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Type Ii Diabetes Mellitus Among African Americans

Type II Diabetes Mellitus among African Americans Type II Diabetes Mellitus is an adult-onset diabetes that affects 90% of the diabetes patients.It is when the body does not recognize the insulin being produced by the pancreas, or not enough is produced.Insulin is a hormone that causes different cells to take up glucose for energy.

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Resistance to insulin causes the build up of glucose in the blood, which causes improper functions of cells and blood circulation, damage to nerves and blood vessels. The prevalence of type II diabetes is highest in African Americans among ethnic and racial groups.

African American type II diabetic populations have tripled in 1993 when compared to 1963. Type II diabetes is mostly developed after age 40, but the age is getting younger due to high rates of obese populations among African Americans. Major causes for such high rates include, hereditary traits, hyperinsulinemia, poor diet, obesity, smoking habits and lack of physical activity. Some symptoms to notice are frequent urination, increased thirst and hunger, dry mouth, blurred vision, skin irritation and fatigue. Medical doctor diagnoses it after a confirmatory test called fasting plasma glucose test (FPG).

Blood is drawn while fasting and analyzed for blood glucose levels. Normal is considered to be between 70 to 100 milligrams per deciliter, and if it greater than or equal to 126 milligrams per deciliter, one is said to have diabetes. Although oral medications are available, type II diabetes can be controlled by proper diet and exercise. Frequent self-testing for glucose levels using a glucometer can provide information on how well you are doing managing the levels. Frequent doctor visits for glucose tests are recommended.

If left uncontrolled, it can cause eye diseases such as retinopathy, which is more prevalent in African Americans than Caucasian Americans. It can also lead to kidney failure, amputation and the worst-case scenario, diabetic coma. Prevention is important to decrease these chances and avoid serious health consequences. Bibliography Search: 1. Tuomilehto, Jaakko, Lindstrom, Jaana, Eriksson, Johan G. , Valle, Timo T. , Hamalainen, Helena, Ilanne-Parikka, Pirjo, Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka, Laakso, Mauri, Louheranta, Anne, Rastas, Merja, Salminen, Virpi, Aunola,

Sirkka, Cepaitis, Zygimantas, Moltchanov, Vladislav, Hakumaki, Martti, Mannelin, Marjo, Martikkala, Vesa, Sundvall, Jouko, Uusitupa, Matti, the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study Group. Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus by Changes in Lifestyle among Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance. New England Journal of Medicine. 344 (2001): 1343-1350. 2. Brancati, FL. “Incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in African American and white adults – The atherosclerosis risk in communities study. ” Journal of the American Medical Association 283. 17 (2000): 2253-2259. 3. Robbins, JM, Vaccarino, V, Zhang, H, Kasl, SV. Socioeconomic status and type 2 diabetes in African American and non-Hispanic white women and men: evidence from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. ” American Journal of Public Health 91. 1 (2001): 76-83. 4. Signorello, Lisa B. , Schlundt, David G. , Cohen, Sarah S. , Steinwandel, Mark D. , Buchowski, Maciej S. , McLaughlin, Joseph K. , Hargreaves, Margaret K. , Blot, William J. “Comparing Diabetes Prevalence Between African Americans and Whites of Similar Socioeconomic Status. ” American Journal of Public Health 97 (2007): 2260-2267. 5.

Bell RA, Summerson JH, Konen JC: Dietary intakes by levels of glycemic control for black and white adults with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). J Am Coll Nutr 14 (1995):144–154. 6. Weatherspoon LJ, Kumanyika SK, Ludlow R, Schatz D: Glycemic control in a sample of black and white clinic patients with NIDDM. Diabetes Care 17(1994):1148–1153. 7. Wisdom K, Fryzek JP, Havstad SL, Anderson RM, Dreiling MC, Tilley BC: Comparison of laboratory test frequency and test results between African-Americans and Caucasians with diabetes: opportunity for improvement.

Diabetes Care 20 (1997):971–977. 8. Fagot-Campagna, A. “Emergence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children: epidemiological evidence. ” Journal of Pediatric Endocrinol Metab. 13. 6 (2000). 9. Osei K, Rhinesmith S, Gaillard T, Schuster D P. “Impaired Insulin Sensitivity, Insulin Secretion, and Glucose Effectiveness Predict Future Development of Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes in Pre-Diabetic African Americans: Implications for primary diabetes prevention. ” Diabetes Care 27 (2004):1439-1446. 10. Osei K, Gaillard T, Schuster D P.

Pathogenetic mechanisms of impaired glucose tolerance and type II diabetes in African-Americans. The significance of insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, and glucose effectiveness. Diabetes Care 20 (1997):396-404 11. Danadian K, Balasekaran G, Lewy V, Meza M P, Robertson R, Arslanian S A. “Insulin sensitivity in African-American children with and without family history of type 2 diabetes. ” Diabetes Care August 22 (1995):1325-1329. 12. National Institutes of Health–NIDDK: Diabetes in African Americans. In Diabetes in America. 2nd ed. No. 95–1468 ed. , 1995,p. 613–629

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