globally and its unique global footprint of 23 Vodafone Foundations. Vodafone is committed to making a difference in the communities in which it operates. The Vodafone Group Foundation has invested over ? 00 million in projects since its creation in 2002 concentrating on disaster relief, helping disadvantaged children via sport and music initiatives and specific projects across Vodafone's 23 local Foundations worldwide. Philanthropy Details The Vodafone Group Foundation has donated ? 10m to the United Nations Foundation over five years, part of which has been made available to the Measles Initiative for Immunization programs. As a second phase of their support of these activities, VGF and the UN Foundation have now begun work with WHO on a new program to use technology to improve disease surveillance, a critical aspect of fighting not only measles but many other diseases. The Vodafone Group Foundation partnership is the largest financial commitment made by any corporation to the UN Foundation. Philanthropy in India

Vodafone Group Plc has established the Vodafone India Foundation, with an initial commitment of $10 million. This step signifies a further landmark in the development of Vodafone’s presence in India and confirms the Group's commitment to invest socially in the communities where it operates. This activity will be supported by The Vodafone Group Foundation which has developed a unique network of 23 Foundations around the world during the last five years. Compliance with GRI guidelines Vodafone has benchmarked its CR reporting against the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) sustainability reporting guidelines. The company assess its application of the GRI reporting framework to be at level B+. Independent assurance report to Vodafone

KPMG LLP was engaged by Vodafone Group Services Limited to provide assurance over selected aspects of the Vodafone Group plc 2008/09 Corporate Responsibility Report. Conclusion CSR activities are followed worgwide but their ways of approach are different depending upon company and their nature of business. CSR projects are frequently carried out as a cooperative effort; involving external partners can enhance the success and value of the project, and projects can benefit from the experience of local organizations or stakeholders. Companies are faced with the challenge of expanding their reporting to include the social and ecological effects of their business activities. This involves, in particular, maintaining international standards and norms with respect to CSR topics.

More and more, however, even socially relevant CSR projects and their effects are being carefully scrutinized. It is no longer enough simply to assert that a project is doing something positive for society The goal is to develop a CSR strategy that addresses the most urgent social needs on the local agenda, while avoiding risks and identifying new opportunities to achieve corporate objectives. In a country with widespread poverty, for example, adapting a company’s products to the resources of low-income consumers can serve a social purpose and at the same time help the company gain access to new customer groups. Providing basic and further training ensures a well trained labor force and alleviates a shortage of qualified workers.

Well planned CSR activities can have the immediate effect of helping a company’s business run more smoothly while also ensuring the long-term availability of the workers and resources that are necessary for corporate success. Rather than following fleeting trends or giving in to pressure from NGOs, companies need to integrate sustainable CSR activities into their everyday routine so that they gradually become second nature. Another option is to outsource CSR projects or transfer them to partners with greater expertise and experience in the relevant area. Particularly when projects are too far removed from a company’s core business, it is wise to assign responsibility for them to competent entities or independent structures. CSR projects can only survive if they are integrated into a company’s core business over the long term.

It is not simply a matter of developing a positive reputation, but also of shaping sustainable business processes. It is therefore important to review the effectiveness of projects on a regular basis. Accordingly, (CSR) management is responsible for introducing CSR projects that have been successfully launched to the relevant departments and making them part of the company’s core business as independent products and processes. In purchasing, certain social guidelines should be the norm, and environmental standards should be the norm in the area of development. References www. csridentity. com www. csrwire. com www. unilever. com www. citygroupinc. com www. hsbc. com www. pg-india. com www. vodafone. co •Sustainibility report of all five companies

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