A limited time offer!

urgent 3h delivery guaranteed

The Effectiveness of Time Management Strategies for Improving Academic Performance Among College Freshmen

Essay Topic: ,

The Effectiveness of Time Management Strategies for Improving Academic Performance Among College Freshmen Iris Hill University of West Alabama Author Note Iris R. Hill, Education Department, Class 504- Techniques of Educational Research, Dr. Reenay Rogers, the University of West Alabama.

We will write a custom essay sample on The Effectiveness of Time Management Strategies for Improving Academic Performance Among College Freshmen

or any similar topic only for you

Order Now

This research was not supported by any institutional grants or additional financial support. The author would like to extend a special thanks to Dr. Reenay Rogers, for support and guidance during the preparation for the manuscript.

The research reported does not reflect the views of the Mississippi State University, or the University of West Alabama. Iris R. Hill, 300 Carver Drive, Livingston, AL 12345. [email protected] edu Abstract As college freshman search for ways to “fit-in” during their first few months of college life, it is important that they are introduced to time management techniques and strategies to improve their chances for academic success. The effectiveness of time management strategies among college freshmen at Mississippi State University, will be examined during the implementation of a freshman orientation class.

A group of students that participate in a freshman orientation class will be introduced to time management strategies, to observe if academic improvement occurred. Another group of students will participate in another freshman orientation class without the time management component, to observe if academic improvement occurs or if grade point averages remain the same. Together, these findings will suggest that time management strategies do help to improve academic performance among college freshman.

Keywords:academic performance, stress variables, grade point average, peers, aptitude, time management The Effectiveness of Time Management Strategies for Improving Academic Performance Among College Freshman Numerous occasions college students have not had to regulate their time systematically before attending college because they are smart and weren’t really challenged in high school. This situation often differs in college because everyone who goes to college did academically well in high school, but the full selection are allocated.

Students who received A’s and B’s, or above average grades in high school, are now receiving C’s and D’s, or average to below average grades in college. Those students receiving lower grades are likely no less competent than those receiving higher grades, but often their study habits, including time management, are less productive. A correct rule to manage time does not exist; however, it is critical for a person to become familiar with his or her self, so that they can make substantial decisions about how to use his or her time.

We all are given 168 hours in a week to use, however, some individuals make better use of this time than others. Previous research suggested that many academically achieved students do not investigate their academic success. They tend to be successful and are satisfied with the study skills and time management techniques they have cultivated to guarantee that they accomplish their objectives (Balduf, 2009). Problem to be Investigated This study examines the problem of whether or not the effective use of time management strategies will improve academic performance among college freshmen.

This is a problem because far too many first-time college freshman find themselves not prepared for the rigors of college life and academics. When college students learn how to effectively incorporate time management strategies into their daily, weekly, and monthly schedules and itineraries, it can help to reduce stress and fatigue, achieve goals and objectives, and improve academic achievement. Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study is to discover if effective time management strategies and techniques can improve academic performance among college freshmen.

The time management strategies that will be used in this study are demonstrated to be effective, adaptive, task-oriented, and individualistic. If these strategies and techniques are effective, then college freshmen academic performance will improve. It is assumed that then colleges and universities could implement the time management strategies to improve academic achievement and performance among college freshmen. Justification of the Study Time management is a very important part of any person’s life.

Somehow, it never really becomes relevant until a person is in college, for the first time. Effective time management skills should be used in all aspects of a college student’s life. This study, if evidence supports this position, will improve academic performance by introducing time management strategies to first-time college freshmen. Time management is how a person manages his or her time according to Atkinson (1970). At times, many high performing students do not wonder about their academic achievement.

