Approaches to Organizational Behaviour
Organizational behavior, relates to the relationship between employees and the employers in an organization. Both are working towards the realization of the goals and objectives of any organization, and a close and fruitful coordination between the two is one of the major factors towards this realization. Organizational behavior approaches are a result of the research done by experts in this field.
These experts studied and attempted to quantify research done about actions and reactions of employees, with regard to their work environments.
It is a field that has begun developing only recently and new approaches and results are being expounded everyday, as more and more data comes to the forefront. There are various aspects of these theories, since each one deals with complex human behavior. The most important ones are the approaches about motivation. All of them are aimed towards motivating the members of the organization into optimizing their performance and thereby resulting in better and more improved performances. There are mainly six approaches to organizational behaviour.
They are: 1) Human resources approach ) Contingency approach 3) Productivity approach 4) Systems approach 5) Interdisciplinary Approach 6) Scientific Management Approach * Human Resources Approach The human resources approach is concerned with the growth and development of people towards higher levels of competency, creativity and fulfillment, because people are the central resource in any organization. This approach help employees become better in terms of work and responsibility and then it tries to create a climate in which they can contribute to the best of their improved abilities.
Work satisfaction will be a direct result when employees make fuller use of their capabilities. Essentially, the human resources approach means that better people achieve better results. This approach is also known as ‘supportive approach’ because the manager’s primary role changes from control of employees to providing an active support for their growth and performance. * A Contingency Approach Situations are much more complex than first perceived and the different variables may require different behavior which means that different environments required different behavior for effectiveness.
Each situation much be analyzed carefully to determine the significant variables that exist in order to establish the kinds of practices that will be more effective. Therefore a contingency approach to organizational behaviour implies that different situations require different behavioral practices for effectiveness instead of following a traditional approach for all situations. Each situation must be analyzed carefully to determine the significant variables that exist in order to establish the more effective practices.
The strength of this approach is that it encourages analysis of each situation prior to action. Thus, it helps to use all the current knowledge about people in the organization in the most appropriate manner. * Productivity Approach Productivity is a ratio that compares units of output with units of input. It is often measured in terms of economic inputs and outputs. Productivity is considered to be improved, if more outputs can be produced from the same amount of inputs. It helps in measuring the organizations effectiveness, it also reveals the managers efficiency in optimizing the resources.
Higher the numerical value of this ratio greater the efficiency. But besides economic inputs and outputs, human and social inputs and outputs also arc important. * Systems Approach A system is an interrelated part of an organization or a society that interacts with everyone related to that organization or society and functions as a whole. Within the organization ‘people’ employ ‘technology’ in performing the ‘task’ that they are responsible for, while the ‘structure’ of the organization serves as a basis for co-ordinating all their different activities.
The systems view emphasizes the interdependence of each of these elements within the organization, if the organization as a whole is to function effectively. The other key aspect of the systems view of organization is its emphasis on the interaction between the organization and its broader environment,, which consists of social, economic, cultural and political environment within which they operate. Organizations arc dependent upon their surrounding environment in two main ways: First, the organization requires ‘inputs’ from the environment in the form of raw material, people, money, ideas and so on.
The organization itself can be thought of as performing certain ‘transformation’ processes, on its inputs in order to create outputs in the form of products or services. Secondly, the organization depends on environment such as, public to accept its output. The systems view of organization thus emphasizes on the key interdependencies that organizations must manage. Within themselves the organizations must trade off the interdependencies among people, tasks, technology and structure in order to perform their transformation processes effectively and efficiently.
Organizations must also recognize their interdependence with the broader environments within which they exist. * An Interdisciplinary Approach It is integrating many disciplines. It integrates social sciences and other disciplines that can contribute to the Organizational Behavior. It draws from these disciplines any ideas that will improve the between people and organization. Its interdisciplinary nature is similar to that of medicine, which applies physical, biological and social science into a workable medical practice.
Organizations must have people, and people working toward goals must have organizations, so it is desirable to treat the two as a working unit. * Scientific Management Approach The fundamental concern of the scientific management school was to increase the efficiency of the worker basically through good job design and appropriate training of the workers. Taylor is the father of the scientific management movement and he developed many ides to increase organizational efficiency.
Taylor showed that through proper job design, worker selection, employee training and incentives, productivity can be increased. The scientific management school advocated that efficiency can be attainted by finding the right methods to get the job done, through specialization on the job, by planning and scheduling, by using standard operating mechanisms, establishing standard times to do the job, by proper selection and training of personnel and through wage incentives.