Chapter I INTRODUCTION In this chapter the researcher discussed about this study based on background of the study, problem statements of the study, purpose of the study, the significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, and definition of key terms. All of them were included on the chapter one as fulfilled of the study. 1. Background of The Study Literature did not take itself to a single definition because the achieving of it over century has been as complex and natural as the life itself. Many literary experts had different opinion about literature. In this case, it was related with the time and social condition.
Literature itself was correlated with human’s expression. Identical with life, it could be seen that literature was a true picture or replication of human’s life. The focus of literature was mankind’s life and the problem in it. It described that mankind’s life had many ways of expressing their felling, imagination, creation, and communication definitely the events of taking human life. Long in his book,” English literature,”(194:8) writes that literature is the expression of life in the word of troughs and beauty, it is the written record of man’s thoughts, emotions, aspirations, it is the story, and the only history, of the human soul.
Literary work so far was considered to be difficult to understand because it needed a sharp sense of appreciation to get willingness to find out what the author wanted to express to the readers. Therefore, the readers needed to look into not only outer surface of its components but also what was more important in the essence of it. It also implied things in the works of literature had to be dug out to find the valuable lesson hidden. The appreciation of literary work was always stand by special attitude such as how to interpret, characterized and evaluate.
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Literature could not be separated from language because literature was language used at the best. Language was the medium of literature and the only purpose of language communicated something from the person to another. Language was also connection of literary work. As the connection of literary works signed to system which connected of a works of literature, an author, and the readers. The connection was complicated based on develop the three aspects. According Segers (1978:24 – 25) communication of literary works is complicated than communication of machine.
According Connoly (1955). Literature has three characteristics. Firstly, literature has power. It means that the use of language in a certain piece of work of literature may create powerful emotional impacts in readers mind. Secondly, literature is vivid. The written work of literature can make someone hear, feel, and see. Thirdly, the language of literature is clear. To clarify this, the author uses in passage to describe the character, the author clarifies his definition of person by allowing who he is, why he does it, now he does it what he would never do.
Literature was grouped on some categories by some experts related with time, form, and purpose of using literature. According Jakob Sumardo and Saini in their book “Apresiasi Kesusastraan” (1986:180 divided Literatures into two categories that Non Imaginative literature and Imaginative Literature). Imaginative literature is the writing contains fact explanation or real people life and history which aim at conveying knowledge to article, history book, dictionaries and text book. On the other hand, imaginative literature aims an entertaining as well as giving information.
In this case the author tries to tell about his though, ideas and feeling. A novel is a book length story in prose, whose author tries to create the sense that while we need, we experience actual life, (Kennedy, 1983:180). In reading a novel, the readers would gain messages, and it was not easy to interpret, it needed work hard to appreciate contents of novel forget message has been conveys by author. As novel might have many characters, some characters might never ever come into relation with an author. People knew that all the people in the world at this moment and elated, if only by the nature of the fact that they were all living at the same time. Direct contact was not necessary to establish relationship, though a novelist would probably show closer relationship among his character that there was merely being alive at the same time. Through reading a novel, the readers gained messages find out from novel that the author was conveyed pass the contents of novel. Like the main character of a novel would be representation of human’s expression from the events of human life such their problem, struggle of life and conflict.
They could not be separated from love, sacrifice, humanity and sorrow. We were able to appreciate human life and do out our problem concern with psychological, social, and others. The contribution of appreciation novel was the readers have to analyze for gaining the messages. Analyzed of main character would give us insight of human life about pressure conflict that impact of psychological of main character “Eat Pray Love”. It was very different from other novels I met before. In this novel “Eat Pray Love”, an author gives a different sensation but about common problems that happen to anyone.
Problems in the novel “Eat, Pray, Love” gave a different atmosphere. Although it seemed simple but had a tremendous conflict. Conflicts that occurred in daily were a pervasive anxiety and depression in the main character in this novel. Impressed simple but very weighty. There were some review came from San Francisco Chronicle - Don Lattin and Jennifer Egan. Both of them gave respond about this novel. Firstly, the review came from San Francisco Chronicle – Don Lattin of her review that Gilbert's writing is chatty and deep, confident and self-deprecating.
