Sustainable architecture in the UK

Pressure on development land in the South-East of England: The demand for sustainable architecture.

Introduction

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Chapter One – Literature Reappraisal

Chapter Two – Development Land

Chapter Four – South-East of England

Decisions

Bibliography

The intent of this thesis is to discourse and measure the force per unit area on development land in the South- East of England, and how that force per unit area relates to the demand for sustainable architecture. The grounds for there being force per unit area on development land in the South-East of England will be described and analysed, as will any differences with the other parts of Britain. The grounds for puting aside or utilizing the available development land and why sustainable architecture should be adopted in the South-East of England will be to the full evaluated.

As will be demonstrated there are assorted and viing factors that seemingly increase the force per unit area to do full usage of all available development land in the South-East of England. The available development land in the South-East of England is in high demand to be used for the building of domestic lodging, every bit good as for commercial, leisure, and industrial edifice programmes. To a big extent cardinal authorities and local governments have attempted to command the building of such new edifice programmes through systems of urban planning, every bit good as edifice ordinances that have applied across the whole of Britain. The grounds why the South-East of England should hold a demand for sustainable architecture will besides be examined in deepness. The instance for doing all the new building undertakings designed around the constructs of sustainable architecture shall besides be examined, to discourse whether more environmentally focussed edifice designs will decrease the impact of new building programmes, every bit good as cut downing long-run pollution.

Introduction

Sustainable architecture and the usage of development land are closely linked with the patterns and theories of what form the footing of urban and rural planning, every bit good as thoughts refering the necessity for long-run environmental sustainability. Urban, and to a lesser extent rural planning, became more widespread in their application throughout Britain after 1945, when increased degrees of cardinal authorities intercession were experienced in many societal and economic Fieldss. Planning was deemed to be the best manner of work outing Britain’s lodging jobs ( Taylor, 1998 p. 3 ) . Increased degrees of urban and rural planning were justified at the terminal of the Second World War due to the demand for extended post-war Reconstruction. The South-East of England in general, and London in peculiar had suffered from widespread bomb harm, which meant that to the full or partly destroyed houses, mills, and retail units had to be replaced by good planned edifices which would be an betterment upon the old edifices. In the immediate post-war period it was believed that a systematic usage of town and state planning would be indispensable for the Reconstruction of Britain, with a much higher criterion of edifice to fit higher employment, the public assistance province, and the National Health Service. The intent of these policies and establishments was to prolong life and advance good wellness throughout the whole population ( Meller, 1997 p67 ) .

The increased usage of urban and rural planning was non intended to protect the environment in an ecological manner, or so to advance sustainable architecture, instead it was greatly expanded in range to do the most rational usage of scarce development land. However, there would be steps adopted which would conserve big countries of countryside, and give protection despite the demand to re-house 1000000s of households in 1945 ( Southall, 2000 p. 336 ) . There were groups that wished to conserve specific countries that supported rare signifiers of animate being and works life, and even groups that wished to continue old historical edifices, every bit good as edifices distinguished by their architectural manners ( Meller, 1997 p67 ) . When added together such groups did non compare to an ecological anteroom that intended to alter agricultural, architectural, or industrial patterns to protect the environment. These groups nevertheless, were able to to a great extent act upon the determination to curtail urbanization taking over the countryside. Post-war Reconstruction was the accelerator for the largest programmes of publically funded building in Britain. Public outgo was needed due to the sheer graduated table of Reconstruction required, with London and the South-East of England being a major donee of those programmes. Architecture and planning were used for these large-scale programmes instead than merely for single edifices. The engagement of cardinal authorities in the promoting and support of large-scale public edifice programmes and the usage of development land was high until the early portion of the 1970s ( Greed, 1996 p. 35 ) .

Such wide-ranging edifice programmes were non merely intended to replace the edifices destroyed during the Second World War. The post-war edifice programmes were besides intended to replace the slums in the interior metropoliss of London, Birmingham, Liverpool, every bit good as elsewhere. The building programmes were intended to do the South-East of England a much more hospitable topographic point to populate in, merely as the remainder of Britain was besides intended to be like ( Sheail, 2002 p. 62 ) . New building and redevelopment of bing houses was an imperative, as ‘2 million of them condemned and another 3 million lacking in essentials’ ( Southall, 2000 p. 337 ) . The South-East of England besides benefited from the building of new towns such as Milton Keynes and Stevenage that were planned as full towns with purpose built domestic lodging and concern premises. The Atlee authorities was so acute upon the creative activity of new towns to work out the post-war lodging deficits that it regulated such building through the New Town Act of 1946 ( Sheail, 2002 p. 62 ) . The building of the New Towns was considered to be indispensable for both high economic growing and for work outing the national post-war lodging deficit. The Atlee authorities regarded the new towns as being extremely good to people’s wellness as they moved off from major metropoliss and industrial countries to topographic points with cleaner air ( Meller, 1997 p67 ) . In ecological footings such building was harmful to the environment as more land was built upon and it meant a greater sum of pollution from traffic emanations, though of class cipher understood such deductions at that clip. Improvements in conveyance substructure and increasing degrees of auto ownership meant that the new towns were economically feasible, every bit good as leting their dwellers to transpose to the major metropoliss to work in them ( Daniels, Bradshaw, Shaw, & A ; Sidaway, 2005 p. 147 ) . Urban planning was therefore considered to be really utile for the advancement and development of London and the South-East of England, which traditionally has been the most thickly settled and comfortable part of Britain. Urban planning was besides intended to increase the prosperity degrees of the other parts in Britain to be every bit high as possible to fit the degrees achieved in the South-East of England ( Southall, 2000 p. 337 ) . Controlled enlargement of urban countries into the new towns was intended to work out the immediate post-war lodging deficit and resuscitate the British economic system, whilst go forthing the great majority of the countryside untouched by new lodging building ( Taylor, 1998 p.3 ) .