Colleges should be aware that even their academically successful applicants may lack the skills necessary to succeed (Greene, 1986). One of the ways that college freshmen are introduced to time management skills, is through a freshman orientation class, that is required for all college freshmen during their first year of college. Through experimentation, the researcher plans to provide others with useful information regarding the correlation between the effectiveness of time management strategies and student academic achievement. Research Question and Research Hypothesis

The research question is: Will the use of effective time management strategies improve academic performance among college freshmen? The research hypothesis is: Applying time management strategies and techniques will result in an improvement in academic performance among college freshmen. This hypothesis suggests the correlation between the dependent variable academic performance and the independent variable time management strategies. Definition of Terms Constitutive definitions- The following definitions were obtained from: www. dictionary. com Academic Performance is defined as “the execution or accomplishment related to certain areas of study”. • Stress Variables is defined as “the physical or mental strain exerted on one thing by another that is apt to change or alter behavior”. • Grade Point Average is defined as ” a measure of a student’s academic achievement at a college or university; calculated by dividing the total number of grade points received by the total number attempted”. • Peers is defined as “a person or group who is equal to another in abilities, qualifications, age, grade, background, and social status”. Aptitude is defined as “the readiness or quickness in learning; intelligence, ability – innate or acquired capacity for something”. • Time management is defined as “the analysis of how working hours are spent and the prioritization of tasks in order to maximize personal efficiency in the workplace and/or school”. Operational definitions • Stress variables will be any potential outside factors that may negatively affect academic performance. • Aptitude will be given in a form of a pretest or survey prior to the experimentation and a post-test will be given upon completion of the experiment.

Pre-tests and post-tests will be given to all experimental and control group participants. A comparison will be used to determine if time management strategies improved academic performance. Brief Overview of the Study The research would match the hypothesis in that, applying time management strategies will result in an improvement of academic performance according to academic grade point averages. The research study would include a random selected sample of 80 first- time college freshmen from a local university. The 80 students will participate for two semesters.

At the end of the first semester, without anyone receiving the time management strategies training, the entire group’s grade point averages will be recorded. The 80 students would be given a pretest in the form of a time management survey before the research period begins. The time management survey would determine the student’s familiarity with using time management strategies as well as the lack thereof. The 80 first- time college freshmen would be split into two groups consisting of forty students in each group. One group would be the experimental group, that would receive the time management strategies during a freshman orientation class.

The time management strategies that the 40 in the experimental group would receive, consist of: assessing and planning, adjusting and implementing, and evaluating. The other group would be a control group, that would receive a normal freshman orientation class without introducing time management strategies. This study would last for a nine month research period. At the end of the second semester, all of the student’s academic grade point averages would be recorded to determine if improved academic achievement actually occurred for the students in the experimental group, that received the freshman orientation class with the ime management strategies incorporated into the class curriculum. The differences in the in the grade point averages would be examined. Background and Review of Related Literature In order to understand student achievement in regards to persistence at learning objectives, and time management, many contemporary motivational models consider how much students are motivated to succeed in their school work. However, student achievement and persistence may not only be affected by their amount of study motivation, but also by the motivation to engage in alternative activities, as suggested by Atkinson (1970).

Time management is therefore an important aptitude, also for students (Vanheste, Lens, & Vandenberghe, 2001). Students must learn how to split their time over the various areas of interest, because spending too much time in challenging activities might keep them studying and climax in unsatisfactory achievement, as suggested by Gergen (1991). Theory Past studies have confirmed the importance of time management skills and undergraduate student’s academic performance. The consequences of other uses of time are still in debate.

Some researchers have discussed that students engaged in activities that command ambition and energy also accomplish more in the classroom, while students who participate mainly in docile activities, perform less than adequately (Balduf, 2009). Other researchers have discussed that students who are tied to the college campus or university through residence, work, or extracurricular activities, function better as an overall student, while those who are apart from the college or university campus tend to function less than average (Schwartz, 2000).

Many students are realistic about having to plan their work independently, and having to use time management skills to adjust to college life. Coleman and Freedman (1996) contend that many students find it difficult to regulate their self-study and keep up the rigors of college work. College students were not always sure how to prioritize their time. It is argued that colleges and universities should attempt to play a more “active role in helping first-year students to make sense of time management (Coleman and Freedman, 1996, p. 34). Studies Directly Related In previous studies of academically challenged college students, both motivation and goal determination were key factors in evaluating why students do not succeed academically. In a recent study, Hsieh, Sullivan, and Guerra (2007) found students whose grade point averages put them on academic probation (below a 2. 0) had goals that were counter-productive to academic achievement. The students that performed badly were less likely to seek out assistance in changing their academic outcomes (Hsieh et al. 2007). Shim and Ryan (2005) found that students who valued accomplishment- accomplishing the academic content regardless of the academic gain, had higher levels of motivation, while staying away from challenge and situations that could result in failure-connected to lower motivation and less than average time management skills. In a previous study, Whitmore (1989) discussed the causes of each person’s causes of academic failure. Participants associated their high school academic achievement to insignificant efforts.

