CHAPTER ONE THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE Background of the Study Describes the prevailing problem situation at the global, national and local levels (broad perspectives to narrow perspectives). Explains what the study is all about. Should arouse the interest of the readers. Statement of the Problem The researcher has to identify the specific problem existing within the specific area of interest which his research will seek to address. The statement should provide the researcher with considerable direction in pursuing the study. Purpose of the Study This refers to the general aim for wanting to carry out the study.
The purpose should not be a reproduction of the title, but should be a summary statement of the reason why the study is being proposed. Research Objectives These are finer statements of what is to be accomplished, which emanate from the purpose of the study. They specify more directly what the researcher is going to do. While the purpose is a general statement of the aim of the study, the objectives must be specific. Should state properly and clearly the general and specific objectives that should jive with the research questions. Ideally, the research objectives should be measurable, attainable and feasible.
Research Questions The research questions must be stated in question form and in a way that they are synchronized with the research objectives. Hypothesis The research hypothesis is a tentative explanation of the research problem. It is also a tentative answer to the research problem and can be an educated guess about the research outcome. Not all researches need a hypothesis, therefore, if the study is hypothesis free, an ASSUMPTION may take its place. The hypothesis must be stated where it is applicable. Ideally, the hypothesis can be in null or alternative form. Scope This specifies the boundaries of the research.
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The geographical scope defines the location or site of the study. The theoretical scope defines the issues to be covered; the content scope defines the factors and variables to be considered. Significance of the Study This provides the justification of the study. It spells out who the probable beneficiaries of the study findings might be (country, government, local community, agency, curriculum developers, researchers etc. ), and how they might benefit. It also shows how the research findings will contribute to general knowledge and what is its impact on development towards better life .
It should reflect on knowledge creation, as well as on technological or socio-economic value to the community. Operational Definitions of Key Terms This gives the definitions of major terms as they are used in the study. Key terms are ideally found in the research title, research instrument and other parts of the study where the terms need to be operationally defined in this section. CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Introduction This gives a short introduction on the coverage of this chapter. Concepts, Ideas, Opinions From Authors/ Experts
This section deals with the analysis of the literature related to the subject of the study with the objective of seeing the concepts, ideas and opinions of scholars/experts. The review must be focused on the study variables by reviewing literature under the sub-themes which synchronize with the research objectives or questions or hypothesis. It should show relationships identified by previous researchers. When the literature review is so structured it would be easy when discussing the researcher's findings to relate and compare these findings with previous findings in the reviewed literature.
The review should identify the gaps existing in literature and specify the ones that the research will focus on. Proper citations/end noting must also be reflected. Theoretical Perspectives This should discuss the theory to which the study is based (one for each independent and dependent variable or combined). One or more theories may need to be discussed in this section if the topic is a well-researched area with various antecedents before arriving at a theory or synthesis of two or more theories that will serve as the pivot for the study.
In some cases where few studies have been undertaken, there may be no theories to draw upon. In such a case, the conceptual framework shall be used. Related Studies This portion discusses past empirical investigations similar to or related to the present study. CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY Research Design It is the strategy used in the study. A researcher should be able to identify and isolate the design most appropriate for a study. It could be experimental, quasi-experimental, descriptive survey, historical, ex post facto, action research, evaluation research, etc.
A researcher should make the form or design of investigation explicit and provide a justification for the choice. He can also indicate if the approach he is adopting is quantitative or qualitative or both. Research Population A population is the complete collection of all the elements that are of interest in a particular investigation. A target population is the population to which the researcher ultimately wants to generalize the results. This target population is the population from which the sample will be drawn. The result can best be generalized to the accessible population.
They can, at times be generalized to the target population also, if the two populations are very similar. The sample drawn from the target population become the research subjects (if they are inanimate objects or animals) or the research respondents of the study (if they are humans/individuals who answers the research instrument administered). Relevant characteristics of the subjects or respondents must be stated as well as the inclusion and exclusion criteria in selecting the subjects or respondents identified. Sample Size What size of sample can represent the accessible population?
The ideal size varies with the population size. There are laid down rules and tables to assist in determining the size of a representative sample. Researchers are to indicate the population size and the corresponding sample size and quote an authority that supports the sufficiency of the sample size. There are various formula used for sample size calculation depending on the research design. How the sample size is arrived at should be clearly stated. Sampling Procedure The sample should be a representation of the population. In other words most characteristics of the population should be represented in the selected sample.