Previous betterments in agricultural techniques meant that farming became more efficient nationally which had quickened the gait of urbanization in Britain as a whole. Urbanization in Britain had already had a strong impact upon the environment that went beyond the replacing of the countryside with fouling mills and unhealthy slum lodging ( Southall, 2000, p. 335 ) . Higher harvest outputs from less land had the effect that more land in rural countries became available to be used as development land. The greater handiness of former agricultural land meant that is was easier to happen adequate land to build new towns or spread out bing metropoliss across Britain. Urbanization was a procedure that was accelerated by the demand of industrial towns and metropoliss to happen workers to go on their enlargement ( Goudie & A ; Viles, 1997 p. 5 ) .

To get down with, the bulk of new places were traditional manner houses that formed big council house estates right across the state, in architectural footings there was really small invention or thought given to doing the new lodging stock architecturally sustainable or environmentally friendly. More attending was alternatively devoted to doing all new houses comfy, clean, and guaranting they were being built to last ( Greed, 1996 p. 35 ) . The new places were intended to be better and larger than the 1s that they had replaced. The bulk of big metropoliss and the new towns in Britain had 1000000s of council houses built in their countries between 1945 and the early 1970s. However, it was much harder to happen equal sums of development land in interior metropolis countries which led to the edifice of high rise tower blocks which allowed a greater figure of people to be housed without increasing the entire country of the development land required ( Sheail, 2002 p. 62 ) . Unfortunately, high rise tower blocks constructed during the 1960s and the 1970s in the South-East of England, every bit good as nationally failed to be an equal signifier of long- term and sustainable architecture that allowed people to be housed in safety or comfort. The failure of many high rise tower blocks to be sustainable signifiers of lodging had the affect of increasing the force per unit area on development land. It has besides meant that tower blocks have had to be refurbished or more often demolished ( Meller, 1997 p. 63 ) . As the image below shows the 1950s and the sixtiess besides witnessed the building of low-rise flat blocks which have proved to be longer enduring than tower blocks built during the same period of clip. The image is of flat flats constructed in Ham Common in Richmond between 1955 and 1958 ( Frampton, 1997 p. 266 ) .

Picture taken from Frampton, 1997 p. 266

Although the sum of new lodging building was considerable non all the available land had been developed or built upon. Land remained set aside for agricultural intents, whilst other land was left un-built upon and non ever used for farming. The land that was left entirely and was set aside and therefore non allowed to be used for domestic lodging or industrial sites were referred to as the green belt. The green belt was created to move as a buffer zone between urban and rural countries as a agency to restrict urbanization ( Greed, 1996 p. 82 ) . Cardinal authorities set aside countries that were designated as green belt zones to continue the countryside nationally every bit good as entirely in the South-East of England. Although, it was possible to construct on green belt land the procedure of deriving be aftering permission from cardinal authorities and the relevant local authorization was a long drawn out one which deterred most belongings developers and building houses from making so. Local involvement groups have frequently being extremely vocal in their resistance to any strategies that have been suggested ( Clapp, 1994 p. 138 ) . Clapp estimated that with national Parkss and designated green belt zones that in England and Wales ‘more than a fifth of the countryside now has stringent protection against development’ ( Clapp, 1994 p. 140 ) . Therefore, the majority of available development land was concentrated in urban countries, frequently referred to as brown field sites ( Greed, 1996 p. 82 ) . For cardinal authorities there are advantages for utilizing brown field sites ( Kim & A ; Rigdon, December 1998 p. 5 ) . For case, utilizing such sites allows for economic regeneration, employment creative activity every bit good as less force per unit area to construct on green belt land. Recycling land on brown field sites is a method of continuing rural countries being used as development land ( Clapp, 1994 p.139 ) .

The force per unit area to utilize greater sums of development land has arguably increased significantly in recent old ages throughout Britain as a whole. The force per unit area to utilize development land has risen due to a combination of societal, economic, and political factors. For case, in societal footings the demographic alterations to the British population have had important, and it could even be argued, profound effects upon the demand for development for new building programmes. These demographic alterations have occurred as a effect of the British population ripening, the increasing figure of grownups who live on their ain, every bit good as the major addition in the figure of immigrants who have settled in Britain in the past decennary or so. These alterations have meant that more people within Britain are seeking a higher figure of topographic points to populate in. Another ground for the raised degrees of force per unit area upon development land is caused by the possible fiscal additions from constructing new houses, every bit good as new retail or industrial composites. The degree of fiscal additions that could be made has been boosted since 1979 by the switching off from the publically funded lodging programmes to a market led attack to finding the rates of new lodging building and the ownership of bing lodging ( Allmendinger and Thomas, 1998 p. 5 ) . Of class even greater Numberss of domestic places and retail premises has a knock on consequence on the sum of substructure such as schools, infirmaries, and roads which are required in Britain as a whole. The edifice of new signifiers of substructure will merely increase the environmental impact of new building programmes ( Kim & A ; Rigdon, December 1998 p. 5 ) . A fuller account and a more comprehensive scrutiny of the increased force per unit areas on the development land in Britain in general will be presented in the specific chapter on development land. The more elaborate rating of the force per unit areas upon development in the South-East of England will be presented in the specific chapter about the South-East of England.

Not merely has at that place been force per unit area to utilize more development land in Britain by and large and in the South-East of England in peculiar, there has been more force per unit area for new building programmes to utilize edifice techniques and engineering linked with sustainable architecture. Sustainable architecture may hold been a construct, which started in the United States, yet it could be really of import to set its thoughts into action across the Earth ( Kim & A ; Rigdon, December 1998 p. 5 ) . The impression of sustainable architecture is in itself influenced by thoughts about doing or enabling architecture maximize the public-service corporation and the subsequent life span of all new building, whilst understating the sum of resources needed in the initial building and the care of edifices. Sustainable architecture, when possible, uses resources that is renewable, reclaimable, and biodegradable. There are assorted motives for following sustainable architecture when it comes down to the building and the completion of all new edifice programmes. Motivations that include the minimising of development land used, every bit good as doing usage of new engineering to conserve energy, the preservation or recycling of finite resources, every bit good as cut downing the degrees of H2O ingestion. Reducing the degree of pollution and trying to decelerate down the effects of planetary heating are besides factors in the publicity and execution of sustainable architecture ( Kim, Rigdon, & A ; Graves, August 1998 p. 5 ) . Of class, there is the influence of statute law upon the usage of sustainable architecture techniques to cut down the environmental and ecological impact of new building programmes. Property developers and building houses have to follow with steps to protect the environment introduced by the British authorities and the European Union ( Hough, 2004 p. 190 ) .

