Chapter 3The Renaissance 1485 – 1660 B. Introducing Political Points of View 1. 2. Francis bacon rose to his chosen profession, the law, until he reached the very top and became Lord Chancellor. At the height of his political career, he was found guilty of taking bribes and was removed from office. Bacon made an important contribution to many different branches of government: political science, economics, physics, literature, architecture, and etc. Bacon’s is most famous for his vision of humanity’s future. Bacon’s best known literary works, The Essays, are intended to help people get ahead in life.
Bacon had embarked on a new career as a practicing scientist, when death overtook him. In 1626, Bacon fell ill during his experiment of freezing a dead chicken to preserve it. In all of Bacon’s works, his aim was to make the world better. 3. “Quickwrite” – five views - You have no knowledge unless you open yourself up to learning. - Reading increases your vocabulary. - Learning opens up your doors to a greater future. - Learning gives you a greater ability to succeed. - Reading will broaden your views on others and their knowledge, along with increasing your knowledge. . “Vocabulary Development” -The disclosure was set to be given on his inaugural day. -His sloth put him off from completing his work on time. -Her affectation earned her the perfect job. -The diligence of the student earned him the well deserved A+. -We battled threw one more impediment before we reached our goal. 5. “Yellow Boxed Question’s” 1. Studies serve for the delight, for ornament, and for ability. Their chief use for delight is in privacy and leisure; for ornament, is in discourse; and ability, is in the judgment and disposition of business. 2.
Bacon concludes that reading is to weigh and consider and not to be taken for granted. 3. The difference among books are meant to be ‘tasted,” and books that are meant to be “swallowed,” and books meant to be chewed and digested,” is that some books “are to be read only in parts; others to be read, but not carefully; and some few to be read wholly with diligence and attention. ” 4. Studies are to the mind as a thumb is to a hand. 6. 7. ”Literary Response and Analysis” 1. Studies can be misused by being sloth. 2. Reading should be used to weigh and consider, but not to be taken for granted. . The readings of: histories, poems, mathematics, natural philosophy, moral philosophy, and logical rhetoric makes us wise. 4. I think that Bacon’s main idea is one of every day, “knowledge is power,” is great. Without knowledge how can we succeed if we don’t have some substance to get us started to succeed. Just like Bacon said “the plots and marshaling of affairs, come best from those that are learned. ” 5. Studying can be sloth but to a certain extent, it contradicts itself. If you study too much, you don’t put forward all that studying into something other than studying continually.
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If you don’t study enough you can’t put forward an idea without the knowledge of a person who has studying the subject for a long period of time. So it just contradicts itself over and over again. 6. In “Of Studies” you can see a bit of Bacon’s cynical mind, for example “books are meant to be tasted, swallowed, chewed and digested,” a book is meant to be read. 9. Bacon’s views are still relevant today, “knowledge is power” and other points are used to encourage people, especially children to help them succeed with life. 9. “Yellow Boxed Questions” 1.
The speaker contrasts the situation of women with that of men by describing how men treat women and how women “live like bats or owls, labor like beasts, and die like worms” 2. The second speaker criticizes the first speaker about how she explain the miseries of women, but no solutions to get rid of them. 3. The third speaker feels very differently from the other two speakers. She states “we have no reason to speak against men…they are our protectors, defenders and maintainers. ” She has a complete different opinion than the other two speakers. . You can infer that the seventh speaker is a confident women, the other three women see themselves as inferior, unlike the seventh speaker who sees women as “noble ladies, honorable gentlewomen, and female-commoners” worthy. You can tell she’s comfortable and respects herself enough to speak of women that way. 5. The speaker’s repeated uses of “if…then” is able to effect the women to be confident by giving them a statement about a man and returning with a greater and more positive thing a woman is. . According to the seventh speaker, women have no reason to complain because we do not waste our lives or beauty or our tender lives because we’re not out digging in mines or go on dangerous voyages, or burn our faces with smiths’. The gifts that have been given to women are much better, since women are favored by nature in giving us beauties, features and shapes, that attracts men and are forced to admire and love a woman. 7. I agree with the seventh speaker, women are favored by nature, giving us the beauties.