She's a quick study and doesn't worry about leading readers down uncharted paths. That makes her work engaging and accessible but sometimes gets her and the rest of us lost in space. And the second, the review also came from the famous person was The New York Times - Jennifer Egan; Lacking a ballast of gravitas or grit, the book lists into the realm of magical thinking: nothing Gilbert touches seems to turn out wrong; not a single wish goes unfulfilled. What are missing are the textures and confusion and unfinished business of real life....
While I wouldn't begrudge this massively talented writer a single iota of joy or peace, I found myself more interested, finally, in the awkward, unresolved stuff she must have chosen to leave out. As added from the review that the researcher had interview from his friends. That the novel eat, pray, love was wonderful with the style of main character’s behavior. It also gave some taste of the novel with the journey of the main character was beginning of therapy. Therapy for releasing was from the main character’s suffering.
As the researcher, the review above encouraged to conduct research and understanding in the content of novel. It gave motivated from the researcher interpreted the content of Elizabeth Gilbert’s novel eat, pray, love. The researcher also would give some evidence about the subject of the novel as spiritual and the genre of the novel was about memoir. In this story, the writer of this thesis would discuss of the main character’s suffering, the causes and the impacts that influenced of the main character’s suffering, and how to solved from its.
This thesis discussed about the main character’s suffering because it was dominant theme of the story. For the main character’s suffering of this study just would be proved about the main character suffered. The evidences of the main character’s suffering just shown of the confession of the main character’s life based of the Elizabeth Gilbert’s novel eat, pray, love. 1. 2 Problem Statement of the Study In this study there were some problems that were necessary to be investigated in relations with the main character’s suffering (Liz) in the novel. The writer of this thesis formulated the problems as follows: . What were the main character’s sufferings on Elizabeth Gilbert “Eat Pray Love”? 2. What were the causes and impacts of the main character’ suffering? 3. How did the main character overcome her suffering? 1. 3 Purpose of the Study The writer of this thesis stated purposes of the study to find out the answer of the problems. They were formulated as follows: 1. To describe of the main character’s sufferings. 2. To describe the causes and the impacts of the main character’s suffering. 3. To describe the overcome of the main character’s suffering? 1. 4. The Significance of the Study
This study intended to provide an example for the students who wanted to understand a novel by means of the content of the novel. Secondly, it was expected to be able to enhance and encourage the readers, especially the students of English Department to pay more attention on literary works. The researcher of this thesis also hoped that the readers would be able to take result of this research as the lesson in their life. Not only for the students who gained the contributions of this thesis but also between English teacher and other researches who wanted to interpret it.
This study intended to provide for the English Teacher who wanted to develop their knowledge about novel and increased their vocab. For other researchers and the readers gained many lessons of this study such as the main character’s suffering that impacted the reader’s mind; the causes and the impacts of the main character’s suffering; and how to overcome of the main character’s suffering. Both of them would give insight for the cases of this study. This study presented some contributions liked struggle, conflict of life, and problems of life occurring to the main character. The object of this study was unique.
It was 108 tales of the novel that it liked japa mala. Japa mala was strings of beads. In a way, this study gave many contributions for the Students, English Teachers, other researchers, and the readers. 1. 5 Scope and Limitation of the Study The researcher of this thesis just wanted to discuss suffering. So, the researcher of this thesis gave the scope of novel eat, pray, love by Elizabeth Gilbert. The limitation of the study by only discussing the causes and the impacts of main character’s suffering, and how to overcome of the main character’s suffering in Elizabeth Gilbert’s novel eat, pray, love. . 6 Definition of the Key Terms. To make the study clearer to the readers and to avoid confusion in understanding this study, the writer of this thesis would like to present several definitions of key terms: - Novel is book length story in prose, whose author tries to create the sense that, while one reads, they experience it (Kennedy, 1983:180). - Suffering is feelings of pain or unhappiness (hornby, A. A, 1974). - Cause is produces and effect from something. - Impact is striking of something. - A main character is someone the representation of a person in a narrative or dramatic work of art. Elizabeth Gilbert is the author of the novel “Eat Pray Love” Chapter II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE In chapter two, the researcher gave review of related literature such as; literature; fiction; novel; definition of novel; kinds of novel; the elements of novel; theme; setting; plot; characterization; conflict; subject matter and theme; the nature of suffering. 2. 1. Literature According to Jones Jr. (1986) literature is simply another way people can experience the world around them through the imagination. It can be divided into two different groups’ namely informative literature and imaginative literature.