As will be shown in the specific chapter about sustainable architecture the bulk of methods used to better environmental sustainability are comparatively straightforward to integrate into the designs of new edifice programmes, and in some instances into bing edifices. Sustainable architecture could be achieved by utilizing building stuffs that are less detrimental to the environment, or stuffs that have been obtained from recycled and renewable resources. Making edifices as environmentally sustainable as possible during new building undertakings ( as will be examined in greater deepness ) will accomplish the over all aims of those that pattern and argue for the execution of sustainable architecture. It is most practical to put in characteristics or equipment which enhances environmental sustainability during new building undertakings instead than afterwards. The force per unit areas to follow sustainable architecture in many ways are contradictory, yet are besides connected with the force per unit areas to raise the degrees of development land used up for new edifice programmes.

Other motives for following sustainable architecture include using steps that are demands for deriving be aftering permission, every bit good as guaranting that all new edifices comply with all the minimal criterions for safeguarding the environment set by the British authorities and besides by the European Union. The British authorities has set criterions for domestic and retail edifices since the 1950s. For case, to free London of its antecedently renowned smog and fog by cut downing smoke emanations from domestic places and mills likewise under the protections of the Clean Air Act. The European Union has taken a greater involvement in advancing environmental sustainability since the 1980s, believing that such actions to protect the natural environment on a regional instead than a national footing would be far more effectual in making so ( Hough, 2004 p. 190 ) .

Chapter One – Literature Reappraisal

‘Urban Planning and the British New Right’ , by Allmendinger and Thomas was chiefly used as a beginning of mention for the ways in which the Conservative authoritiess between 1979 and 1997 altered lodging and economic policies in Britain. This book besides contained information about the debut of more extended authorities environmental protection policies, which were started during that period of Conservative disposal. The book demonstrates the contradictions between the strong Conservative support for free market economic sciences and the increasing apprehension that cardinal authorities needed to move to protect the environment.

Brian Clapp’s ‘An Environmental History of Britain from the Industrial Revolution’ is a good beginning of information with respect to development land and the impact of the green belt zones on restricting edifice programmes to already urbanized countries. The book provides a utile penetration into the constitution and the continued care of green belt zones in modern Britain.

‘An debut to Human Geography – Issues for the 21stcentury’ by Daniels, Bradshaw, Shaw, and Sidaway proved a utile beginning of information about development and the environmental impacts of human activity such as building edifices and utilizing fossil fuel in edifices. The book assists in explicating why such impacts on the environment would supply a accelerator for sustainable architecture.

‘Modern architecture – a critical history’ by Kenneth Frampton was used as a beginning of images and mention for information about architectural manners and edifice stuffs. There was besides a brief subdivision refering the planning of the new town constructed at Milton Keynes during the early 1970s.

‘The Earth Transformed – an debut to Human Impacts on the Environment’ by Goudie and Viles was used to obtain information about development land and the impact of unsustainable architecture and edifice techniques upon pollution degrees and planetary heating. The book contained information about the harmful effects of planetary urbanization and industrialization.

‘Cities & A ; Natural Process – A footing for sustainability’ , by Michael Hough was a utile mention book for discoursing development land and issues that relate to heightening environmental sustainability. This book was besides utile because there was a greater focal point upon Britain within it. The book contained suggestions and illustrations of how sustainability could be achieved with the aid of sustainable architecture.

‘Sustainable Architecture: Introduction to Sustainable Design by’ Kim and Rigdon is an article which explores the theoretical and practical background to sustainable architecture. It was used to derive information for the chapter, which dealt with sustainable architecture specifically. That information was besides for the chapter refering the demand for any new building programmes in the South-East of England to encompass sustainable architecture.

‘Pollution Prevention in Architecture – Introductory Module’ by Kim, Rigdon, and Graves provides farther theoretical and practical penetrations into the thoughts contained within the impression of sustainable architecture. This article contained strong statements as to why sustainable architecture should be implemented across the universe and non merely in a individual specific part of one peculiar state. This article proved a sound mention for the chapters refering sustainable architecture and the necessity of its usage in the South-East of England.

‘Towns, programs, and society in modern Britain’ by Helen Meller was used to derive background cognition of the constitution of a more vigorous and restrictive planning regulative model brought into operation after the terminal of the Second World War. That information was so included within the debut and the specific chapter covering with the force per unit areas upon the usage of development land.

‘Urban and Environmental Planning in the UK’ , by Yvonne Rydin provides utile information refering the protection of the environment through planning ordinances and limitations. Provides good mention stuff as to how the British authorities and the European Union have attempted to cut down environmental harm through limitations on development land and edifice or other ordinances to cut pollution and enhance sustainability.

‘A History of Britain 3, End of Empire 1776 – 2000’ , by Simon Schama was used to derive information as to why the Conservative party did non turn over the drawn-out proviso of council houses introduced by the Atlee authorities until after 1979. The book besides had information about the ideological alterations that Margaret Thatcher brought into Britain and the effects of such alterations.

‘An Environmental History of Twentieth Century Britain’ by John Sheail was a book, which discussed the developments within the environment of Britain between 1900 and 2000. Sheail examines how the apprehension of environmental issues in Britain developed in the latter portion of the 20th century. The book was enlightening in relation to the development of policies that were intended to protect the environment and promote sustainability.

‘The City – In clip and space’ by Aidan Southall was a book used to help with the description and rating of the usage every bit good as the limitations placed upon the handiness of development land within Britain. Southall’s history in peculiar provided information refering the effectual regeneration of brown field sites within the immediate locality of London besides supplying an penetration into the building of the new towns in the wake of the Second World War.

‘Ecological Architecture: A critical history’ by Steele provided some utile practical and theoretical information about the constructs and the designs of sustainable architecture.

‘Life Cycle Analysis for Automobiles’ , by Sulivan and Hu was used entirely for the informations refering the sum of energy needed to bring forth aluminum, polyethene, PVC and steel, comparing the ingestion to bring forth the stuffs new with when those merchandises are recycled.