This calls for the use of a suitable sampling strategy. The procedure adopted should ensure that the selected sample represents the population. This should be clearly explained. Research Instrument There are varieties of research instruments or tools that can be used to collect data. Examples include the Questionnaire, Interview Guide, and Observations Checklist. The researcher needs to indicate the research instrument(s) he intends to use. whether researcher devised/structured by the researcher or standardized research instrument.
The basis for the options/content in a standardized or researcher devised instrument are the aspects discussed in the Review of Related Literature. The researcher should try not to develop his own questions or select a standardized instrument without any basis then. A researcher devised instrument can be pre- tested to 5-10 subjects or respondents not included in the actual study to test its reliability and should also be tested for its validity. If a standardized instrument is to be adopted, the name of the author of the instrument and permission to use must be mentioned in this section.
This is to avoid plagiarism and legal suits from the author of the instrument. Whether the instrument is researcher devised or standardized the response modes, scoring and interpretation of scores need to be discussed in this part of the study. Validity and Reliability of the Instrument Data quality control refers to validity and reliability of the instruments. Validity refers to the appropriateness of the instruments while reliability refers to its consistency in measuring whatever it is intended to measure.
The researcher needs to describe how he intends to establish the validity and reliability of the research instrument before using them. For purposes of triangulation more than one instrument can be used. Data Gathering Procedures In this part of the study, the collection of data step by step, before, during and after the administration of the research instrument should be described. Data Analysis This section presents how the data generated in the study are to be organized and analyzed. The technique to be used to analyze each group of data should be specified.
While thematic analysis can be employed for qualitative data, the use of such statistical techniques as chi-square, correlation, ANOVA etc. are appropriate for quantitative data. Spell out the particular statistical treatment/ technique and formula to use with reference to each research question or type of data set. Ethical Considerations This refers to the moral justification of the investigation. How do you ensure the safety, social and psychological well being of the person and/or community involved in your study?
This may involve getting clearance from the ethical body/ethics committee and consent of the respondent (Appendices II and III respectively). Limitations of the Study This considers potential sources of bias/ threats to the validity of the findings in the proposed study. Whatever may limit the validity of the findings constitute limitations. However, they need not prevent the study from being carried out. The confession of the limitations only serves to warn the reader of the amount of trust to place in the findings. The researcher should mention in this study how the limitations were minimized/reduced.
CHAPTER IV PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA Start with narrative statements of the data in answer to the specific research questions then a graphic or tabular presentation of the data. Below the tables/graphs, discuss the meaning and practical implications of the findings with consideration on the results of similar studies. Include also the findings of other investigators both in agreement or disagreement with the findings of the study on hand. CHAPTER FIVE FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS Introduce this chapter and its coverage. FINDINGS
Clearly state in this portion the overall results in answer to the specific research questions. CONCLUSIONS This should state clearly the researcher's stand on the research problem based on all evidences presented. The conclusion/s should be sound, and logical and answers any of these: the main research problem, if the hypothesis is accepted or rejected or if the theory to which the study is based is proven or not. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Should be sound and logical based on the findings of the study. 2. Shortcomings of the study are addressed and constructive suggestions given for future research. . Two to three titles of related studies are suggested for the future researchers. REFERENCES This is the list of all works cited in the study. It should be written according to approved format. For uniformity the approved format for KIU is the format of the latest edition of American Psychological Association (APA) Publication Manual. Only cited authors in the study should be given in the reference section. All authors in the reference section should appear in the body of the study. Present the references in alphabetical order. Book on referencing available with the DVC, SPGSR. APPENDIX 1
TRANSMITTAL LETTER Attached here is an original copy of the letter/ communication from the School of Postgraduate Studies and Research (SPGSR) through its Director stating the request for the candidate to be given consideration to conduct his/her study as specified. APPENDIX II CLEARANCE FROM ETHICS COMMITTEE A legitimate attachment is a clearance from the Ethics Committee for the purpose of ensuring the safety, social and psychological well being of the person and community involved in the study. May or may not be there depending on the nature of the study. APPENDIX III INFORMED CONSENT
This is an original copy of the form where the subjects/ respondents sign as proof of approval to be involved in the study. May or may not be there depending on the nature of the study. APPENDIX IV RESEARCH INSTRUMENT A copy of the research instrument must be attached . RESEARCHER'S CURRICULUM VITAE To document the details of the researcher, his competency in writing a research and to recognize his efforts and qualifications, this part of the research report is thus meant. The researcher's bio-data is categorized as follows: Personal Profile Educational Background Work Experience Other Relevant Data
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