Informative literature deals with facts, explanation, real people’s life, and history. Imaginative literature, on the other hand aims to arouse thoughts and feelings. In other books, literature is as the standard of expression from what the people have shown in life, have experienced about life, have lost in thought and felt about aspects of life which interest in directly and forcefully. Actually, it is an expression of life passing through language form (Hardjana, 1981:14). In other words, literature born because of fundamental motivation of human being’s interest in literary works.
Perrine (1959:311) defines literature according to the aim of writing literature. He makes two broad categories of literature, namely:: escape literature and interpretative literature. Escape literature is that written purely for entertainment, to help is pass the time agreeably. Its only objet is pleasure. While, interpretative literature is written to broaden and deep and sharpen our awareness of life. It takes us, through imagination, deeper into the real world: it enables us to understand the reality of life better.
Francis Connoly (1995) said that men read because of hunger for information or amusement or solace on appetite for truth that literature is anthology or collection of stories, poems, plays, novels and other works of literature written by many different authors. Literature should not only provide enjoyment for readers but it also gives something more important to their life. 2. 2 Fiction Fiction was narrative literature that created an imaginary reality in the form of a story written in sentences and paragraph with no strongly rhythmic base.
There was usually a sense of various experience of someone recreating past events. Included are novel, novelette and short story. But in this study the researcher only focused to the novel. 2. 3 Novel Novel usually concerns with human being and through the story give valuable message for us. Novel can enrich our sense of humanity and imagination, because it tries to portray human relationship, love struggles, ambition and experience. By reading novel people can get knowledge about expression of life by words and the readers can find of human personality, many characters of people and human behavior. . 3. 1. Definition of Novel Novel was which one forms of traditional fiction, as the literary works, are meant for telling stories. According to Singleton and Millet in their book “An Introduction to Literature” that novel is prose fiction of considerable length showing characters in action and capable of greater complexity both character and plot than the story”. (1966:1194). This idea supported by Webster (1952), that a fiction prose narrative of considerable length, portraying characters, action and scene representative of real life in a plot of more and less intricacy.
Novel is not like a short story, novelette, and novella. The categories differentiate about traditional fictions above are length. Novel is not also like a short story for some aspects. According Jones in his book “Outlines of Literature” (1968:80) that a short story focuses on one incident time; an over has far more range. It may deal with a lifetime a number of incidents. A novel may have many character, some characters may never even come into contact with others, but who are, nevertheless, somehow involved with others.
However both of them are different for some aspects, both of them are some similarities. Both are prose fiction and dealing with truth, problems, conflict and both of them have the same aim to entertain and to inform,. In both, the elements of structure are found: plot, characterization, setting and theme but a novel is longer and more complex. 2. 3. 2. Kinds of Novel In the anthology of English literature, Putra (1978:53-54) mentioned seven types of novels and addition of a few experts as follows: 1. The picaresque novel, the novel which talks about the adventures of a rougher knave.
For example: Moll Flanders (Defoe); Joseph Andrew and Tom Jones (Fielding). 2. The epistolary novel, the novel written in the form of series of letters between the characters. For example: Pamela, Clarissa Harolow, (Richarson). 3. The sentimental novel, the novel that contains an exaggerated expression of sentiment, aimed at producing a calculated response from the reader. For example: Pamela (Richardson) and A sentimental journey (Stern). 4. The Gothic novel, the novel that covers such elements as horror, death, violence, mystery and the supernatural predominate.
For example: Laura Conway’s The unforgotten, Fran Kestein (Mary Shelly, Jane Eyre (Charlotte Bronte). 5. The didactic novel, the novel in which the message is used to teach something or to preach political or religious doctrines and social reforms. For example: Dickens’s novels are didactic novels aimed at social reforms. 6. The historical novel, the novel which sets a historical background, a detailed reconstruction of life in another time. For example: Sir Walter Scott’s novels. 7. The domestic novel, the novel which mostly talks about the domestic problems of certain family.
