Last Updated 17 Aug 2022

Informative Essay on Teenage Pregnancy

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Introduction

The theme I have selected for my portfolio is ‘Teenage Pregnancy.’ According to the United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund, “Teenage pregnancy can be defined as a teenage girl within the ages of 13-19, becoming pregnant.” My purpose for selecting this theme is to expose and generate awareness of the devastating effects of teenage pregnancy on education. Following the introduction is a reflective and expository piece. The reflective part of this portfolio is a monologue written from the point of view of a pregnant teenager, relating her personal feelings on the matter. The expository part is an eight minute speech that evaluates the statistics of teenage pregnancy and addresses the possible negative effects it can have on one’s education.

Through the reflective and expository piece, the intended audience will be able to understand and make decisive actions based on the theme presented. As a student studying biology and aspiring to be a doctor, the subject and career choice relates to the human body being physically unable to facilitate the conceiving and nurturing of child at such a young age. In terms of my personal interest, I have selected this theme in relation to understanding the personal experiences of friends and classmates whom have experienced the effects of teenage pregnancy on their education.

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Reflective Piece

Preface

The reflective piece chosen is entitled ‘Taking the hard way in life.’ It depicts the thoughts of a pregnant teenager who has been expelled from school and has an unsupportive mother. She is unsure of where or whom she can turn to, to find guidance in the upbringing of her unborn child. The reflective piece was written in the form of a monologue as it effectively relates my personal thoughts on the theme of teenage pregnancy. My inspiration for this piece came from a friend who experienced the effects of being pregnant at an early age.

This reflective piece can be used during personal development classes so that awareness of the aforementioned theme can be raised. The intended audiences for the reflective piece are teenagers within the ages of thirteen to seventeen, both of whom have or have not experienced teenage pregnancy. The purpose of this piece is to touch and raise awareness of teenage pregnancy amongst members in society.

Pros and Cons in Teenage Pregnancy

How to prevent teen pregnancy has been a question for many years. Many people take having a baby as a joke. Getting pregnant and having a child involves many prose and cons. In the prevention of teen pregnancy there are many things that can be helpful. There are also other helpful ways to prevent teen pregnancy, such as sex education and birth control. All of these things are essential in the prevention of teen pregnancy.

Refraining from sexual activities is a great way to prevent teen pregnancy, and the risk of getting a disease. In the past years less sex and more condoms use has meant lower rates of teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease. Most teens have sex because of their friends being sexually active. The percentage of sexually active males declined from 57.4 percent to 48.8 percent, essentially erasing the gender gap. A National Survey of Family Growth stated that teens are having less sex. Avoiding sex and learning more about sex are good ways to assure your knowledge and decrease teen pregnancy.

Traditionally children have received information about sexuality from their parents, church, friends, their doctors, and many other people. Many young teens learn about their bodies first. Many people believe that sex education being taught in schools assures children of correct and complete information about sexuality. Sex education starts in the primaries and continues through the secondary school. At the primary school stage, sex education teaches children about their bodies and attempts to promote a whole attitude towards the self-development process. During these years teachers attempt to correct any false ideas children may have learned about sex. At the beginning of secondary school teachers try to prepare students for puberty.

For example, the children learn about nocturnal emissions, menstruation and changes that will take place in their bodies, they also learn and study reproduction. Further up the school, most young adult"s interest in sex increases, so they learn more about responsibility, and having relationships between members of the opposite sex. In secondary school, pupils learn more about the social and psychological aspects of sexuality. Many other subjects come up at this time in a teenager"s life, such as marriage, abortion, homosexuality, birth control, and other topics. Sex education is very importance to the teenage generation.

Birth control is the control of birth or of childbearing by deliberate measures to control or prevent conception, contraception. An understanding of birth control requires some knowledge of human reproduction. Sexually, coming from a man millions of sperm are released into the woman's vagina. If an egg is there sperm travelling through a woman's fallopian tube will be fertilised by the sperm. Most birth control methods are made to prevent contraceptives.

The most effective contraceptive method is surgical sterilisation. In many developing nations hormone drugs are injected into the body. Studies show that those methods are becoming effective, because the teenage pregnancy rate has dropped by 11%. Birth control is important to teenagers, and they should be used if a teen should become sexually active. Parents should remember to teach their children about birth control always, just in case a teenager should become curious and decide to have sex.