A man has his attributes to be strong and lean, as well as a woman can be strong, It goes either way, each gender is unique and has both its weaknesses and strengths. 10. “Comparing Political Assumptions” -Question #3 Response. In the excerpts from Margaret Cavendish’s Female Options, each of the speakers has their own opinion, voice, and argument. The first three speakers all contain the same starting phrase, “Ladies, gentlewomen, and other inferior women…” Bring the three speakers together, but all contain their own definition to inferior women.
The first speaker wishes to be equal to a man and argues that “men are happy, and we women are miserable. ” Men have the power and the women are helpless, the men have the power to have all the freedom they want, including taking a woman away from their freedoms. Unlike the first speaker, the woman does not complain about the men. She knows she has no right with them, “our words to men are as empty as sounds,” but she does complain that the first speaker does not speak of any solutions against the men. The speaker tries to solve the problem with them men, yet everything she thinks of is easily disregarded by a man.
As well as the first speaker she gives up hope. The third speaker finally speaks highly of men. She argues that there is no reason to speak against the men, “who are admires and lovers; they are our protectors, defenders, and maintainers; they admire our beauties, and love our persons….. all which we could not do ourselves. ” The problem is not with the men, the speaker brings to the table the conflict against Nature. Nature made men more ingenious, witty, and wise. The speaker wants you to love, praise, and pray for men.
Without men, women would be miserable the way Nature wanted them to be. Finally the seventh speaker, bring on the greatest change by presenting herself and the rest as “Noble ladies, honorable gentlewomen, and worthy female-commoners. ” The effects the people by an “if…then” structure. She puts down the strength of men by showing positive traits of a woman and telling you how Nature wanted women to be that way. The ones being punished is the men having to deal with the hardships of the work, being burned by smiths, fight in battles, take on dangerous voyages, or digging in mines.
Nature blessed the woman with beauties, features, and enticing attractive. Men are the ones who suffer, they are forced to admire a woman and love us. Compared to the seventeenth century, women still doubt if they are the inferior sex. Compared to the seventeenth century, it is no longer valid for the man to just receive the education or take on the “strong” men job, such a digging in mines or fight in battles. Women are treated equally according to the government, woman may do as they please without the oppression of being a woman, yet its not all ways this way and women are till being oppressed for their “inferior” role. 10. “Summary of John Milton” Early in John Milton’s life it was said that he’d be a great poet. His teachers parents encouraged him in his ambition in poetry. Milton’s father was a musician and a prosperous business man. Milton received his education at St. Paul’s School and Cambridge University. Milton spent eight years after college continuing his education by himself, since he firmly believed that a poet must be a person of learning, familiar with ancient and contemporary philosophy, history, languages, and literatures.
Milton believed that a poet must be active in the life of his time and entered the paper warfare that accompanied the conflict between King Charles and his Parliament. Some of his work was very elaborate and a few of them very insulting in support of the Parliament party. Some people have referred Milton as a Puritan because of his work. During part of this period, Milton served in the government of England under Oliver Cromwell. Milton was responsible for translating all correspondence with foreign countries. Milton’s eyesight was gradually falling. By 1652, he could only distinguish day from night.
By the age of forty-four, before he had finished his life work, Milton was completely blind. Milton published Paradise Lost twice: first in a ten book version in 1667 and then in twelve books in 1676, the year of his death. It is not exaggeration to say that Milton in one way or another worked on this epic all his life. Paradise Lost is one of the most brilliant achievements in English poetry. 11. “Yellow Boxed Questions” 1. The subject of Milton’s story is man’s first disobedience. 2. Milton’s purpose is to show men how God was and his ways. 3. The loss of happiness and pain torments Satan in hell. 4.
Milton uses the images of a great furnace flames, yet no light from the flame, no darkness visible, and regions of sorrow to describe hell Chapter 4 The Restoration and 18th Century 1660 – 1800 A. A Modest Proposal, Top of the Food Chain, from Don Quixote 1. “Summary of Jonathan Swift” Jonathan Swift is the principal prose writer of the early eighteenth century and England’s greatest satirist. Swift was a Anglo – Irishman. Swift was born in Dublin of English parents. Swift was abducted by his nurse which he spent three years in England with her. Swift went to England to become Secretary to Sir William Temple.