For example: Jane Austen (Pride and Prejudice and Sense and Sensibility). 8. memoir? novel, a kind of novel that pretends to be a true autobiography or memoir. It was an important form in the emergence of the modern novel during the 18th century, in such works as Daniel Defoe's Moll Flanders (1722) and John Cleland's Memoirs of a Lady of Pleasure (1748–9; usually known as Fanny Hill). A similar pseudo? autobiographical mode of first? person narrative is found in very many later novels, but the pretence that the real author was only an ‘editor’ of a true account did not outlive the 18th century. . Romance, This form of novel goes beyond ordinary experience and social predicaments into make-believe. Something new is being searched for in an alternative world beyond familiar circumstances so that the novel's purpose is a moral or ideal issue. Nevertheless, the transportation to some idealized world, or going on a somewhat fantastic journey, can lead to disappointment, and its moral outcome. The characters' ideals can be crushed. The fantastical journey can be a big illusion or joke, where the reality is a series of mundane disappointments or repeated errors.
European writers tend to present and then undermine the fantastic, whereas Americans use the fantasy to explore matters. Portrait of a Lady (1881) by Henry James; Wuthering Heights (1847) by Emily Bronte This study discussed eat, pray, love novel by Elizabeth Gilbert and this kind of novel included a memoir-novel. Some of researchers such as publishers weekly classify this novel into a kind of romantic novel. Actually this subject of novel is spirituality. It combined with some conflicts, problems, struggle, causes and impacts of the main character’s suffering, and recovering of the problems through spirituality based of the novel. . 3. 3 The Elements of Novel There were some elements of novel, which have relation with the study, namely: theme, setting, plot, character, characterization, conflict, and suffering. 2. 3. 3. Theme Theme is basic or the aim of story or novel (Brooks and Warren, 1959:688). According to Scharbach theme is the idea which become the foundation of a story, so it has a role as the writer’s foundation in describing their fiction work the other explanation, in addition theme is not synonymous with moral or message and theme relates to meaning and purpose.
In the sense, in order to understand the theme, the readers have to understand the significant element which builds a story including the meaning of a story and able to related the purpose of these creation. Edward H. Jones, Jr. point out the theme of a novel is its underlying idea or wisdom that the author is presenting. Kenney (1966:91) says that the theme is the meaning of the story releases. Koesnosoebroto (1988:79) quoted from Perrine (1959:143) propose some principle to look for a theme in story: (1) Theme must be expressible in the form of statement with a subject and predicate.
Theme must be statement about the subject, (2) the theme must be stated as a generalization about life. Theme was often listed as one of fundamental elements of fiction. In this case, the makings of novel had a theme which became a major type of message. This was the central idea from an author. On eat, pray, love by Elizabeth Gilbert included of spirituality or religious. 2. 3. 3. 2 Setting According to Connonly (1954:14), setting is in a sense “the time place and concrete situation of the narrative of environment in which characters spin out their destinies.
In a good story, setting is also well integrated with plot and character that the reader is hardly aware of it. The function of setting is to create an atmosphere that is kind of mood or emotional which suggested by the setting to establish the reader’s explanation (Kennedy, 1966:38) There were two kinds of setting; physical and psychological. Physical setting means the place where an event happens. Physical setting related with place. Psychological setting is concerned with environment or the object in certain environment which influence the reader emotion.
Psychological setting can be in term of situation, attitude and point of view of certain society’s environment. Setting consists of (1) the actual geographical location, including topography, scenery, event the details of a rooms interior, (2) the occupation and mode of day to day existence of the characters, (3) The time in which the action takes place, e. g. historical, season, and emotional environment of the character (Kenney, 1966:40). The setting was also list as one of the fundamental elements of fiction. The explanations about setting have fully described above.
The physical setting meant the place, and time when the events was occurring such as “I discovered Giovanni for a few weeks after I’d arrived in Rome, thanks to that beg Internet cafe at the Piazza Barbarini, across the street from the fountain with the sculpture of that sexy merman blowing into his conch shell. ” And the second is the psychological setting that means describing about the full setting of the events have occurred. The process of the study have met many psychological setting of eat, pray, love novel by Elizabeth Gilbert. 2. 3. 3. 3. Plot
A plot was the structure of emotion, which existed on fiction or drama. According to Edward H. Jones, Jr, plot is the action of the story. It is the sequence of events involving the character or characters. In other words, plot is the sequence of events in a story. Each event causes or leads to the next one. And a plot reveals events to the readers, not only in their temporal but also their casual relationship. In other opinion, Tarigan said the principle of plot in another literary work that a fiction should be the beginning, middle and the ending.