They did not have to work hard to obtain the achievement they wanted, these students were never instructed, nor ever instructed themselves, on how to persevere through challenging issues. When these participants experienced challenging class work in college, they were not prepared to handle it. In addition, many other factors of the participants’ experiences played a part in their college underachievement: insufficient study habits, poor time management skills, and internal versus external motivation.

Research shows that when first-year college students or freshman, use time management strategies, it will help to improve their academic performance. McCown, Petzel, and Rupert (1987) contend that ” the student’s pre-entry characteristics, perceptions of the learning environment, reported work discipline, the use of deep information processing strategies, time management skills, and current academic performance” (p. 782) all play significant roles in the future academic development of the student.

There is a large amount of literature based on the influence of institutional characteristics on student achievement as well. Common sense infers and educational studies displays that individual contrasts in academic success are a result of disparities in cognitive and other abilities, but also from disparities in motivation. Parents and teachers both, often times associate disappointing academic school performance results, to a lack of motivation, rather than to inadequate abilities.

They argue that more academically motivated students spend more time and effort in their school work, which, in turn, lead to higher levels of academic success. The old proverb, “Practice makes perfect” may not always be true, but many underachieving students would benefit from devoting more time to school work. McCowan, Petzel, and Rupert (1987) found an important positive correlation of . 60 between extraversion and procrastination.

Extraverted students need stimulation and they want to find and investigate their environment, so they actively look for challenges, they are less likely to be curious in a broad wide range of activities. However, these expansive and varied interests might hinder them from studying, and heighten their study procrastination. The student’s habit of study procrastination is often not a development of low motivation or elevated concern of failure. Extraverted students do not possess the time management skills because other more exciting things always are more important.

The other factors involved can viewed as potential stress variables. As societal expectations about attending college have grown, professors report increasing numbers of students who are unprepared for the rigors of postsecondary education- not just more students with learning disabilities, but students (with or without special admission status) who are academically at-risk because of inadequate reading, writing, study, and time management skills.

This study by Graves (2011) provided professors and their graduate assistants, those in the lead concerning the interactions with students, with strategies and techniques they can use in the classroom, to assist with at-risk students, and help to raise their skills so that those students can effectively complete their studies. Graves (2011) discussed confirmed techniques that not only interest all students in a class, but also create the environment, while maintaining integrity and high expectations, to ensure at-risk and under-prepared college students to flourish academically and graduate with high grade point averages.

Rimm (1997) also explained how to work successfully with academic support components on campus. Within the system of recognizing those students who need help, building a rapport with them, implementing inclusive teaching techniques, and extending suitable instruction, the article submits the theory teachers will need, and efficient classroom techniques. Natale (1995) covered teaching philosophy and goals; issues of improving time management and study skills, as well as the application of “universal design” strategies.

The concepts discussed in the article can be easily integrated into any classroom, at any school or university. Studies Tangentially Related In a study by Dealtry (2004), it was suggested that a collaboration between higher education stakeholders is needed to develop an academic plan or centralized advising center to assist college freshman with selecting a major, time management, campus resources, and future goals to increase persistence and graduation rates. Administrators and faculty should work to develop programs to address retention needs of first-year students.

Further research should be conducted to examine how participation in co-extracurricular activities, living and learning on-campus communities, campus climate, and social integration and institution commitment components contribute to student retention and persistence. In some cases, there may be other causes or factors involved that may be related to a student not being able to utilize time management strategies. Schwartz (2000) explained that some students who appear to be lazy, simply lack the executive skills they need to stay organized and get their work done.

Schwartz (2000) told a story about a student with attention problems, whose academic performance started plummeting in high school. With the help of a peer advisor, Josh learned to manage his time better and complete his assignments. Schwartz (2000) shared several time management strategies that schools can use to help students become better prepared for college life. Procedures This study is a randomized pretest/posttest control group design. The hypothesis suggests a relationship between these two variables: academic performance (quantitative) and time management strategies (categorical).