‘Urban Planning Since 1945’ by Nigel Taylor was a extremely utile beginning of information with respect to the development and the continuance of be aftering limitations every bit good as edifice ordinances. The information about the utilizations of town and state planning besides the motives for the constitution and the continuance of green belt land countries was of great usage. Taylor besides included some compendious information about environmental sustainability within this book.

Brenda Vale’s ‘Green Architecture: Design for a Sustainable Future’ is a good debut to the constructs and the designs most strongly linked with sustainable development.

Chapter Two – Development Land

Prior to the start of the 20th century there was really small formal or legal ordinance or planning undertaken when it came down to the usage of development land. There was in consequence small to forestall the building of new edifice programmes, allow alone impressions about restricting the size and the range of such programmes to protect the environment or advance ecological sustainability ( Taylor, 1998 p. 3 ) . Cardinal authorities by and big did non step in to forestall persons, concerns of assorted sizes, or so local governments from utilizing development land in any manner that they wished to make so. The cardinal authorities was willing to allow any parties to build new edifices upon such development land, particularly if the party responsible for building such edifices already owned the land, which was been built upon ( Greed, 1996 p. 2 ) . The freedom with which new edifices could be built was demonstrated by the ability of the bulk of landholders to take the manner of architecture in the building of their places, mills, or stores. Landowners had the option of doing their edifices every bit expansive as possible or as inexpensive to build as possible ( Kim & A ; Rigdon, December 1998 p. 5 ) . They did non hold to see that their right to construct on their land would be restricted by the location of that land in relation to the nearest metropolis or its topographic point in the countryside. Landowners and their designers did non believe that there was any profound demand to alter what they built or how they built it in order to protect the environment and promote sustainability ( Sheail, 2003 p. 2 ) .

Those edifice ordinances that did be were by and large really minimalist in their existent nature, and were normally introduced on an ad hoc footing. Architecture and the development of land were more likely to be influenced by alterations in engineering or betterments in economic development, every bit good as alteration in manner and manners ( Meller, 1997 p. 63 ) . For case, these houses started to hold gas, electricity, and H2O supplies installed. These supplies of public-service corporation services were regulated by the cardinal authorities ( Daniels, Bradshaw, Shaw, & A ; Sidaway, 2005 p.115 ) . Those services were besides supplied to mills and stores, which were progressively capable to wellness, and safety criterions that were intended to forestall accidents, yet paid no attending to the land that they happened to be constructed on ( Sheail, 2003 p. 2 ) . The 19th century witnessed a quantum leap frontward in the sum of land, which was built upon due to a raising population every bit good as increased degrees of industrialization. These factors happened to co-occur with the development of improved substructure such as roads, railroads, sewerage systems, public infirmaries, and schools. The development of such substructure required big measures of land, labor, and resources to be successfully completed, whilst in bend advancing higher degrees of industrialization and the migration of people from the countryside to the spread outing metropoliss. Some metropoliss and parts benefited economically from such industrialization more than others did. In Britain, industrialization benefited the parts environing Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool, and Glasgow. Over all though London and the South-East of England retained their place as the most comfortable part within Britain. Industrialization came at a cost, viz. pollution and greater degrees of societal inequality ( Southall, 2000 p. 335 ) . The development of gas, electricity, and H2O supplies alongside sewerage systems made domestic houses more comfy to populate in and mills more productive due to holding greater efficiency ( Daniels, Bradshaw, Shaw, & A ; Sidaway, 2005 p.115 ) .

Before a system of urban and rural planning were introduced there was no specifically set aside development land. Market forces determined the usage of land and what if anything was built upon it. If landholders found that their land was most productively used for agricultural intents so it would stay as agricultural land ( Taylor, 1998 p. 3 ) . If, nevertheless more money could be made from edifice houses, stores, or mills on their land, so that is what normally happened to that land. Landowners could besides be tempted to sell their land to belongings developers, building houses, or industrial endeavors if they were lucky plenty to have land that those other parties felt in pressing demand of developing ( Meller, 1997 p. 62 ) . It was market forces that drove the industrial revolution in Britain every bit good as besides advancing the procedure of urbanization. The procedures of industrialization and urbanization meant that metropoliss such as London, Birmingham, Manchester, and Glasgow greatly expanded in footings of both their geographical countries and their entire population degrees, which led to shrinkage in the size of rural countries in Britain as a whole ( Southall, 2000 p. 335 ) . It was besides market forces that determined the location, size, and range of lodging, mills, and commercial edifices. There were no restrictions to the size, location or range of such edifices, and perfectly no attending was given to the environmental effects of these edifice programmes ( Sheail, 2003 P 2 ) .

The absence of edifice ordinances and limitations on the usage of land meant that there was a great trade of unhealthy and deficient slum lodging, which caused widespread unwellness. Illness occurred besides reflecting the poorness of those people that were unfortunate plenty to hold to populate in such countries ( Daniels, Bradshaw, Shaw, & A ; Sidaway, 2005 p.115 ) . Planing ordinances would hold doubtless improved conditions, for case presenting proper sanitation into the slums or holding deficient lodging replaced by higher quality houses for people to travel into ( Southall, 2000 p. 335 ) . In rural countries frights that heavy industry and unsightly slums would finally over take all the land within their close propinquity prompted the foundation of administrations dedicated to the physical saving of the countryside, the rural manner of life, and its wildlife ( Clapp, 1994 p. 138 ) . The countryside saving administrations would finally hold a strong influence on the constitution of the green belt zones and the restricted handiness of development land in the more preponderantly rural countries of Britain ( Allmendinger and Thomas, 1998 p. 55 ) .