In literature they are usually calls as exposition, complication and denouement. In the beginning, usually a plot begins exposition; it is the background of setting and situation. Furthermore, narrative book is drawing the reader into the story. Rising action is the events that contribute to the climax. Whereas, climax is the point of highest dramatist tension. The falling action presents the result of the climax, and the resolution gives the final outcome. According to Connonly, (19955:6) besides, Mac Millan in “Appreciating Literature”, there is the scheme of plot, as follows: Climax
Rising ActionFalling Action ExpositionNarrative book Resolution 2. 3. 3. 4. Character According to Kennedy (1983:45), character is an imagined person who inhabits a story. But his definition, as himself admits, is over simplified, for in stories may happen not only to the people but also the elements of nature such as the wind, the wave, grass or stone, or even animals. The story will exist only because these things will be treated as if they were human rather that as what we know they are in nature, with the exception of stories with animals as characters (Koenosoebroto, 1988:65).
On the basic of importance character can be divided into two types, mayor and minor character (Koesnosoebroto, 1988:69). Mayor character is the most important character in a story. Basically the story is about this character, but he or she cannot stand on his own. He or she needs other character to make the story more convincing and minor character is less important character that those of the mayor, for the minor character just support the mayor one. Sunaryo Koensosoebroto in his Book writes, protagonist is the character who has attitudes, which is pleasing the readers.
Antagonist is the character who has attitudes, which is not pleasing and doesn’t agree with the reader’s imagination. 2. 3. 3. 5. Characterization According to Kearns (1984:610), a characterization is personality of the character and the method that an author uses to reveals this personality. Edward H. Jones, Jr said that characterization is the depicting of clear images of a person. There are two methods of characterization”: the dramatic and the analytic. In the dramatic we form our opinions of the character from what they do and say, from their environment, and from what other characters think of them.
In the analytic method the author comments upon the characters, explaining their motives, their appearance, and their thoughts. Characterization can be direct or indirect. With direct characterization the author directly states fact about a character’s personality; with indirect characterization the author reveals a character’s personality indirectly through the character’s physical appearance, words, thoughts, and actions or through what other characters say about that character. Characterization described characters comprises are physics, though, appearance, and actions or through what other characters say about that character.
Habitually, it appeared of fiction the author used a passage to describe the character, author clarifies his definition of person by allowing who he is, why he does it, now he does it what he would. It was discussed of the characteristic of fiction above. 2. 4. Conflict In daily life, conflict was mostly caused by the different opinion, limited skills, unfulfilled and dissatisfaction. According to Edward H. Jones (1968) is divided conflict into three categories: physical, social and psychological conflict. The physical conflict is a conflict of the character against the nature.
The social conflict is a conflict between human being. It is a conflict where a man against a man, the main character may be against some person or group of person. Those two kinds of conflict can be classified as external conflict, the last in psychological conflict. It means that a conflict of a character against herself or himself. This conflict can be classified into internal conflict. On some statements about conflict we sometimes met with others statements that more completely described about it. Before we would be far explanation of conflict, we discussed the means of conflict.
World English Dictionary means that conflict is discord of action, feeling, or effect; antagonism or opposition, as of interests or principles: a conflict of ideas. It also means a mental struggle arising from opposing demands or impulse. Consequently, we would find some categories from conflict itself of our though. We could directly distinguish conflict into some types; Person Vs Person, Person Vs Machine, Person Vs Society, Person Vs Nature, Character Vs Self, and the last Person Vs Supernatural. In http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Fiction there are six basic types of conflict. In modern times, Person vs.
Machine, also known as Person vs. Technology, has become another one. 1. Character vs. self Character vs. Self is the theme in literature that places a character against his or her own will, confusion, or fears. Man vs. Self can also be where a character tries to find out who he or she is or comes to a realization or a change in character. Although the struggle is internal, the character can be influenced by external forces. The struggle of the human being to come to a decision is the basis of Character vs. Self. Examples include the novel called Grendel on the character taken from the epic Beowulf.
