ED 6000 Philosophical Foundations in Education Beginning Questions ! ? ! ? ! ? ! ? ! ? 2-3 sentence responses foundation of your philosophy paper reflects your current stance/belief 30 minutes keep a copy for your final personal philosophy paper Scriptural Focus Deut. 6:1-9 Now this is the commandment, the statutes and the judgments which the LORD your God has commanded me to teach you, that you might do them in the land where you are going over to possess it, so that you and your son and your grandson might fear the LORD your God, to keep all His statutes and His commandments which I command you, all the days of your life, and that your days may be prolonged. Scriptural Focus Deut. 6:1-9 Israel, you should listen and be careful to do it, that it may be well with you and that you may multiply greatly, just as the LORD, the God of your fathers, has promised you, in a land flowing with milk and honey.
Hear, O Israel! The LORD is our God, the LORD is one! Scriptural Focus Deut. 6:1-9 You shall love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your might. These words, which I am commanding you today, shall be on your heart. You shall teach them diligently to your sons and shall talk of them when you sit in your house and when you walk by the way and when you lie down and when you rise up. Scriptural Focus Deut. 6:1-9 You shall bind them as a sign on your hand and they shall be as frontals on your forehead. You shall write them on the doorposts of your house and on your gates.
A HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION ! ? Big Ideas: ! ? ! ? ! ? What are the enduring principles that have stood the test of time? To what extent are the principles being applied in today s classrooms? List the big ideas that you have experienced in today s classrooms and or those that should, from your perspective, be a part of current educational practice. A HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION ! ? Hebrews ! ? ! ? longest recorded western history teaching of religion and moral training A HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION ! ? Greeks ! ? ! ? ! ? ! ? ! ? ! ? city-state civilization based on slavery achieve elegant leisure ignity of the citizen letters, music, gymnastics conscripted military service A HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION Romans ! ? ! ? ! ? patricians, plebeians, freed men and slaves piety, courage, honesty, dignity, sobriety A HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION ! ? Christian ! ? ! ? ! ? change of heart attain peace and growth in body, mind, and spirit underground schools ! ? A HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION Renaissance (New Birth) ! ? ! ? Seven Liberal arts ! ? trivium: grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic or logic ! ? quadrivium: arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music Renaissance Man da Vinci ! ? oastfulness, individualism and a resentment toward authority A HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION Reformation (1500-1750) ! ? ! ? ! ? ! ? ! ? ! ? ! ? ! ? ! ? educated class advocated reform Germany-moral indignation England-remove wealth from the church Geneva-strictly theologicals England became largely Protestant back to the basics grammar/spelling Inquisition court of heresy Heliocentrism (Copernicus) A HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION ! ? Jan Amos Comenius (1592-1627) ! ? developmental stages ! ? infant, child, youth, adult ! ? Orbis Pictus 1653-54 – the first picture book for school children
A HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION ! ? Enlightenment & Revolution (1750-1830 ! ? Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-78) ! ? Romanticism ! ? Emile ! ? On Education ! ? The Social Contract A HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION ! ? Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852) ! ? ! ? The child will come to understand the world through creative play facilitated by the use of geometric objects (labeled by Froebel as gifts ) in which pure form is dominant. 1840 Pedagogics of the Kindergarten A HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION ! ? Maria Montessori (1870-1952) ! ? 1896 University of Rome s first woman physician graduate ! 1912 Montessori Method: Scientific Pedagogy ! ? If one fails to learn, there is a natural punishment that takes place as a loss of the consciousness of our own power and greatness, which constitute the quality of manhood. A HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION ! ? Maria Montessori (1870-1952) ! ? ! ? ! ? The classroom must be a prepared environment The classroom must always contain stimulating apparatus, objects, toys, and literature in order to capture the child s inner drives to be active. sensitive periods A HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION ! ? John Dewey (1859-1952) ! ? ! ? ! ? ? psychologist, philosopher, educator, social critic and political activist Progressivism moral relativism applied evolutionary theory to ! ? biology ! ? geology ! ? anthropology A HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION ! ? John Dewey (1859-1952) ! ? Morality is learned within a social context by observing appropriate rules, which emerge from shared experience. ! ? Values are defined through use of the scientific method as one selects a choice of action and how it will effect self, others, the community, and the environment. A HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION Catholic Church (1929) ! ?
Every method of education founded, wholly or in part, on the denial or forgetfulness of original sin and grace, and relying on the sole powers of human nature, is unsound… A HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION ! ? …Such, generally speaking, are those modern systems bearing various names which appeal to a pretended self-government and unrestrained freedom on the part of the child, and which diminish or even suppress the teacher s authority and action, attributing to the child an exclusive primacy of initiative, and an activity independent of any higher law, natural or divine, in the work of his education.
Catholic Church (1929) A HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION ! ? Scientific or Logical Positivism (1950-1967) ! ? ! ? ! ? purpose of education national development stand against the threat of communism ! ? U. S. Department of Education ! ? ! ? ! ? President Jackson signed legislation that created the first Department of Education in1867 (non-cabinet level) that lasted less than a year President Charter signed Public Law 96-88 The Department of Education Organization Act in 1979 Reagan established it as a cabinet-level agency in 1981 A HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION ! ? Burrhus Frederic Skinner (1904-1990) ? ! ? ! ? operant behavior teaching machines Beyond Freedom and Dignity A HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION ! ? Multiculturalism & Private Schools (1980-1990) ! ? Mortimer Adler (1982) ! ? ! ? ! ? The Paideia Proposal: An Educational Manifesto liberal, non-specialized education without electives or vocational classes three purposes ! ? ! ? ! ? use leisure time well earn their living ethically teach people to be responsible citizens in a democracy ! ? A Nation at Risk (1983) ! ? ! ? ! ? National Commission of Excellence in Education The Imperative For Educational Reform
If an unfriendly foreign power had attempted to impose on America the mediocre educational performance that exists today, we might well have viewed it as an act of war. As it stands, we have allowed this to happen to ourselves… A HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION ! ? …We have even squandered the gains in student achievement made in the wake of the Sputnik challenge. Moreover, we have dismantled essential support systems which helped make those gains possible. We have, in effect, been committing an act of unthinking, unilateral educational disarmament. A Nation at Risk (1983) ! ? A Nation at Risk (1983) ? ! ? ! ? ! ? strengthen graduation requirements five new basics: English, mathematics, science, social studies, and computer science adopt higher and measurable standards for academic performance significantly increase time students spend engaged in learning Strengthen the teaching profession through higher standards for preparation and professional growth ! ? A HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION ! ? Standards (1998-present) ! ? ! ? ! ? ! ? Academic Content Standards for Students No Child Left Behind Academic Performance Indicator (API) scores National Board for Professional Teaching Standards