It was after the terminal of the First World War that the cardinal authorities and local governments took a greater involvement in the building of lodging and how land was really being used in domestic lodging and industrial or commercial building programmes. The function of the market in make up one’s minding how many houses were built and the location of where those houses were constructed was reduced with the development of council houses ( Taylor, 1998 p. 3 ) . The proviso of low-cost lodging built by local governments and subsidised by cardinal authorities support meant that there was increased public engagement in the finding of land use. The usage, maltreatment, or the non-use of land was no longer entirely determined by market forces. The engagement of cardinal authorities and local governments was intended to cut down poorness, sick wellness, and societal exclusion. At no point in the inter-war period were steps taken to present town and state planning with the purpose of protecting the environment or advancing sustainability as cipher considered such stairss were necessary. The First World War had merely witnessed really minimum degrees of belongings harm caused by German naval onslaughts and bombing foraies on Britain, so there was no widespread demand for pressing Reconstruction programmes as there would be at the terminal of the Second World War ( Clapp, 1994 p. 138 ) .

The cardinal authorities foremost took legislative steps to curtail the usage of development land within the remit of the Town and Country Planning Act of 1925, although planning determinations were normally left to single local governments to be enforced. The rough economic conditions that dominated much of the inter-war period meant that the usage of development land except by local authorization edifice council houses was limited through reduced degrees of capital to fund such building undertakings by private sector companies ( Rydin, 2003 p. 18 ) .

The bequest of the Great Depression and the Second World War meant that cardinal authorities and local governments were acute to take a controlling involvement in finding the sum of available development land as portion of the increased planning of both society and the British economic system. The Atlee authorities was tasked with retracing a state that had suffered extended bomb harm during the Second World War. The bulk of that harm had been sustained by the South-East of England and the Midlands, a contemplation of the industrial and strategic importance of these parts to the British war attempt, every bit good as the limited scope of German bombers ( Southall, 2000 p. 335 ) . The Atlee authorities decided to construct new towns as a manner of traveling 1000s of households in to new council house estates that were purpose built and off from the extensively war damaged metropolis Centres such as London and Southampton. The proviso of societal lodging was assured of go oning, as the Conservative party was every bit committed to its proviso as the Labour party was ( Schama, 2002 p. 538 ) .

The new towns were built on carefully selected development land and green field sites. The chief impression for new towns was to give people the chance to populate in more contributing and desirable rural countries than the interior metropolis territories of the major metropoliss and bask a higher quality of life than when they had lived in those territories. Although the cardinal authorities intended to conserve as much of the countryside as possible whilst work outing the immediate lodging deficits that has resulted from the Second World War ( Sheail, 2002 p. 62 ) . The building of the new town in topographic points such as Stevenage, Milton Keynes, and Telford moved people off from the metropoliss and allowed rapid economic sciences development of antecedently rural countries. When the new town were completed it besides allowed more edifice programmes to be finished in interior metropolis territories with less urgency as people had already been re-housed ( Clapp, 1994 p. 138 ) . The building of the new towns was really of import for the societal and economic development of post-war Britain. As London was the largest metropolis in Britain with the most pressing demand to hold its stateless people re-housed it was no great surprise that more new towns were constructed to house people who had lived in London. The Atlee authorities ‘planned thirty –four New Towns, eight of them pealing London, 20 to thirty stat mis out, taking at populations of 80,000 to 100,000’ ( Southall, 2000 p. 337 ) . The tabular array below shows the national distribution of new towns in post-war Britain and which metropoliss they took their populations from.

Table 1 – New towns and the metropoliss they took populations from

City or metropoliss within the same part

Number of new towns taking populations from the metropolis

London

11 ( including Milton Keynes, Peterborough, and Northampton )

Birmingham

2

Newcastle / Durham

3

Liverpool / Manchester

3

( Figures taken from Southall, 2000 p. 337 ) .

Although the new towns were meant to alleviate the immediate post-war lodging deficits some of them took longer to be completed than was originally planned. As towns such as Peterborough and Northampton already existed it was much easier to merely spread out their size ( Southall, 2000 p. 337 ) . However it took longer to finish the building of new towns that were built on sites were nil had antecedently been constructed. For case, the development and completion of Milton Keynes originally conceived in the early 1960s was non even built until after 1972 when its programs were eventually approved ( Frampton, 1997 p. 286 ) .

In the immediate post-war period aside from the sites used for the new towns the chief beginning of development land were brown field sites in already urbanized countries. The post-war demand for reconstitution had allowed local governments to choose for the building of new edifices, which took up less land than had been destroyed during the Second World War ( Rydin, 2003 p. 18 ) . The edifice of high rise tower blocks at that clip seemed to be the ideal agencies of re-housing many 1000s of people and eventually leting for the long delinquent clearance of interior metropolis slums from Britain ( Taylor, 1998 p. 145 ) . As high rise tower blocks could re-house more people than constructing lodging estates they would cut down the demand to utilize greater measures of development land. High rise tower blocks changed the architectural landscape of urban and interior metropolis Britain in the first two decennaries of the post-war period. Unfortunately high rise tower blocks were non the ideal means of doing the best and most efficient usage of development land, as they did non offer long-run comfort and they besides required a batch of keeping to stay habitable ( Kim & A ; Rigdon, December 1998 p. 5 ) . Buildings that have merely have a limited life span, that were constructed with unsustainable and by and large non-recyclable stuffs is about off from the constructs of sustainable architecture as it could be possible to travel. Such severely constructed edifice undertakings were that doubtless a waste of taxpayers’ money every bit good as a waste of resources and besides the development land used ( Taylor, 1998 p. 147 ) .

Arguably, it was non the basic construct of high rise tower blocks which was flawed, instead the stuffs in the building were by and large of hapless quality and the tower blocks were non prove against the vagaries of the British conditions ( Meller, 1997 p. 63 ) . High rise tower blocks would in some topographic points be prone to muffle, expensive to heat and vulnerable to offense. More recent urban edifice programmes have returned to the thought of seting single flats within flat blocks that are non every bit high as high rise tower blocks had been ( Rydin, 2003 p. 281 ) . Constructing flat blocks still allows more people to be housed than more traditional houses, cut downing the demand for new development land, and potentially increasing net incomes for the houses that sell flats in frequently desirable locations ( Taylor, 1998 p. 145 ) . Given the increasing demand for lodging in recent old ages the building of flat blocks seems to be a sounder method of happening excess places for people without necessitating excess development land. Apartment blocks have been a favoured signifier of new building undertakings in the interior metropolis countries, which have been given cardinal authorities, and European Union financess for regeneration strategies. Such strategies have often succeeded in finishing more new lodging programmes in these countries every bit good as having or spread outing local concerns and cut downing unemployment ( Rydin, 2003 p. 281 ) .