More recently, there have been movies about Character vs. Self such as Fight Club and the Academy Award winning movie, A Beautiful Mind. When a person struggles with his or her inner self by deciding what's right or wrong. 2. Person vs. person Person vs. Person is when, in a novel, there is a conflict of two forms of like beings. An example is the hero's conflicts with the central villain of a work, which may play a large role in the plot and contribute to the development of both characters. There are usually several confrontations before the climax is reached. The conflict is external.
Person vs. Person can usually be expressed by when a child is being ridiculed by a bully. An example is the conflict between Judah and Messala in Ben-Hur. 3. Person vs. Society Person vs. Society is a theme in fiction in which a main character's, or group of main characters', main source of conflict is social traditions or concepts. In this sense, the two parties are: a) the protagonist(s); b) the society of which the protagonist(s) are included. Society itself is often looked at as a single character, just as an opposing party would be looked at in a Person vs. Person conflict.
An example in literature would be Wuthering Heights by Emily Bronte. right. 4. Person vs. Nature Person vs. Nature is the theme in literature that places a character against forces of nature. Many disaster films focus on this theme, which is predominant within many survival stories. It is also strong in stories about struggling for survival in remote locales, such as the novel Hatchet or Jack London's short story "To Build a Fire". Also A separate peace is a good example with Leper not wanting to jump out of the tree. Some are not so remote such as Banner in the Sky. 5.
Person vs. Supernatural Person vs. Supernatural is a theme in literature that places a character against supernatural forces. When an entity is in conflict with his, her, or itself, the conflict is categorized as internal, otherwise, it is external. Such stories are often seen in Freudian Criticism as representations of id vs. superego. Bram Stoker's Dracula is a good example of this, as well as Frankenstein by Mary Shelley and "Christabel" by Samuel Coleridge. It is also very common in comic books 6. Person vs. Machine/Technology (Main article: Man vs. Machine) Person vs.
Machine/Technology places a character against robot forces with "artificial intelligence". I, Robot and the Terminator series are good examples of this conflict. In this study the researcher found some conflicts of Elizabeth Gilbert’s novel eat, pray, love. There were consisted of the person versus self, and person versus person based according from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Fiction. In other side, the researcher summarized the conflict from the two types of conflict in Edward H. Jones. According Edward H. Jones (1968), there are external conflict and internal conflict.
The external conflict comprised cosmic, social, and physical conflict. In other side, the internal conflict was psychological conflict. Based on the novel, the main character found psychological conflict as the internal conflict and physical conflict as the external conflict. Psychological conflict is a character experiences inner unrest and discord, essentially struggling within him. Characters may struggle with themselves in various ways, including wrestling with ideas of good and evil, struggling with weaknesses and grappling with decisions.
Psychological conflict may reveal itself as an individual wrestling with a moral decision or trying to overcome a handicap. Characters who suffer from addictions or who make self-destructive choices may also be manifesting psychological conflict. And physical conflict is characters struggle against other external forces. A character may struggle against other characters, animals or even natural forces. Physical conflict may manifest itself as problems with physical shelter or safety, or it may be reflected through fights between friends, family members or lovers. . 5 Subject Matter and Theme Kenney (1966:11) says that subject matter is not what the worked contains, but what the work refers to. The subject matter of this novel,”Eat Pray Love” is the story of Elizabeth’s life. Theme is the topic of the story. Kenney (1966:91) describes that theme is the meaning of the story that releases. The theme of the novel “Eat Pray Love” is spiritual and for the genre of the novel is memoir. 2. 6. The Nature of Suffering Happiness and sadness always accompany people’s life. Life would be colorful with such feelings.
Sometimes, when they feel happy they will fill their life with enthusiasm and excitement. In other causes, when their feeling is not good, they will easily get angry because of uncontrolled emotion and the result is that they can easily get them into trouble, when their life are not felt pleasant as usual. They become worried about the safety and afraid of their belongings. Those emotions can create bad judgment toward other people. They can take a friend into enemies and make their life sorrow. So, those can make them feel stressed and depressed. Because, of that, they always live in worrying and suffer.
From above explanation, it can be conclude that suffering is bearing on feeling something that is not comfortable in their life that is faced by human being. According to Munandar his book “Ilmu Budaya Dasar” (1992:68) there are two kinds of suffering based on the causes. The first, suffering physical reason, suffers internal state which can be caused by physical demands on the body, such disease condition, climate or extremes of temperature, injury, infection and the like. The second, the mental reason, suffering is caused by environmental and social situations which are evaluated as potentially harmful, and controllable.