In conclusion a teen pregnancy has a hard effect on society, in many ways. Most teen pregnancies were not planned. Surveys say about 65% of teen pregnancy's were not even discussed with their sexual partners. All of the other percentage of teen pregnancy's were not planned either, but it had been discussed with the teenagers sexual partner at some point in time. Most teenagers begin having sex without knowing the consequences. Teenagers need to take responsibility and remember to keep safe, because there are various ways to prevent teen pregnancy, for example abstinence, sex education, and various types of birth control.

Teen Pregnancy Persuasive Essay

“Each year in the U. S. almost one million teenagers become pregnant--at enormous costs to themselves, their children, and society”. (Pregnant Teen Help, Teen Pregnancy Statistics) Some would argue that teen pregnancy is all glorified. Other individuals would protest that it is too influential. Teen pregnancy is a rising social problem in the United States and among other countries. Teen pregnancy is now being publicized as multi media corporations, with shows such as “16 &ump; Pregnant”, “Teen Mom”, “Maury”, “Secret Life of the American Teenager”, and “Juno”.

All of which concentrate on teen pregnancy. These shows or movies could be informational for young people. However, the shows display an altered reality that teen pregnancy is easy, laughs and joy. Dispite what the shows might portray teen pregnancy is an uprising national and global epidemic. In the past teen pregnancy has been an underline issue that is vastly taking center stage. Media, education, and economy are all components to this phenomenon, nevertheless, how are they all connected? All of which will all be addressed in the contents of this paper.

Which leaves the burning question: is teen pregnancy accepted into our society as a norm, or is it still a deviant act? First and for most, there are many different definitions of teenage pregnancy depending on the source of the information. However, as a broad definition defines teenage pregnancy as “a female typically between the ages of thirteen and nineteen, typically who hasn’t completed her core education – secondary schools – has few or no marketable skills, is financially dependent upon an older adult typically her parents and or continues to live at home and is typically mentally immature”. Adolescent Health) Most importantly, it states that a person who is not financially or mentally stable and that is not ready to have an offspring. Teen pregnancy is becoming more popular in the media and from a political, and educational standpoint; an underlying social problem that is now making itself known. In addition to the previous statement, the more media attention this problem receives the stronger the message sends to the young women that teenage pregnancy can be an acceptable way of life.

Movies, TV shows, magazines, and music forces sex into the media but never gives light to the consequences to the actions, and the outcomes. They do not take into consideration the statistics, or the facts. Instead of looking at the reality of the situation at hand young females are seeing the overvalued media version of what it is like to be a young mother. Society takes brilliant ideas that are informative, and helpful for teens and twists the intended purpose to show that “yes, it is ok to be “16 and pregnant””.

Our society is saying to these young women that it is ok to blow past your youth years and to rush into adult hood. It is accepted to have a child while still being a child yourself. This is not a trend, it is not a myth. These are broken down from facts that the media is sending out to these young daughters. Simultaneously, there are facts and organizations that have dedicated their time and effort for teen girls. They are there to make a difference. According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention they stated that it is estimated that more than 400,000 teen girls, aged 15-19 years, give birth each year in the US.

Even though teen pregnancy is a vastly growing social problem the statistics state from multiple different sources that, sense 1991 teenage pregnancy has declined around 40 percent. However, even if the number of young females is declining the issue is more apparent than ever. (Pregnant Teen Help, Teen Pregnancy Statistics) The media often glamorize teens having sexual intercourse and teen parenting, but the reality is starkly different. Having a child during the teen years carries high costs—emotional, physical, and financial—to the mother, father, child, and community.

Parents, educators, public health and medical professionals, and community organizations all have a role to play in reducing teen pregnancy. Help is here. Help and support is everywhere, you just need to know where to look. The organization “The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy” is a great place to start. There website has short video clips, statistics and a place to feel welcome. Their mission is to seek and improve the well being of the children, the young mother and the families.

The National Campaign feels that it is important because teen pregnancy and also unplanned pregnancy for that matter among young adults is part of the root of the problems to important public issues, and ultimately social challenges. Their part and role in this problem is to work in the areas that need the most help. For example: to strengthen the cultures assumptions of personal responsibilities regarding sex, getting pregnant and most importantly bring a child into this world. They also support the use of contraception’s and provide the proper information of the different echniques. (National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, About Us) Ultimately the National Campaign provides more and better education to the teens that this affects such as the parents, the young adults; everyone, and anyone who could be affected by this social problem. Another suggestion besides The National Campaign is “Advocates for Youth”. They are an organization that is publically funded. Like the National Campaign their mission is to help young people make informed and responsible decisions about their reproductive and sexual health.