When it comes down to work outing lodging deficits or conserving the countryside, the continued protection of the green belt or leting it to be used as development land has caused much argument. The original construct behind the appellation and the protection of the green belt was the preservation of the parts of the countryside, which were non needed as development land for the new towns ( Sheail, 2002 p. 2 ) . For cardinal authorities and the local governments had believed that the building programmes within already urban countries when added to the lodging, stores and industrial units built in the new towns meant that implied that there was no longer an pressing or pressing demand for illimitable sums of development land. Cardinal authorities and the local governments assumed that the regeneration of brown field sites and building on fresh urban land would supply all the development land that was really needed. These premises were based on there being no important demographic and societal alterations, which would drastically change the demand for new edifice undertakings ( Southall, 2000 p. 337 ) .

The cardinal authorities and local governments to guarantee that all the countries included within the nominative green belt zones did non go used up as development land tight be aftering ordinances and limitations were set as to how or when green belt land could be built upon. Those ordinances and be aftering limitations were so tight that virtually no green belt land was used for new edifice undertakings. The long-run effects of set uping and so keeping the green belt zones was the stiff restricting of the handiness of development land so as to forestall the urbanization of big countries of the countryside. Some countries of green belt land have gone to hold even tougher planning ordinances and edifice limitations placed on them when cardinal authorities or the relevant local authorization has believed that to be necessary. The strengthening of be aftering ordinances and limitations is most particularly undertaken for countries that are considered to good blessed with rare workss and animate beings, which is besides other parts of the countryside that are deemed to be of high scientific involvement ( Clapp, 1994 p. 140 ) .

There are surely those who argue that the limitations on the sum of development land made available imposed by the care of the green belt zones should be reduced drastically due to changing demographic, societal, and economic tendencies ( Taylor, 1998 p. 147 ) . The force per unit area for loosen uping or so wholly taking the green belt zone limitations is caused by concerns about the increasing degrees of lodging deficits. Pressure has risen as the figure of constructing sites in urban countries has started to dwindle at the same clip that the figure of people desiring separate houses for themselves has perceptibly increased ( Rydin, 2003 p. 18 ) .

The force per unit area to construct great measures of houses, stores, and industrial units on green belt land has besides been raised by landholders and belongings developers demoing a desire to utilize such land for their benefit. They are trusting to portion in the potentially important net incomes that could be made from the merchandising of belongingss in the chiefly rural countries, which constitute green belt zones ( Taylor, 2003 p. 147 ) . Not merely would people wish to populate in less urbanized countries, the landholders and belongings developers would anticipate the land in such countries to be cheaper than the land available in urban countries. The lodging policies pursued by the Conservative authoritiess between 1979 and 1997 efficaciously meant that market forces were one time once more the chief determining factor in make up one’s minding the degree and the location of edifice programmes, supplying that be aftering permission could be obtained. The chief alteration introduced by the Conservative authoritiess from 1979 was the merchandising off of council renters through the right to purchase strategy and the crisp decrease in the figure of new council houses being built. Although some new societal lodging was constructed by lodging associations it was at greatly reduced degrees compared to the 1950s, the 1960s, and the 1970s ( Rydin, 2003 p. 281 ) . Those developments have reduced the handiness of low-cost lodging and boosted house monetary values every bit good as declining the deficits of new places available to people in the South-East of England. The sell off of council houses was one of the Thatcher government’s most popular policies, yet it footings of protecting the environment and heightening sustainability it was likely one of the most short sighted policies pursued by that disposal ( Allmendinger and Thomas, 1998 p. 5 ) . The sell off of council houses stimulated the private lodging market which in bend meant more people wanted to have their places, and led to of all time increasing Numberss of proposed edifice undertakings. Building and belongings developers would hold strong evidences for believing that belongingss freshly built in countries which are presently protected through the green belt ordinances would bring high monetary values, particularly as the South-East of England normally has the highest priced belongingss nationally ( Rydin, 2003 p. 56 ) .

Chapter Three – Sustainable Architecture

Sustainable architecture is a construct within architecture that has expanded in influence as the cognition about inauspicious environmental alterations caused by human activity has increased ( Hough, 2004 p. 5 ) . The get downing point of the constructs refering sustainability is that the natural environment is a life ecosystem, which is being unduly and perilously harmed by human activity ( Vale, 1991 p. 2 ) . Sustainable architecture is hence a development and remains strongly linked with ecology every bit good as environmentalist administrations ( Taylor, 1998 p. 149 ) . The chief aim of sustainable architecture is therefore to understate the inauspicious environmental impact of edifices from their initial building throughout the full period of their business and usage, every bit good as after their eventual destruction ( Kim & A ; Rigdon, 1998 p. 5 ) . The purposes of sustainable architecture are accomplishable through improved edifice designs, careful choice of the most sustainable edifice stuffs and the usage of the most efficient engineering ( Steele, 2005 p. 4 ) .

Prior to the outgrowth of ecological motions the chief focal point of architecture was make up one’s minding upon which architectural manner to utilize, and whether to do the edifice designs appear more of import than the existent maps of the edifices being constructed. Architects wee non antipathetic to utilizing constructing stuffs from the other side of the universe if that stuff would could the coveted design or visual aspect of the completed edifice. Supplying the company paying for edifice of building undertakings was happy to pay for alien stuffs within that undertaking conveying stuffs from far flung topographic points was non a job ( Steele, 2005 p. 4 ) . The fiscal cost of building undertakings was an indispensable consideration before edifice work could get down, yet environmental costs were non considered to be of any great significance or so counted within the over all fiscal costs of each completed undertaking ( Vale, 1991 p. 2 ) . Those designers and belongings developers who are either opposed or unconvinced of the demand to utilize designs and stuffs based upon sustainable architecture could reason that such building undertakings will go excessively expensive and hence be damaging to strong economic growing. Implementing a scheme to accomplish sustainable architecture might non be damaging to strong economic growing or public presentation ( Kim & A ; Rigdon, December 1998 p. 5 ) . The intended result of the designs and stuffs that are adopted through sustainable architecture are lower energy ingestion degrees and the more efficient usage of other beginnings would be good in the long-run ( Kim & A ; Rigdon, December 1998 p. 5 ) . Bettering energy and resource efficiency with sustainable architectural designs arguably enhances the chances for strong economic growing and public presentation instead than diminishing such opportunities. Japan for case uses well less fossil fuel than the United States and other Western states without any inauspicious economic effects, chiefly as a effect of utilizing sustainable architecture to take down ingestion degrees ( Kim & A ; Rigdon, December 1998 p. 6 ) .