The situations or events that cause sufferings are changes in one’s life, exercise, noise, frustration and job, social or family pressure. Both of them could meet each other. If the person got the mental reason it seems no worry. But if it continued embed of someone, it would destroy her endurance. The study I got the mental reason of eat, pray, love novel by Elizabeth Gilbert. There is some suffering that appeared of the study as follow; psychosomatic of main character, “Depression and loneliness have arged into my life again, and I just took my last Wellbutrin three days ago. ” (P – 68) the explanation impacted of main character of the study, “I am schizo” (P – 69) and others impacts of main character’s suffering. Consequently, mental reason is a suffering is caused by environmental and social situations which are evaluated as potentially harmful, and controllable. According to Spencer A. Rathus and Jefrey S. Nevid of their book “Psychology Abnormal” (2003:70) mentions the psychosocial and environmental problems become some categories Category Problem |Cases | |Problems with Primary support groups |Death of family members; Marital disruption in the form of separation, divorce, or | | |estrangement; sexual or physical violence within the family; neglect of children; birth | | |siblings | |Problems related to social environment |Death or loss of a friend; living alone or social isolation; the difficulty in adjusting | | |the new culture (acculturation) | |Problems relating to education |Illiterate; academic difficulties | |Employment problems |excessive workload, problems with labor leaders, changes in employment; the threat of job | | |losses | |Housing problems |homeless, living in an unsafe environment | |Economic problems |Poverty | |Problems with access to health services |Health services are inadequate or no health insurance availability | |Problems relating to the legal system |Arrest or imprisonment; involved in a lawsuit or a court; victims of crime | |Psychosocial and other environmental problems |natural disasters or man-made disasters; counselor; hostilities; doctors | The problems above were relating one’s progress that would impacts of their life. Some experts who deal with mental symptoms or psychiatrics argued that the problems above endanger on human health. Someone gained one problems above would be behave abnormally due to a mental attack from their environment. Abnormal behavior affects almost everyone in different ways.
Abnormal behavior patterns that include psychological dysfunction or behavioral disorders are classified by mental health experts as a psychological disorder or mental disorder. Mental disorders could be cured with treatments such as taking medication - drugs, yoga or improve the spiritual, writing in the diary for the lower stimulation, and others. It could be without help from psychiatric and for improving spiritual must have a teacher for guiding us be a seeker. Chapter III Research Method In this chapter the researcher would give development of the thesis. The researcher used the qualitative content analysis as the methodology of the research design. The chapter would discuss which related research design; approach; the objective of study; data collection; and data analysis.
Consequently, the researcher explained their area of the chapter three not only on the outer surface but also what more important of the essence of it such as gave flowchart or conceptual framework to make easily and more complete describing of the thesis. 1. Research Design This study used the qualitative content analysis. Content analysis is a methodology in the social sciences for studying the content of communication. It could be used of qualitative and quantitative. According Vredenbreght (1983 – 66-68), explicitly analysis method is first used in United States in 1926. Content analysis method comprises two kinds; there are latent content and communication content.
As qualitative methods, the basic implementation of the method of content analysis is interpretation. If the process of interpretation in qualitative methods to give attention to the natural situation, the basic interpretation of the content analysis method to give attention to the content of the message The researcher also used certain technique to get the data that is library research. It was used to get the information about the problem that has correlation with this study in the form of books, encyclopedia and dictionary. 2. Data Source In appreciating Elizabeth Gilbert’s novel, “Eat Pray Love” the researcher of the thesis uses the data source.
The writer of this thesis studied about novel itself was without relating to the author’s life, background of society or background to the worked and focused on analysis suffering of the main character only. Source data in the literature is the work, words, sentences and discourse. (Pro. Dr. Nyoman: 47) . According to Abrams (1981), a literary approach consists of four divisions; they are mimetic, pragmatic, expressive and objective approach. 1. Objective Approach This approach tries to study literature work itself, without relating to the author’s life, background of society or background of the work. 2. Mimetic Approach This approach views the literary work as an imitation or reflection of the world and human life.
