Chapter Ii: Review of Related Literature
Chapter II: Review of Related Literature History of School Papers In the public high schools in the City of Manila, school newspapers were published as early as 1930, although records show that The Coconut, a mimeographed copy and edited by Carlos P. Romulo came out in the school year 1911-1912. For several years some big schools in the public schools in Manila had one newspaper, the first three pages of which were devoted to English and the remaining pages to Filipino.
It was only in 1960 when some big schools published separate issues in English and in Filipino.
In 1952, formal instructions in high school journalism began. That was the time when Mrs. Sarah England, an American teacher of Mapa High School, experimented on the teaching of journalism. The experiment proved so successful that other four existing high schools followed suit. These schools formally offered journalism as a vocational subject holding classes on a daily double period throughout the school year. Since then, journalism has been under the supervision of English supervisors, but grades were considered as vocational subjects. History of School Newspapers in the Philippines
According to Jesus Valenzuela in the History of Journalism in the Philippine Islands (1933) and John Lent in the Philippine Mass Communication (1964), the history of campus journalism in the Philippines started when the University of Santo Tomas published El Liliputiense in 1890. However, Oscar Manalo, NarcisoMatienzo, and VirgilioMonteloyola in AngPamahayagan (1985) argued that the history of campus journalism in the country started when the University of the Philippines published The College Folio, now The Philippine Collegian, in 1910.
They also added that The Torch of the Philippine Normal University, The Guidon of the Ateneo de Manila University, and The Varsitarian of the University of Santo Tomas were also published two years later. Whatever came first, Carlos Romulo y Pena edited The Coconut, the official student publication of the Manila High School, now the Araullo High School. It was published in 1912 and it is now considered the first and oldest high school newspaper in the country. In 1923, La Union High School in the Ilocos Region published The La Union Tab, the first printed and regularly issued high school newspaper in the country.
Since then, high school newspapers came out one after the other. Among these high school newspapers were The Pampangan, Pampanga High School, 1925; The Leytean, Leyte High School, 1925; The Rizalian, Rizal High School, 1926; The Coconut, Tayabas High School, 1927; The Volcano, Batangas High School, 1927; The Toil, La Union Trade School, 1928; The Samarinian, Samar High School, 1928; The Melting Pot, Tarlac High School, 1929; The Granary, Nueva Ecija High School, 1929; The Torres Torch, Torres High School, 1930; and The Cagayan Student Chronicle, Cagayan High School, 1931.
In 1931, 30 out of 106 high schools in the country had campus newspapers registered at the Bureau of Public Schools. In 1950, this number increased to 169; by 1954, to 253; by 1975, to 500; and by 1986, to more than 900 newspapers in English and in Filipino (Escote, A. 2008). Functions of School Papers Journalism is an academic discourse guaranteed by Republic Act No. 7079, also known as the Campus Journalism Act of 1991, which protects freedom of the press at the campus level and promotes the growth and development of campus journalism as a means of developing moral character, encouraging critical thinking, and strengthening ethical values.
Journalism, the art and science of writing for newspapers, periodicals, radio, television, and online publications, enfolds timely and factual reports of unusual or unexpected events, opinions, or situations that affect man and his environment. These reports are gathered, evaluated, and published, broadcasted, or posted on the Web to inform, to entertain, or to influence a large number of readers. The School Paper Advisers According to Binoya (1999), a school paper adviser has his own mission.
The effective and efficient management of a school paper is measured not solely or the merit of a written master plan that predetermines a course of action to be pursued for optimum results. It should likewise place a high premium on how the adviser assumes the role as a mentor to budding journalists. Mentoring is a challenging endeavor that is truly regarding to both the teacher and the student. The mentor finds fulfillment in discovery and development an eager learner and potential champion.
A disgruntled and inept adviser is the primary source of disenchantment among young workers. Campus journalist to succeed in their craft need to find an adviser who is determined to make jobs to make his work a happy growing experience. School paper advising is a real challenge where problems encountered every adviser must be handed systematically, various local studies were presented such as Tanodra(1992) revealed in her study that the greatest number of high school paper advisers in Metro Manila ere not adequately prepared and trained in information disseminating work.
She further revealed that because of their paper advisers’ encountered problems with their students’ staff, their fellow teachers and school administrator or principal. Binoya (1999) indicates that the adviser’s number one mission is to inspire young writers to give the school publication their best effort. These could be realized by pursuing these goals. 1. Make school paper advising a more challenging task and perform the job at high level of excellence. 2. Don’t make our staff for granted. Recognize that work achievement. 3. Consider the staff as a team. Show our concern.
Don’t hide the fact that we are as human as the young people we work with. Roles and Responsibilities The following are the duties and responsibilities of the school paper adviser as listed by Binoya (1999): 1. Organize at the beginning of the school year and handle journalism classes with above average intelligence and inclination to writing. 2. Organize the school paper tasks. 3. Undertake the structuring, cleanliness maintenance of the staff room. 4. Administer division test in journalism, correct and report of such tests. 5. Read memoranda, bulletins, circulars, information, etc. or the implementation and dissemination of pertinent ones in the school paper. 6. Attend journalism in-service meetings, seminar-workshops demonstration, lessons, city-wide and regional contests. 7. Prepare daily lesson plans. 8. Prepare journalism exercises and instructional aids materials. 9. Evaluate and record pupil performance in the journalism aids and materials. 10. Train contestants for decision, regional, and national contest in journalism. 11. Set up timetable for the production and distribution of the school paper. 12. Copy read article for the publications. 13.