The stuffs needed to successfully complete edifice programmes have traditionally resources whose extraction or production has added to pollution caused by human activity ( Vale, 1991 p. 2 ) . To increase the inauspicious effects of edifice programmes the finite resources expended have non by and large come from renewable beginnings ( Kim & A ; Rigdon, December 1998 p. 5 ) . The building costs of edifices have normally merely included the cost of the stuffs used, and the labor used to finish those edifices. When ciphering the costs of constructing programmes really small attending used to be given to integrating the costs of the existent edifice stuffs used to finish the edifices themselves. For case the cost of transporting or winging rare or alien stuffs was non normally accounted for. Some edifice stuffs are really intensive in footings of the sum of resources used and pollution caused to bring forth or polish them that they should seldom be used in edifice designs inspired or influenced by sustainable architecture. Possibly the best illustration of such a edifice stuff is aluminum, which should merely be used in edifice undertakings unless it is taken from 100 per cent recycled stuff ( Kim & A ; Rigdon, December 1998 p. 5 ) .

Those utilizing sustainable architecture techniques attach far more importance to the environmental impact of their ain building undertakings ( Kim & A ; Rigdon, December 1998 p. 5 ) . Even before sustainable architecture emerged as a construct some designers had already started to utilize less resources to finish their building undertakings ( Frampton, 1997 p. 266 ) . For case, more modernist types of architecture such as functionalism and structural linguistics may hold used less stuffs in their building than more traditional manners, though that was an accidental effect of the manner being expressed as opposed to concerns about the environment ( Kim & A ; Rigdon, December 1998 p. 5 ) . Architects were utilizing minimum sums of edifice stuffs and resources before the outgrowth of sustainable architecture either as an look of their preferable manner, or besides as a agency of maintaining the fiscal costs of their building undertakings every bit low as possible ( Kim & A ; Rigdon, December 1998 p. 5 ) .

Sustainable architecture is achieved by assorted methods which when combined together cut down the environmental impact of edifices whether freshly constructed or modified in construction. The fiscal costs of building new edifices is high, whilst when unsustainable building techniques continue to be actively employed so the environmental costs and besides the effects will be even higher ( Kim & A ; Rigdon, December 1998 p. 5 ) . The stuffs used in the building of new edifices such as concrete, steel, bricks, lumber, and glass are manufactured in ways, which entail the extended non to advert intensive usage of natural resources. Not merely do such building stuffs have to be extracted from the Earth, that really extraction and the processing of these edifice stuffs so that they are ready to be used requires big measures of energy to make so. By make up one’s minding to use recycled building stuffs designers following the constructs put frontward via the impression of sustainable architecture could do a important measure towards energy ingestion by cut downing the demand to pull out natural minerals and turn them into finished building stuffs. Aluminum is likely the most environmentally detrimental constructing stuff to be used when produced from being new, so should merely be used the properties of that metal itself are required for the successful completion of any undertaking ( Kim, Rigdon, & A ; Graves, August 1998 p. 5 ) . Recycling edifice stuffs is non merely better for the environment, it could besides be more cost effectual in the long-run as building houses will non hold to pay so much for their stuffs ( Kim & A ; Rigdon, December 1998 p. 5 ) . Furthermore, the more building undertakings which use as much recycled edifice stuffs as possible the more it will assist to conserve finite resources and possibly could even detain the oncoming of scarcenesss in such stuffs ( Rydin, 2003 p. 281 ) .

The tabular array below clearly demonstrates the sum of energy that is saved when choosing to utilize recycled stuffs for building or other industrial utilizations.

Table 2 – Energy needed to bring forth building / industrial stuffs in MJ/kg

Material

New / Virgin Material

Recycled Material

Aluminum

196

27

Polyethene

98

56

Polyvinyl chloride

65

22

Steel

40

18

Figures taken from J L Sulivan and J Hu, ‘Life Cycle Analysis for Automobiles, October 16 1995.

Sustainable architecture is besides about utilizing sustainable stuffs and improved environmentally friendlier engineering within bing edifices every bit good as in freshly constructed edifices. Sustainable architecture helps to protect the environment by take downing the sum of toxic pollutants released into the ambiance during the building procedure, every bit good as subsequently once the edifices are in full usage ( Kim, Rigdon, & A ; Graves, August 1998 p. 5 ) .

It seems likely that the cardinal authorities and local governments will progressively see new building programmes to be built upon development land drawn from green belt land. To pacify conservationist and ecological groups, the cardinal authorities and local governments might take a firm stand that developers will hold to adhere to concepts linked with s a before having full planning permission ( Taylor, 1998 p. 147 ) . Cardinal authorities and local governments would in any instance want any new building programmes to utilize as much renewable, recycled and biodegradable stuffs as possible to run into the pollution cutting marks set by the European Union ( Rydin, 2003 p. 281 ) . The European Union has by and large set tougher marks to cut down pollution and advance environmental sustainability than the authoritiess of its member provinces have done ( Meller, 1997 p. 109 ) . Therefore, the British authorities has attempted to carry concerns to increase their environmental sustainability to run into European Union marks ( Meller, 1997 p. 109 ) . When it comes down to the building industry it would be easier to accomplish marks set by the cardinal authorities and the European Union by encompassing sustainable architecture when building new constructing programmes in the South-East of England ( Taylor, 1998 p. 145 ) .