Advocates believes it can best serve the field by boldly advocating for a more positive and realistic approach to adolescent sexual health. Advocates focuses its work on young people ages 14-25 in the U. S. and around the globe. The advocates have a three “R” system which includes Rights: Youth have the right to accurate and complete sexual health information, confidential reproductive and sexual health services, and a secure stake in the future. Respect: Youth deserve respect. Valuing young people means involving them in the design, implementation and evaluation of programs and policies that affect their health and well-being.

Lastly, Responsibility: Society has the responsibility to provide young people with the tools they need to safeguard their sexual health, and young people have the responsibility to protect them from too-early childbearing and sexually transmitted infections. They may seem like the typical organization to help with teen pregnancy but this is how they are different. (Advocates for Youth, About Us) Advocates for Youth are the only organization that works both in the United States and in developing countries with a sole focus on adolescent reproductive and sexual health.

For another example, there is also some that are closer to home no matter where you are located. “Plan Parenthood” is a perfect place for information, privacy, and support. Their mission is to work and improve women’s health and safety, prevent unintended pregnancies, and advance the right and ability of individuals and families to make informed and responsible choices. Plan Parenthood is many things to many different people they take pride in providing trust community care, informing and educating the community, leading the reproductive health and rights movement and advancing in global health.

At Plan Parenthood they strive to deliver comprehensive and medically accurate information that empowers women, men, teens, and families to make informed choices and lead healthy lives. At Plan Parenthood there are skilled health care professionals that are dedicated to offering men, women, and teens high-quality, affordable medical care. (Planned Parenthood, Who We Are) The staff takes time to talk with clients, encouraging them to ask questions in an environment that millions have grown to trust. Most importantly, there are pros and cons to each of the organizations listed.

For “Plan Parenthood”, the pros consist of the abilities with staffing, nurses and physicians, the first hand contact, experience and the privacy that they offer to each patient. The cons that coincide with Plan Parenthood are, it is government funded and the main payment per patient is mostly donation based. (Planned Parenthood. ) For “Youth Advocates”, the organization is globally and not locally. They have information and resources regarding many different areas and topics which lead to more care and knowledge for all age groups, social problems and issues.

They also have the abilities to send information, and to help people who are in need of it. The con for this organization is that it is mainly on the web. They do have ways to contact them and offices but there is not a place to go personally and talk to someone one on one. (Advocates for Youth, About Us) Lastly, the “National Campaign” does offer funding with qualified applicants. They also offer representatives to speak at conferences and other public functions.

The down fall however, to this organization is that there may not be a local office for this organization near you, which could limit the help that it will be able to provide. (National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, About Us) In addition, to the pros and cons of each organization there are possible solutions that each of them offers specifically. For instance, Plan Parenthood offers the medical aspect of teen pregnancy with doctor’s visits, birth control, contraceptives, and STD testing. This provides the option to prevent teen pregnancy to the best of their abilities.

Both of the other agencies talk about and provide information about abstinence programs. Also, to inform the teens about sex and the consequences. (Planned Parenthood, Who We Are) The thought is if the teens are educated in the issue then they will make informed and better choices. There are many different choices to help with preventing teen pregnancy. There are also many social institutions that come into play. In continuous with the previous statement, there are a number of major social institutions that con tribute both positively and negatively to this social roblem. This all depends however, on the influence that they choose to portray and the message that the young people take away from the message. For example: media is quite possibly one of the most influential social institutions. Studies show that teens more than likely girls than boys who are exposed to extreme sexual content in media in general such as music, shows, and movies are twice as likely to experience teen pregnancy in the following three years compared to others who had lower levels of sexual exposure in the media. Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 116(1), 281-286), (Adolescent Health) With shows such as “Teen Mom” and “16 &ump; Pregnant” they are very influential but the longer that the show continues the affects and the purpose of the shows will no longer be positive, but more negative. The message that it is now portraying is that it is ok to be a young mom. It is ok to have a child young. The media could have the opposite effect, but that is not what attracts the general population at this moment in time. In comparison to media, education is also a major contributing factor to teen pregnancy.