Type corrected articles submitted by the staff members. 14. Work with the staff and layout of the school paper. 15. Submit articles and pictures with the corresponding picture to the printer. 16. Proof-read typeset materials and follow up production of school paper at the press until its completed. 17. Take picture of significant activities in the school and in the community. 18. Accompany the staff members in the survey of the school and community resources and activities in joining journalism contests and conferences, and in going to and from the press and in awarding ceremonies. 9. Prepare with the staff the dummy and headlines of the school paper. 20. Prepare pictures for the publication, cropping, caption writing, indicating printers’ directions. 21. Verify through research and interview facts reported in articles submitted by the staffers. 22. Prepare financial reports on expenditures from paper subscription funds after every issue. 23. Keep and update school morgue and file of exchanges. 24. Prepare financial reports on expenditures from paper subscription funds after every issue. 25.
Take charge of and be responsible for all books, property and equipment issued for the use of journalism classes. 26. Keep and update school paper morgue and file exchanges. 27. Execute and submit a clearance form issued by the Journalism and School Paper services at the end of the school year and upon going maternity leave, sabbatical leave, study leave, resignation, retirement, and transfer to other office, school, division or change of assignment. 28. Submit file copies of every issue of the school paper to the office of the Journalism and School Paper Services 29.
Executive and submit performance rating together with the worksheet. 30. Exert all effort and implement all possible means to improve instruction, develop right values, and accelerate performance. 31. Any change in assignment, all books and other staff property should be turned over to this new advisers and critic. Incompetence of Newspapers Advisers Pan (1990) has listed down the major characteristics of teacher, Advisers such as: credibility, trustworthiness, and expertise among those that affect the teachers of journalism and advising of school paper.
She also mentioned administrative support, lack of facilities and equipment, in teaching load as some of the problems encountered by the teacher adviser. Oliva (1999) mentioned that campus journalism should be included in the public secondary curriculum. He also suggested that school administrators should give their full support in promoting campus journalism because it is where our future writers will get motivated. He also suggested that school paper advisers should start to educate students abut consequence of media and students should realize the importance of responsible journalism.
The lack and the needs to have better (trained) advisers Consequently, Roque (1972) stated that the task of putting out a school publication requires not only the ability to write effectively but also the ability to plan, finance, and manage the campus paper. He believes that one who undertakes the writing of a guide for teaching journalism should include the various details that go into managing a school paper as well as offer helpful editorial tips in ranging from the development of the papers format to writing and illustrating news on feature story.
He believes that a good school newspaper of journalism could take up the choice and training of the staff, how to prepare the budget, how to plan and layout, copy read, developing and printing pictures, style books production and relationship between the press and the administration Sicat (1988) believes that responsible leadership is naturally developed among the students as they come to know their duties and responsibilities to themselves and others.
He added that like any other teacher in the school, the school paper adviser must know the many behaviors of students in the organization that affect the daily climate He should be the one who helps the students move toward self-direction. While assisting the needs and problems of the students, good rapport and empathy are stimulating characteristics of a school paper adviser. School newspaper adviser’s attainment and preparation are factors contributive to the acquisition of knowledge and information, development of desirable habits, skills and display of favorable attitudes and appreciation.
Complimentary to educational attainment are the fruits of competence and creativity but dedication is one’s commitment. Attitude and values towards work are the story factors on how to measure the performance of a school paper adviser. Important Writing Skills Considering that the teachers plays a vital role in bringing along the language arts to the mind of the learners, the teacher according Vile (2008:1) should involve setting the conditions for learning by understanding how a learner learns.
The teacher has to determine the teaching style, the approach to be used, the method and the classroom techniques, procedures and activities to be used in the classroom. The classroom then must create a conducive atmosphere that is geared towards teaching students how to communicate genuinely, spontaneously and meaningfully in the second or foreign language. Thus, implying the use for communicative competence. (Novilen A. Bendebel 1996)
Kinsella (1981) stated that the inability to spell correctly and confidently is one of the most serious problems in writing for many people. If language is incorrect, then what is said is not meant. If what is said is not meant, then what ought to be done remains undone (Jean Wrynick, 1986) Velmonte (1980) pointed out to attain success in speaking or writing in any language, one most first have something to say; one has to know how to express what he wants to say correctly and effectively.
This ability in correct expression, oral or written, depends upon the development of certain abilities and skills. Lado (1989) stressed that in a development of oral and unwritten skills, teachers have to steer clear of the tendency to over-emphasize the parts of speech. The ability to speak and understand a language is different from the mouthing of rules and parts of speech. Often those who can use language are unable to recite its rules and to memorize the parts of speech and also those who can recite its rules are unable to se it. Knowledge about the language is not a substitute for language use. The task of the teacher of composition writing is to establish the context for learning. He can do this by exercising control in setting the students’ task, so that the student is free to invent his own ideas, put them into sentences and paragraphs and organize them within a controlled situation. Whom establishing this context for learning, the teacher must consider. Rizza B. Bagalanon 1999