Some possible extraneous variables that might affect the results are that students may not be receptive to the time management strategies shared by the graduate students and professors teaching the freshman orientation class. Also, students may or may not receive help implementing the time management strategies outside of the orientation class. The potential for harm to participants in this study are as follows: 1. ) The group of students not receiving the time management strategies or skills training may have lower academic performance than the treatment group, 2. Some freshmen may not be motivated to do the time management strategies as others, and therefore, some students may not receive quality time management skills training during the freshman orientation. To handle these potential problems, the researcher will: 1. ) Implement the time management strategies for the group not receiving the training after the experiment is completed. 2. ) Require that only graduate students be used to incorporate the time management strategies training, and those students would exemplify high levels of academic performance.

The possibilities of problems with confidentiality include: 1. ) If graduate students revealed the names of the students participating in the time management skills training class or 2. ) If the names of the students, who received the time management training, were revealed with academic performance scores. This study is of no risk to human subjects and the proposed research is conducted in “commonly accepted educational settings, involving normal educational practices”, in accordance with IRB category level I. Description of Research Design

A random sample of 80 first- year college freshmen would be given a pretest or time management survey to determine their current knowledge and application of time management strategies. The random sample of 80 students would also submit their grade point averages prior to the beginning of the study. The grade point average measures a student’s academic achievement at a college or university. It is calculated by dividing the total number of grade points received by the total number attempted. The 80 first- year college freshmen would be divided into two groups.

The experimental group, consisting of 40 students, would receive the time management strategies integrated into their freshman orientation class. The time management strategies that the 40 students in the experimental group would be receive is based on a time management plan developed by Weinstein (2003). Students would be given a three step plan consisting of: 1. ) Assessing and planning the schedule. 2. ) Adjusting the schedule. 3. ) Evaluating and implementing the schedule. These strategies will be taught and monitored weekly by professors and graduate assistants.

The control group, consisting of the other 40 first- year college freshmen, would receive the freshman orientation class without the time management strategies implemented. The study will be conducted over two semesters. Upon the completion of the study, all 80 students will submit their grade point averages and time management survey or quiz developed by Weinstein (2003). The differences in the academic improvement would be examined. Description of the Sample The sample includes 80 first- year college freshmen out of 1200, from a university in the southeast.

The 80 students are divided into two classrooms. One classroom will participate in the time management strategies training and the other will not. The students range in age from 19- 22 years old. In this study, each classroom consists of 20 females and 20 males. The ethnic breakdown is as follows: 75% Caucasian, 15% African American, 10% Hispanic, and 10% Asian American. The group of students for this study represented a various mixture of socioeconomic statuses, ranging from low-to high levels, as well as different levels of academic achievement (i. . , GPA’s from 1. 0- 4. 0). Each of the professors for the classrooms have taught time management components earlier in their careers. The graduate assistants who will monitor and observe the freshmen during this study, have successfully used time management strategies to enhance their own individual academic performance. Description of the Instruments Used The student’s grade point average is an existing instrument that will be used in this study. The grade point average measures a student’s academic achievement at a college or university.

It is calculated by dividing the total number of grade points received by the total number attempted. The grade point average adequately and logically measures the student’s comprehension in each subject area. The grade point average formula is appropriate for first-year college freshmen because it measures student academic achievement. The grade point averages will vary; however, the GPA formula is the same for each student. To check reliability over time, the GPA would be used to ensure the results are similar over the research time period.

The second instrument will be used to check for internal consistency, known as the “Time Management Quiz” and “Where Does Time Go? ” survey and questionnaire developed by Weinstein (2003). The Cronbach alpha (1975) instrument will measure the reliability of the answers from the surveys and questionnaires. the Cronbach alpha instrument is very useful because not only is it easily calculated, but it is also quite general and can be applied universally. The Cronbach alpha (1975) formula can be applied through a variety of tests and other measurements.