When a teen becomes pregnant, education goals may become secondary and ways of achieving those goals may grow less clear. (Pregnant Teen Help, Teenage Pregnancy and Education) Recent studies have shown that adolescents who reported having received comprehensive sex education were significantly less likely to report a teen pregnancy, compared with those who received no sex education at all. The same study shows a comparison to links between low income households, minimal education levels, and race, all links to higher levels of teen pregnancy. Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 116(1), 281-286) The key is education. With any type of sexual education classes studies prove that the percentage of teen pregnancies is significantly lower than people who have never taken some formal education class. Teenagers need encouragement, and the proper education to make the informed choices. Education is the start to that, however, it cannot stand alone. Other major institutions need to change their share of this problem as well. Finally, the last major social institution that leaves an influential mark on teen pregnancy is the economy.

In the same study in the previous paragraph, the studies conducted states that there is a significant link between family income, social structure, residence area, race, availability of education and teen pregnancy. The study shows that typically a person who is part of a low family income, in a low income residential area, and is typically a minority will be more likely to become a statistic of teen pregnancy. (Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 116(1), 281-286) How are all three major social institutions linked together for teenage pregnancy?

You cannot have one without the other two. Media, contributes to the social side of teen pregnancy saying to teens “it is ok to be young and have a child. ” It unrealistically shows that everyone is doing it, and yes, it will be easy and I will have people to help me the whole way. Teen pregnancy is glamorized to be something it is not by the media; which is a contributing factor when an adolescent does not have the proper education regarding abstinence, or contraception’s. In turn, that leads to the link between education and the economy and the level on the economic scale that they fall into.

They may not have the means to the right education because of their family’s income. So all the adolescent knows is what they are interoperating in the media. In most cases, people tend to think that “this will never happen to me”. You might be right, you might be one of the “lucky” ones, all the same, that is not always the case. In the previous paragraphs there have been stated places to go to be better informed, and to be provided with the right necessities for teen pregnancy.

In my 2009 graduating class alone in a small country side town, it was estimated that around 15-20 people had parented a child by the time we had graduated. My own cousin was “16 &ump; pregnant”. She does go through struggles, everyday is a challenge. The cost of food, diapers, doctor’s visits, transportation, getting up at 2AM, and ultimately, coming to the realization that you do have to “wave” goodbye to your teenage years when you have a child.

Instead of thinking of yourself, it is all about your child, which sadly enough some young parents are not ready to do. Teen pregnancy is not something that will just affect one person. It affects everyone in that person’s life. It is interesting how one small choice, or one mistake impacts the lives of so many different people. As a thought, reducing teen pregnancy and birth is one of the most effective ways of reducing child poverty in the country. Even with the organizations and agencies available teen pregnancy continues to be a social problem.

With multiple factors to take into consideration such as media, education, and economy, why can the population not find a solution? In conclusion, teenage pregnancy is a social problem that has become more prominent in the past years. To leave with one last shocking and skin crawling statistic, more than 2/3 of all teenagers who have a baby will not graduate from high school. (Pregnant Teen Help, pg 1. ) Knowing those statistics, how can you deny that teen pregnancy is in fact still a deviant act compared to a social norm, and that it is a social problem?

Teen Pregnancy Critique Essay

On average, 700 girls are impregnated each year in The Bahamas. Twenty percent of these teen mothers have another child while they are still in their teens according to the president of the PACE Foundation, Sonia Brown. We are urging citizens to take a stand and educate our children about contraceptives and the irresponsibility and lack of knowledge that leads to teenage pregnancy. Most teens that have children find it harder to become a part of the work force because their time is more focused on their child.

They are less prepared to enter the working world because they are ill prepared due to being forced to be adults at a young age. Thus, not completing school in most instances. When they enter the Job market these teens need assistance with day care and other services that they are often unable to afford due to their minimum wage Jobs that they barely qualify for. Unplanned teenage pregnancies can lead to higher high school dropout rates, higher rates of single parenthood, and lowering scores in math and reading.

Stopping teenage pregnancy requires a hands-on connection between parents and hildren, a good educational foundation, and unbiased resources. The COB Gazette is campaigning for: *Teaching Sex Education to Stop Teenage Pregnancy Government officials claim that their efforts to fght teenage pregnancy is that they already have parenthood sessions in government schools but those are not effective enough because we still have a large number of teenage pregnancies in The Bahamas today. Sex education starts in the home as well.