From this classic theory comes the view that a work of literary in some ways imitates the work of civilization in which it was produced. 3. Pragmatic Approach This approach views the work as something which is constructed in order to achieve a certain effect on the audience (the effect such as arouse their emotion, perhaps argues for ideas that charge minds) and it tends to judge the value of the work according to its success in achieving that aim. 4. Expressive Approach This approach treats a literary work primarily in relation to the author, the expression of the author’s feeling and emotion, or as the product of author’s imagination operating on his or her perceptions
The researcher chosen objective approach to described and developed the thesis. It made easily of the thesis and also the researcher more focused to the thesis. The researcher would research by objective approach. 3. The Object of the Study The object of the study in this thesis was in the novel “Eat Pray Love” written by Elizabeth Gilbert. The discussing this thesis was focused on main character’s suffering. 4. Data Collection The data of this study are words, sentences, and discourses of the novel that deal with suffering. The data have been selected of this study are as follows: 1. Reading and understand the ‘Eat Pray Love’ novel, written by Elizabeth Gilbert. 2.
Understanding the theme and characters, and focusing on Liz’s suffering in Elizabeth Gilbert’s ‘Eat Pray Love” novel 3. Choosing data dealing with the problem which is going to be investigated. 4. Selecting data dealing with the purpose of this study on the novel. 5. Conducting to examine towards paragraph or dialogues in the novel 3. 5. Data Analysis The research of the data analysis would give flowchart or conceptual framework to make easily corrected the data of the thesis. The conceptual framework was in the thesis used Miles and Huberman based on their book as the qualitative data second edition. Interpretation of thePredicting to processAnalyzing data to organizeMake
The object dataselecting data as textaccordance with the goalconclusion To analyze the data, the following steps were liked a flowchart above:. 1. Reviewing the data that have been collected. 2. Predicting the data dealing with the purpose of the study. 3. Analyzing the data that based on the characteristic that refers to main character’s suffering in Eat, Pray, Love by Elizabeth Gilbert. 4. Making useful conclusion, implication, and suggestion for the next decision. The researcher analyze the data based on the steps above before the researcher collect the data, the researcher interpreted the data and noted for collecting data would be researched.
Then the data would predicted into some categories and differentiate data which not related the purpose of the thesis would be removed. The data have been collected based on the researcher researched a book or novel. Novel which been researched by the researcher is eat, pray, love by Elizabeth Gilbert. The analyzing of the data focused of the causes and the impacts of main character’s suffering by Elizabeth Gilbert’s novel eat, pray, love. The data comprised text because human activity was seen as “text” as collection of symbols expressing layers for meaning. The researcher had to be deep understanding, conviction, and conceptual orientation of own research. Then the research made conclusion, implication, and suggestion for the next decision.
Impinging FactorsInternal Context as HostAdoption Decision CHAPTER IV FINDING AND DISCUSSION In this chapter, the writer of this thesis wanted to answer the problems stated in the statement of problems. They are; what main character’s suffering are, the causes of main character’s suffering are, and the impacts of main character’s suffering are. In answering the problem, the writer not only shows the proofs as her findings related to her study through the words, sentences, and discourse which exist on the story especially on the novel, but also tries to give some explanation. But before the writer explain the finding of this research, the writer will describe about the author.
Elizabeth Gilbert is the author pilgrims as form a story collection, Stern Men as form a novel, The Last American Men, EPL (eat, pray, love), and Committed. Almost all have been number – one international bestsellers. Her first book, Stern Men was acclaimed (Houghton Mifflin 2000), selected by The New York Times as a “Notable book”. Most of this novel has become major feature films. Before she becomes a novelist, Elizabeth Gilbert has been a journalist. She was the first unpublished short story writer to debut in Esquire since Norman Mailer. This led to steady work as a journalist for a variety of national magazines including, SPIN, GQ, The New York Times Magazine, Allure, Real Simple, and Travel + Leisure. 1. The main character’s suffering
In Elizabeth Gilbert’s novel eat, pray, love, the main character faces some problems that make her life suffer. There are some sufferings of the main character life. There are; a failed marriage and a devastating, interminable divorce, followed immediately by a passionate love affair that ended in sickening heartbreak. 1. Being a failed marriage and a devastating The main character of eat, pray, love have been sad and brittle because she have been lost upon lost of their life. About a failed marriage of main character explained that she got depressed and anxious of her life after a failed marriage and a devastating. ... .... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. . . ....
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