Wildlife: Biodiversity and Net Deforestation Rates
Around the world, forests are being logged for timber and paper pulp and cleared to grow mono-crops like soy and palm oil while they are deteriorating from the impacts of global warming.Deforestation is a major driver of global warming, responsible for up to 20 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions–more than all the cars, trucks, planes, boats and trains in the world combined.Deforestation doesn’t just threaten our climate, it threatens the livelihoods of 1.
6 Billion people that rely on forests for food and economic activity.
Forests also serve as habitats to rare and undiscovered animal and plant species and play a key role in providing water and preventing flooding and erosion. Ending deforestation and protecting forests will not only preserve biodiversity and defend the rights of forest communities, it is also one of the quickest and cost effective ways of curbing global warming. Greenpeace is campaigning for zero deforestation, globally, by 2020. Deforestation, clearance or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use. 1] Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use. About half of the world’s original forests had been destroyed by 2011, the majority during the previous 50 years.  Since 1990 half of the world’s rain forests have been destroyed.  More than half of the animal and plant species in the world live in tropical forests.  The term deforestation is often misused to describe any activity where all trees in an area are removed. not in citation given][neutrality is disputed] However in temperate climates, the removal of all trees in an area[not in citation given]—in conformance with sustainable forestry practices—is correctly described as regeneration harvest.  In temperate mesic climates, natural regeneration of forest stands often will not occur in the absence of disturbance, whether natural or anthropogenic.  Furthermore, biodiversity after regeneration harvest often mimics that found after natural disturbance, including biodiversity loss after naturally occurring rainforest destruction. 5] Deforestation occurs for many reasons: trees are cut down to be used or sold as fuel (sometimes in the form of charcoal) or timber, while cleared land is used as pasture for livestock, plantations of commodities and settlements. The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in damage to habitat, biodiversity loss and aridity. It has adverse impacts on biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Deforestation has also been used in war to deprive an enemy of cover for its forces and also vital resources.
A modern example of this was the use of Agent Orangeby the United States military in Vietnam during the Vietnam War. Deforested regions typically incur significant adverse soil erosion and frequently degrade into wasteland. Disregard or ignorance of intrinsic value, lack of ascribed value, lax forest management and deficient environmental laws are some of the factors that allow deforestation to occur on a large scale. In many countries, deforestation, both naturally occurring and human induced, is an ongoing issue.
Deforestation causes extinction, changes to climatic conditions, desertification, and displacement of populations as observed by current conditions and in the past through the fossil record.  Among countries with a per capita GDP of at least US$4,600, net deforestation rates have ceased to increase. [when? ] ————————————————- Causes According to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) secretariat, the overwhelming direct cause of deforestation is agriculture.
Subsistence farming is responsible for 48% of deforestation; commercial agriculture is responsible for 32% of deforestation; logging is responsible for 14% of deforestation and fuel wood removals make up 5% of deforestation.  Experts do not agree on whether industrial logging is an important contributor to global deforestation.  Some argue that poor people are more likely to clear forest because they have no alternatives, others that the poor lack the ability to pay for the materials and labour needed to clear forest. 10] One study found that population increases due to high fertility rates were a primary driver of tropical deforestation in only 8% of cases.  Other causes of contemporary deforestation may include corruption of government institutions, the inequitable distribution of wealth and power, population growth andoverpopulation, and urbanization.  Globalization is often viewed as another root cause of deforestation, though there are cases in which the impacts of globalization (new ? ws of labor, capital, commodities, and ideas) have promoted localized forest recovery.  The last batch of sawnwood from thepeat forest in Indragiri Hulu, Sumatra,Indonesia. Deforestation for oil palmplantation. In 2000 the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) found that “the role of population dynamics in a local setting may vary from decisive to negligible,” and that deforestation can result from “a combination of population pressure and stagnating economic, social and technological conditions.  The degradation of forest ecosystems has also been traced to economic incentives that make forest conversion appear more profitable than forest conservation.  Many important forest functions have no markets, and hence, no economic value that is readily apparent to the forests’ owners or the communities that rely on forests for their well-being.  From the perspective of the developing world, the benefits of forest as carbon sinks or biodiversity reserves go primarily to richer developed nations and there is insufficient compensation for these services.