Parents should begin introducing the subject of puberty and sex with their children at around age 5. At irst these discussions are more based on the relationships between the sexes. Schools also teach teens about the chances and effects of teenage pregnancies, though the approach will depend on each school. Teens have hormones raging through their bodies and often misunderstand how these hormones affect their choices about safe sex. Implementing a parenting class to become a part of the curriculum in Bahamian schools will help teach girls about the dedication and time it takes to be a teenage mother.

The class should also include lessons on different ypes of contraceptives and birth control methods. *Providing Resources to Prevent In addition to teaching teens about teenage pregnancy, parents and school systems should provide a list of resources for teens that are contemplating having sex. These resources often include phone numbers to local support groups and locations where teens can pick up free condoms. Some school systems can even choose to hand out condoms as part of their safe sex services. *Birth Control and Teen Pregnancies Teenage girls can be placed on birth control to stop teenage pregnancies.

This does not mean sexual education is no longer needed. Birth control and condoms may prevent teenage pregnancies but they will not stop the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases like HIV, syphilis and gonorrhea. When choosing birth control, parents and teens have options. There are daily, monthly and tri-monthly birth control solutions. Daily birth control pills are the most common utilized by teen girls trying to prevent pregnancy. The pills need to be taken at the same time every day, however, which can be difficult for some teen girls to remember.

Parents can discuss birth control options with the family physician or gynecologist. The solutions proposed should be greatly considered by the government and schools, as they would pose to be great options in helping our teenage girls. Although the pregnancy rate amongst teens has decreased by two percent over the last ten years, PACE still enrolls 100 to 150 pregnant teens a year. The age group mostly affected by this epidemic are girls ages 14 to 15. We should be making moves to encourage our young girls to make smarter choices.

Teenage pregnancy in Croydon - literature review and research outline

Research studies have suggested that teenage pregnancy is a major global issue and it needs to be addressed accurately due to the health, social and economic risks associated with this issue (Baker, 2007; Roth et al., 2009; Kamberg, 2012). Decline in the number of teenage pregnancies have been reported as a result of the strategies undertaken by governing bodies across Europe to reduce the number of unplanned teenage conceptions. However, England still has the highest rate of teenage pregnancies which are mostly unplanned (Teenage Pregnancy Associates, 2011). Teenage pregnancies are a major cause of poor health conditions in teen mothers and their babies, it have an adverse economic impact and play a crucial role in increasing child poverty (WHO, 2012).

According to a recent press release, London Borough of Croydon recorded 50% reduction in the teenage conceptions; however, the borough is still amongst the regions with highest teenage pregnancy rate (Croydon, 2012). In order to further reduce the rate of teenage pregnancies in Borough of Croydon it is crucial to identify the factors causing the increase in teenage conceptions. Therefore, the aim of this research study is to effectively recognize the factors causing increase in teenage pregnancies in the London Borough of Croydon and the chosen organisation is Croydon Health Services NHS Trust. The research objectives are:

* To identify the factors causing increase in teenage pregnancies through literature.

* To identify the factors causing increase in teenage pregnancies in the London Borough of Croydon.

* To identify the strategies that could be adopted by the governing bodies in London Borough of Croydon to address the issues of increasing teenage pregnancies.

1. LITERATURE REVIEW

1. Individual Factors

Research studies have suggested that individual factors play an important role in teenage conceptions (Imamura et al., 2007). Children of teenage lone mothers are more vulnerable to become teenage parents (Botting et al. 1998). Members of some certain ethnic groups such as Caribbean and Asian are more likely to become teenage parents in comparison to white teenagers (Botting et al., 1998; Berthoud, 2001). Underperforming children at school who show little or no interest in learning and eventually drops out at early ages are also at a risk of becoming teenage parents (Kiernan, 1995).

Research evidences have suggested that increased number of teenage pregnancies have also been observed in young children living in care or those who leave care (Imamura et al., 2007). According to Haldre et al. (2009) alcohol abuse in the family and lower levels of sexual knowledge also lead to higher number of teenage pregnancies.