The job gave him the opportunity to mingle with the public, read, and look about for a more important and permanent position. Swift did not write for fame or money; most of his books and pamphlets were published anonymously. Swift’s aim in writing was to improve human conduct, to make people more decent and humane. 2. Verbal Irony- occurs when a writer or speaker says one thing but really means something quite different. Logical Appeals- using evidence such as facts or statistics to support a position. Emotional Appeals- passages that use words that arouse strong feelings.
Ethical Appeals- passages that establish the writer’s qualifications and sincerity. 3. “Vocabulary Sentences. ” 1. The homeless man had no sustenance to continue with his life. 2. Our landfills are glutted with trash. 3. The young man had no deference for his parents. 4. It was very scrupulous to decide which college to attend. 5. The newspapers were unanimous in their censure of the tax proposal. 6. It is expedient that you go. 7. The conversation slowly digressed over time. 8. The woman procured the first tickets on sale. 9. The press only gives the public the brevity of the story. 10. The poor man had much animosity against the rich man. 1. 6. “Practice” 1. A- dismayed : happy. 2. A- foolish : intense. 3. B- cautious : careless. 4. B- emotion : happiness. 7. Satire- any piece of writing designed to make its readers feel critical of themselves, of their fellow human beings, and of their society. Some satire’s purpose is to make us laugh at human foolishness and weakness, these satires are good natured and laugh provoking. Other satires may make us laugh, but it is often laughter of a bitter kind, arising from anger and indignation at human vices and crimes. 8. “Summary of Miguel de Cervantes” Miguel de Cervantes was born near Madrid, Spain in 1547.
In 1569, Cervantes saw no prospects at home and enlisted in the army, fought valiantly, and was wounded at the Battle of Lepanto. His left hand was crippled, earning him the nickname el manco de Lepanto. Cervantes hoped to be promoted to an army captain after the way, but his plans were ruined when he was captured by Barbary pirates and held as a slave for five years in Algeria. Over the years he worked as a playwright, bureaucrat, and tax collector before finally landing in jail for failure to pay his debts. According to legend, it was while he was in jail that the idea for Don Quioxte came to Cervantes.
The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of La Mancha was published in January of 1605 and immediately caused sensation. Cervantes, at the age of fifty-five, was now a famous author, but he still was poor. Spain’s greatest writer died in poverty on April 22, 1616. 9. B. Women’s Rights: Introducing Political Points of View 1. 2. “Summary of Mary Wollstonecraft” English feminism begins with Mary Wollstonecraft who demanded “Justice for one half of the human race,” that is, women. At nineteen and self-educated, Wollstonecraft left home to work in some of the few occupations legally available to single women.
She became a governess for a wealthy Irish family and witnessed the “dissipated lives the women of quality lead. ” Wollstonecraft left Ireland and moved to London to work as an editorial assistant. Wollstonecraft publishes A Vindication f Rights of Men, which defended the principles of human equality underlying the French revolution. Later Wollstonecraft published A vindication of the Rights of Woman, an impassioned criticism of social and economic institutions that sanctioned women’s inequality. Mary Wollstonecraft died from septicemia and her daughter successes to write the famous Frankenstein. . “Vocabulary Sentences” 1. The husband showed great solicitude toward his wife’s health. 2. We had to have a non partial jury. 3. The man deplored staying home than going on the camping trip. 4. The teacher could not control the fastidious class. 5. His specious attitude did not win over his boos. 6. The new law was to be abrogated by the public. 7. Her story as very cursory to believe. 8. We gave a cursory glance at the headlines. 9. The girl had a insipid personality. 10. The Alcoholic had a propensity to drink too much. 4. “Vocabulary Development” 1.
A parent would show great solicitude for their children’s grades. 2. The opposite of a partial juror, is a impartial juror. 3. The opposite of deplore would be to accept. 4. The opposite of a fastidious person would be a calm person. 5. You would reject a specious argument because it is not true. 6. If you have abrogated your responsibilities, you have abandoned them. 7. The opposite of a cursory investigation would be a true investigation. 8. If you vitiate a argument you weaken it. 9. The opposite of a insipid argument would be a upbeat argument. 10. If you have a propensity for lying people would never believe you.
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