For building houses utilizing sustainable architecture would non merely let them to follow with environmental demands, it could in the long term prove it is more cost effectual. Re-using and recycling edifice stuffs would intend these companies could avoid paying land fill revenue enhancements ( Kim & A ; Rigdon, December 1998 p. 5 ) . If companies are besides able to recycle their ain waste merchandises, they might besides be able to avoid purchasing new stuffs wholly, or at least lower the sum of new stuffs they need to finish new edifice programmes ( Kim & A ; Rigdon, December 1998 p. 5 ) . Companies will no uncertainty get down to favor utilizing sustainable architecture techniques if it means that they gain be aftering permission when it might non otherwise be granted. Planing permission allows building to continue guaranting net incomes, every bit good as salvaging the costs of new stuffs and leting them to avoid green house revenue enhancements such as the land fill revenue enhancement ( Sheail, 2002 p. 62 ) .

It would really be straightforward for constructing companies to follow most of the steps and techniques linked with s a. For case, such companies could purchase their building stuffs from providers that are able to supply renewable, recycled, every bit good as biodegradable stuffs. Sustainability is besides enhanced through the usage of contraptions and equipment that are rated harmonizing to the sum of injury they do or make non make the environment. The more companies, which will merely utilize merchandises that are renewable, reclaimable, and biodegradable the cheaper all those constructing stuff merchandises, will go ( Kim & A ; Rigdon, December 1998 p. 5 ) .

Chapter Four – South-East of England

This chapter specifically evaluates the force per unit areas on development land, and the force per unit areas for sustainable architecture in the South-East of England. In general footings it could be argued that the force per unit areas on the usage of development land and for utilizing the techniques of sustainable architecture in the South-East of England are the same as in the remainder of Britain. For case, designers and belongings developers in London would hold the same force per unit areas or conditions as their opposite numbers in Birmingham, Manchester, and Glasgow ( Hough, 2004 p. 190 ) . However, this is non the instance in world as the economic and societal conditions in the South-East of England are non the same as in the remainder of Britain. Different conditions have a strong influence over why the force per unit areas to utilize development land or follow sustainable architecture vary throughout the state. Formally though the planning ordinances and limitations upon the usage of development land ( most notably the green belt ) every bit good as the legal demands to do edifices environmentally less damaging are the same in the other parts within Britain. It is nevertheless the force per unit areas to move to utilize development land and to a lesser extent sustainable architecture in the South-East of England which are arguably much greater in that specific part than in the other parts of Britain ( Kim & A ; Rigdon, December 1998 p. 5 ) .

The force per unit areas on development land are stronger than in the other parts of Britain because the part normally has stronger economic growing than everyplace else does. That economic disparity within Britain has been referred to as the divide between the North and South which recognises that the South-East of England is wealthier than the other parts of England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales ( Schama, 2002 p. 538 ) . Stronger economic growing and public presentation besides equates to a higher demand for the building of more places, stores, and industrial or concern units. Such increased degrees of demand in bend puts added force per unit area to utilize development land to fulfill such demand. Although any new edifices would hold to follow with tougher environmental ordinances, the sum of land being used for new building is still being restricted through the operation of the green belt strategies. Property developers and building houses regard the green belt strategies as an unneeded restraint on their net incomes and a barrier to economic growing. Such statements would hold likely been disregarded every bit much as before if other economic and societal alterations had non besides placed extra force per unit area to utilize green belt land as development land ( Sheail, 2002 p. 62 ) . The continuance of the green belt policy owes a great trade to both Conservative and Labour authoritiess being unwilling to put on the line electoral unpopularity by leting a full return to the unrestricted usage of development land ( Meller, 1997 p. 109 ) .

The higher economic growing and public presentation often experienced by the South-East of England is largely attributable to the fact that London is located within this part. London is a magnet to concerns every bit good as for people. London and its environing suburbs have the largest concentration of population within Britain ( Meller, 1997 p. 109 ) . London has the largest population of any metropolis in Britain as it is the capital metropolis, with more people and concerns desiring to be located there or within going distance of at that place. High demand for domestic lodging, retail, and concern premises has meant the monetary value of land, houses, and rents are besides high ( Vale, 1991 p.2 ) .

Demographic alterations have increased the force per unit area of development land in the South-East of England. Whilst increases in the South-East of England were modest non above the national norm the demands to utilize 500 cubic decimeter were manageable and it was non excessively hard to go forth green belt zone countries free of new edifice programmes. However, even before the additions in population within the South-East of England rose above the national norm the demand for new development land had put force per unit area on the green belt zone ( Meller, 1997 p. 109 ) . There was an increased demand for places, due to more grownups populating on their ain, either through picks or because of the dislocation of relationships. Higher divorce rates, every bit good as more individual parent households has meant that more places are wanted than were available ( Meller, 1997 p. 109 ) .

Further force per unit area was put on development land in the South-East of England by the crisp diminution in the sum of council houses available. That was chiefly due to council house renters taking up their right to purchase option, with cardinal authorities non leting local governments to construct new council houses. The Conservative authoritiess between 1979 and 1997 regarded the decrease of lodging controlled and owned by the public sector as being a politically, socially, and economically desirable result. The worsening sum of council houses in bend meant that people either had to lease their adjustment from private landlords or effort to purchase their ain places. With local governments unable to construct any new council houses the burden for the edifice of new houses fell upon private belongings developers and edifice houses. Property developers and edifice houses viewed the land protected by being portion of the green belt zone as an untapped beginning of development land ( Meller, 1997 p. 109 ) .

The force per unit area to utilize excess sums of development land drawn from the green belt zone in the South-East of England has increased because of population additions. In recent old ages the chief cause of such population additions in the South-East of England has been in-migration, both by refuge searchers and people from the new member provinces of the European Union ( Meller, 1997 p. 109 ) .

Decisions

Therefore, there are assorted grounds for the force per unit area on development land, and besides for the acceptance of sustainable architecture in the South-East of England. Some of these grounds are the same as the general grounds and factors as witnessed or experienced within the other parts of Britain. The sum of development land available in the South-East of England was tightly controlled by the planning limitations linked with the constitution and the care of the green belt zones. As they were intended to make the green belt zones restricted the range, location every bit good as the size of new building programmes in the South-East of Engla