In referring to the Cronbach alpha (1975), the alpha level is a degree of reliability measurement which allows for the forecast of whether there is a probability of committing a Type 1 error, which is the prediction of chance that X exists. The Cronbach alpha (1975) assesses the reliability of a rating (measurement based on a pre-determined factor) by summarizing a group of test or survey answers (samples taken from a population or a population sample or census) which measure some underlying factor (e. g. some attributes of the test- taker).

A score is computed from each test item and the overall rating or scale, which is defined by the sum of these scores over all the test items. To establish whether the measures are consistent, a correlation is computed between the results obtained on the first administration of the survey or quiz to the following administrations. There are four uncontrollable variables of 1. ) practice and 2. ) fatigue 3. ) too short an interval, or 4. ) too few of the first test takers are not available for the posttests or surveys.

To check internal consistency, the Cronbach alpha (1975) instrument will be used to evaluate the scores on the “Time Management Quiz” and “Where Does Time Go? ‘ surveys at the beginning and the end of the research period. For checking validity, the Cronbach alpha (1975) tool will be used to compare the scores at the start and the end of the research period, and also with the GPA’s of the experimental group, the student’s receiving the time management strategies incorporated into their freshman orientation class.

All of these instruments together will measure current academic levels (GPA), time usage, habits, and attitudes, as well as basic concepts (conceptual knowledge), and applications by using open-ended questions assigned to numerical values. To ensure validity and reliability, the time management strategies are well described in the research proposal, so others can conduct the study if desired. Explanation of Procedures Followed A random sample of 80 first- time college freshmen would given a time management survey, and asked to submit their grade point averages prior to the research period.

Prior to starting the research, a consent form is mailed out to each randomly selected student. The form must be signed and returned before the student can participate in the study. The student’s names would be kept confidential by assigning numbers to students so that when data is reported, scores are identified only by a specific number. Also, the graduate students would be refreshed about confidentiality rules, and the importance of keeping names of students included in the study, confidential.

The time management would determine the student’s current knowledge and implementation of time management skills usage, habits, and attitudes, as well as basic concepts (conceptual knowledge), and applications by using open-ended questions assigned to numerical values. The time management strategies that the 40 freshman students in the experimental group will recieve, consists of: 1. ) Assessing and planning the schedule. 2. ) Adjusting the schedule. 3. ) Evaluating and implementing the schedule.

The control group, consisting of the other 40 first- time college freshmen, would take the freshman orientation class without the time management strategies incorporated. Both classrooms will be taught by the university professors with the assistance of graduate assistants for observation and monitoring. The research period will last a total of two semesters, to adequately measure and record academic achievement in regards to the implementation or lack of time management skills. The student’s would be given the time management quiz again, the posttest, along with the submission of their GPA’s.

The differences in the improvement of academic performance would be examined. Discussion of Internal Validity There are four threats to internal validity in this study. The four threats are subject characteristics, testing, history, and subject attitude. Subject characteristics could be a threat because the groups may be different according to gender, motivation, IQ, GPA’s, socioeconomic status, and attitudes. In this study, to control validity, groups will be randomly assigned while maintaining an equal number of males and females chosen for both groups. The second threat to validity is testing.

Testing is a threat to validity because it can produce anxiety for students involved. To control validity, testing or surveys will be given to both groups at the same time and on the same day, with the nine month period between both tests, while assuming that the pretest or survey has an equal effect on both groups. The third threat to internal validity is history. History is a threat because poor use of time management (i. e. , previous bad grades, study habits, extracurricular activities, and academic boredom) at the school may affect students’ attitudes and interest towards time management and academic achievement.

To control this threat to internal validity, documentation of any event that may occur and have an effect on the students, must be kept. It is also assumed that both groups would be affected equally by these events. The final threat to internal validity is subject attitude. Subject attitude is a threat because there is always the possibility of subjects altering or changing the behavior during a study. If the comparison or control group knows that the experimental group is receiving an enhanced version of the freshman orientation class (learning useful time management strategies and techniques), it may affect posttest scores.

To control this threat, a regular freshman orientation class invigorated with fun, unique, and original enhancements should be provided. Discussion of External Validity This study will be generalized to all first- time college freshmen attending Mississippi State University, which is the accessible population. The study will be able to generalize to all first-time college and university freshmen in the state. Most of the schools in the state are similar in characteristics to the chosen university, thus making the school a representative population to the state.