Developing countries feel that some countries in the developed world, such as the United States of America, cut down their forests centuries ago and benefited greatly from this deforestation, and that it is hypocritical to deny developing countries the same opportunities: that the poor shouldn’t have to bear the cost of preservation when the rich created the problem.  Some commentators have noted a shift in the drivers of deforestation over the past 30 years. 25] Whereas deforestation was primarily driven by subsistence activities and government-sponsored development projects like transmigration in countries like Indonesia and colonization in Latin America,India, Java, and so on, during late 19th century and the earlier half of the 20th century. By the 1990s the majority of deforestation was caused by industrial factors, including extractive industries, large-scale cattle ranching, and extensive agriculture.   Wildlife conservation is the practice of protecting endangered plant and animal species and their habitats.
Among the goals of wildlife conservation are to ensure that nature will be around for future generations to enjoy and to recognize the importance of wildlife and wilderness lands to humans. Many nations are government agencies dedicated to wildlife conservation, which help to implement policies designed to protect wildlife. Numerous independent nonprofit organizations also promote various wildlife conservation causes.  Wildlife conservation has become an increasingly important practice due to the negative effects of human activity on wildlife. The science of extinction.
An endangered species is defined as a population of a living being that is at the danger of becoming extinct because of several reasons. Either they are few in number or are threatened by the varying environmental or predation parameters. ————————————————- Government involvement The Wildlife Conservation Act was enacted by the Government of India in 1972. Soon after the trend of policy makers enacting regulations on conservation a strategy was developed to allow actors, both government and non-government, to follow a detailed “framework” to successful conservation.
The World Conservation Strategy was developed in 1980 by the “International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources “(IUCN) with advice, cooperation and financial assistance of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Wildlife Fund and in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco)” The strategy aims to “provide an intellectual framework and practical guidance for conservation actions.  This thorough guidebook covers everything from the intended “users” of the strategy to its very priorities and even a map section containing areas that have large seafood consumption therefore endangering the area to over fishing. The main sections are as follows: * The objectives of conservation and requirements for their achievement: 1. Maintenance of essential ecological processes and life-support systems. 2. Preservation of genetic diversity. 3. Sustainable utilization of species and ecosystems. * Priorities for national action: 1. A framework for national and subnational conservation strategies. . Policy making and the integration of conservation and development. 3. Environmental planning and rational use allocation. * Priorities for international action: 1. International action: law and assistance. 2. Tropical forests and drylands. 3. A global programme for the protection of genetic resource areas. Map sections: 1. Tropical forests 2. Deserts and areas subject to desertification. Importance Of Wildlife 37 6 StumbleUpon4 If you were of the opinion that cultivated plants and domesticated animals is what wildlife consists of, you are mistaken.
Wildlife, in fact, comprises of the innumerous varieties of wild plants, animals, fungi and microorganisms that exist on our planet earth, rather than just cultivated plants and domesticated animals. Knowingly or unknowingly, we largely depend on this wildlife for every elementary requirement in our life. The food we eat, the clothes we wear, the medicines we consume, a variety of building materials used for construction, numerous chemicals used for manufacturing our necessities, all are extracted from the wildlife existing around us.
A study by the American Association for the Advancement of Science indicates that as many as 40,000 species of plants, animals, fungi and microscopic animals benefit us in some way or the other. To know the various benefits that this wildlife provides us, read on further. Benefits Of Wildlife Benefits To People Wildlife and nature have largely been associated with humans for numerous emotional and social reasons. A simple stroll around the park amidst some birds provides a fresh breath of life and charges our batteries. Apart from bird feeder in the backyard, we can also take up other active pastimes, such as hiking, hunting, canoeing or wildlife photographing to relieve our parched nerves. Since prehistoric times, animals have been highly useful to us in providing food, clothing and source of income. Benefits To Natural Processes Wildlife plays an essential role in the ecological and biological processes that are yet again significant to life. The normal functioning of the biosphere depends on endless interactions amongst animals, plants, and microorganisms. This, in turn, maintains and enhances human life further.
To add on, these ecological processes are vital for agriculture, forestry, fisheries and other endeavors that support human life. Besides, there are several biological processes wherein wildlife plays a key role, such as pollinization, germination, seed dispersal, soil generation, nutrient cycling, predation, habitat maintenance, waste breakdown, and pest control. Benefits to Science, Agriculture, & Medicine Studies indicate that woodpeckers are capable of destroying 90% of codling moth larvae residing under the bark of trees. This shows the significance of wildlife and wildlife habitat for preserving genetic diversity.
Hence, places where agriculture, forests, and fisheries depend on crops or stocks can ensure that such living resources are enough to withstand the ever-increasing list of threats. Further, in medicine, development of new drugs and treatments are largely dependent on wildlife and wildlife habitat. Interestingly, most pharmaceutical products are a result of discovering or developing wildlife species and not discoveries through the traditional chemistry principles. Today, most medicinal remedies contain at least one ingredient derived from a wild plant or animal.