1. Socio- Economic Factors

According to Baker (2007), socio-economic disadvantages are one of the major causes of teenage pregnancies. Teenagers who are detached or detach themselves from the society as a result of discrimination or lack of support from the society are highly vulnerable to early pregnancies. Social disadvantages as identified by England’s Social Exclusion Unit includes unemployment, poor quality of health, living in deprived areas, having lower levels of skills, poor housing facilities, family fall outs and low income (SEU, 2001). Gruber (2009) argued that individuals become socially disadvantaged when they are denied their basic rights and the opportunities to become an active part of the society which leas to involvements in crimes and other illegal activities. Research studies have suggested that children of socially disadvantaged young parents live in poverty (Baker, 2007).

However, not many evidences are present in the literature about the contribution of poverty to teenage pregnancies and this area needs more exploration. According to a research study by Arai (2009), poverty is common in households where the head of the household is a teenager. MacPhail and Campbell (2001) identified that poverty pose an influential impact on the decisions of teenagers to buy contraceptives leading to unintended teenage pregnancies which further leads to lack of finance and support. Trapani (1999) found out that in most cases of teenage pregnancies boyfriends of teenage pregnant girls hesitate from taking the responsibility of the child due to its impact on their educational and employment opportunities. This rejection from partners can cause depression in teenage mothers and their children could significantly suffer in many ways as a result of this depression.

It is clear from the preliminary literature review that individual, social and economic factors play an important role in increased number of teenage conceptions. Recent reports published by NHS suggest that government has taken a number of steps to reduce teenage pregnancies; however, despite of these measures the success rate is low. This leads to the formulation of the research question for this study which is to understand why is teenage pregnancy increasing and what more factors are contributing to this problem in addition to the ones identified by previous research studies

1. METHODOLOGY

1. Research Philosophy and Approach

Positivist research philosophy has been adopted for this research study. Positivist research philosophy will allow gathering quality data, having high validity in a natural setting (Belk, 2008). Research approach can be inductive or deductive depending upon the type of the research study and for this qualitative research study inductive research approach has been adopted. The advantages of inductive research approach include its flexibility and its supportive framework that effectively allows the formulation of new models (Monsen and Horn, 2007).

1. Research Strategy

An exploratory case study research strategy has been undertaken for the accomplishment of the aim of this research study because of its effectiveness in exploring the problem understudy and because of its proficiency in unveiling new issues (Walsh and Wigens, 2003). This research strategy is extremely time consuming and provides no control over the information provided by the participants; however, according to Kumar (2008) the researcher can effectively overcome these problems through his/her competent research skills.

1. Data Collection and Analysis

Primary as well as secondary data will be collected for this research study. Secondary data will be collected from the reports published by NHS, books, journals and news articles. Both the qualitative and quantitative sources of information will be explored. The advantages of include time effectiveness, cost effectiveness and the ease of access to the information. Invalid or incomplete pieces of information and possible confusion due to the availability of huge amount of information are few limitations of this data collection method (Kumar, 2011).

Primary data will be collected by conducting semi- structured interviews because of its efficacy in establishing an informal two way conversation between the researcher and the participant (Carter and Thomas, 1997). Data will be analysed in a step wise manner (Maykut and Morehouse, 1994). Firstly all the responses will be carefully examined followed by the unitization and categorisation of different pieces of information. Finally the responses will be interpreted.

1. Target Population and Access

The target population for this research study are the pregnant teenagers attending antenatal clinics in Croydon and the sample size would be 15. Initially contact over the phone was established with a supervisor of midwives to arrange a meeting in order to explain the benefits of this research study. It was decided in the meeting that the invitation for participating in the research study will be given to the pregnant teenagers by the midwives attending antenatal clinics in local medical practices.

Pregnant teenagers willing to participate will be given a date and time for the interviews after consulting the researcher and all the interviews will take place in a room within the medical practices so that an assuring environment could be provided to the participants.

1. Ethical Considerations

Participation will be voluntary, anonymity will be maintained, information about the study will be provided to the participants and written consents will be taken prior to the interviews. Information collected will only be used by the researcher.

1. Validity, Reliability and Generalisability

To maintain the reliability and validity of the data all the measures will be taken to avoid the chances of errors during face-to-face interviews and when analysing the data. Generalisability is the potential limitation of the research study as the results might not completely reflect the condition in other Boroughs of England.

1. CONCLUSION

In conclusion, despite of the limitation this research study will effectively contribute towards the information present in the literature about the factors causing the increase in the number of teenage conceptions.

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