The study’s results will not be able to generalize past the region because of the population’s distinct characteristics. The results will be generalized to first-time college freshmen and academic improvement and not any other subject, because that is the subject the study involves. Time management strategies were not tested on other subject areas (i. e. , relationships, work), only academic achievement, in this study. References Atkinson, J. W. & Birch, D. (1970). The dynamics of action. New York: Wiley. Balduf, M. , (2009). Underachievement among college students. Journal of Advanced Academics, 20, (2), 274-295.

Coleman, H. L. K. , & Freedman, A. M. (1996). Effects of a structured group intervention on the achievement of academically at-risk undergraduates. Journal of College Student Development, 37, 631-636. Cronbach, L. J. (1975). Beyond the two disciplines of scientific psychology. American Psychologist, 30: 671-84. Dealtry, R. , (2004). The savvy learner. Journal of Workplace Learning, 16, 101-110. Gergen, K. J. (1991). The saturated self: Dilemmas of identity in contemporary life. New York: Basic Books. Greene, L. J. (1986). Kids who underachieve. New York: Simon and Schuster. Hsieh, P. , Sullivan, J. R. & Guerra, N. S. (2007). A closer look at college students: Self-efficacy and goal orientation. Journal of Advanced Academics, 18, 454-476. McCown, W. G. , Petzel, T. , & Rupert, T. (1987). An experimental study of some hypothesized behaviors and personality variables of college student procrastinators. Personality and Individual Differences, 8, 781-786. Natale, J. A. (1995). Making smart cool. The Executive Educator,17, 20-24. Rimm, S. (1997). An underachievement epidemic. Educational Leadership, 54, 18-22. Schwartz, B. (2000). Self-determination: The tyranny of freedom. American Psychologist, 55, 79-88.

Shim, S. , & Ryan, A. (2005). Changes in self-efficacy, challenge avoidance, and intrinsic value in response to grades: The role of achievement goals. The Journal of Experimental Education, 73, 333-349. Vanheste, T. , Lens, W. , & Vandenberghe, R. (2001). Motivation and learning styles among college freshmen. Leuven: University of Leuven. Weinstein, C. E. , (2003). Learning and study strategy inventory. Clearwater, FL: H & H Publishing Company. Whitmore, J. R. (1989). Re-examining the concept of underachievement. Understanding Our Gifted, 2, 1, 7-9. www. dictionary. com Appendix A Consent Form Iris Hill

The University of West Alabama Research Proposal Title: The Effectiveness of Time Management Strategies for Improving Academic Performance Among College Freshmen 1. What is the purpose of the study? The purpose of the study is to discover if time management strategies can improve academic performance among college freshman. There will not be any behavior modifications used; however, the study will be based on the information received prior to the beginning of the study and after the time management strategies are implemented during the study. 2. How was I chosen? Eighty first-time college freshmen were andomly selected to participate 3. What will be involved in participating? The eighty in-coming college freshmen would be divided into two groups. The eighty students will complete a pretest before the research period begins. The pretest will assess whether or not the student actively uses time management strategies and the current academic performance levels. The control group, consisting of forty students, will not receive any time management skills training during the freshman orientation class. The experimental group, consisting of forty students, would receive time management skills training during the reshman orientation class. Graduate students would be used to monitor and assist the freshman group with utilizing the time management strategies (experimental group) during the six month research period. At the end of the research period, both groups will be given a posttest, which is identical to the pretest. The results of the posttests of the experimental group will be compared to the results of the comparison group to determine if the effectiveness of time management strategies improved academic performance. 4. Who will know what I say? It is planned for the study to be published in a professional journal. 5.

What risks and benefits are associated with participation? The risks are that there will be no change in academic performance, or time management strategies might be used and not needed. The benefits are that there are possible improvements in academic performance. 6. What are my rights as a respondent? You may ask questions regarding the research, and they will be answered fully. Your participation in the study is voluntary; you may withdraw at any time. 7. What will be published? Following the completion of this research proposal, I plan to maintain my records for use in future publications and scholarly presentations.

I plan to publish my findings as articles in professional journals, with the ultimate goal of publishing a book or a chapter in a book. 8. If I want more information, whom can I contact about the study? This study has been approved by the University of West Alabama’s Internal Review Board for the Protection of Human Subjects. This board can be contacted through the office of Mrs. Patricia Pratt. In addition, my research advisor, Dr. Reenay Rogers, can be contacted at (205) 652-5423. ____________________________________________ Iris Hill, Project DirectorRespondent’s signature, date Appendix B Permission to Conduct Research

The University of West Alabama Iris Hill, Graduate Student 300 Carver Drive Livingston, AL 12345 September 1, 2011 Dr. James Stewart, Student Affairs Director Mississippi State University 123 College Avenue MSU, MS 39760 Dear Dr. Stewart, I would like to conduct a study using a random sample of in-coming college freshman for the 2011-2012 school year. The study proposes to research the effectiveness of time management strategies and skills on academic performance. The results of this study will improve the educational practice of professors and directly impact the study habits and skills, in regard to the academic achievement of students.

The study will take place from September 15, 2011 to March 15, 2011. It will be conducted by me, Ms. Iris Hill, a current graduate student. I feel that this research study is a very worthwhile endeavor for the students and the school. Please review the enclosed information in order to make a decision concerning the school’s ability to conduct this research. A consent form has been included. Sincerely, Ms. Iris Hill The University of West Alabama Appendix C Explanation of Instrument or Copy of Instrument The student’s grade point average is an existing instrument that will be used in this study.

The grade point average measures a student’s academic achievement at a college or university. It is calculated by dividing the total number of grade points received by the total number attempted. The grade point average adequately and logically measures the student’s comprehension in each subject area. The grade point average formula is appropriate for first-year college freshmen because it measures student academic achievement. The grade point averages will vary; however, the GPA formula is the same for each student.

To check reliability over time, the GPA would be used to ensure the results are similar over the research time period. The second instrument will be used to check for internal consistency, known as the “Time Management Quiz” and “Where Does Time Go? ” survey and questionnaire developed by Weinstein (2003). The Cronbach alpha (1975) instrument will measure the reliability of the answers from the surveys and questionnaires. the Cronbach alpha instrument is very useful because not only is it easily calculated, but it is also quite general and can be applied universally.

The Cronbach alpha (1975) formula can be applied through a variety of tests and other measurements. In referring to the Cronbach alpha (1975), the alpha level is a degree of reliability measurement which allows for the forecast of whether there is a probability of committing a Type 1 error, which is the prediction of chance that X exists. The Cronbach alpha (1975) assesses the reliability of a rating (measurement based on a pre-determined factor) by summarizing a group of test or survey answers (samples taken from a population or a population sample or census) which measure some underlying factor (e. . some attributes of the test- taker). A score is computed from each test item and the overall rating or scale, which is defined by the sum of these scores over all the test items. To establish whether the measures are consistent, a correlation is computed between the results obtained on the first administration of the survey or quiz to the following administrations. There are four uncontrollable variables of 1. ) practice and 2. ) fatigue 3. ) too short an interval, or 4. ) too few of the first test takers are not available for the posttests or surveys.

To check internal consistency, the Cronbach alpha (1975) instrument will be used to evaluate the scores on the “Time Management Quiz” and “Where Does Time Go? ‘ surveys at the beginning and the end of the research period. For checking validity, the Cronbach alpha (1975) tool will be used to compare the scores at the start and the end of the research period, and also with the GPA’s of the experimental group, the student’s receiving the time management strategies incorporated into their freshman orientation class.

All of these instruments together will measure current academic levels (GPA), time usage, habits, and attitudes, as well as basic concepts (conceptual knowledge), and applications by using open-ended questions assigned to numerical values. To ensure validity and reliability, the time management strategies are well described in the research proposal, so others can conduct the study if desired.

How to cite The Effectiveness of Time Management Strategies for Improving Academic Performance Among College Freshmen, Essays

Choose cite format:
The Effectiveness of Time Management Strategies for Improving Academic Performance Among College Freshmen. (2018, Jan 03). Retrieved October 14, 2019, from https://phdessay.com/the-effectiveness-of-time-management-strategies-for-improving-academic-performance-among-college-freshmen/.