The initial opposing party to Barre’s regime was conducted by the officers in the army after his defeated in Ogden war in 1977, some of them were sentenced and others escaped to Ethiopia and established the first opposing front called “Somali salvation Democratie Frof” (SSDF), as well as the immigrants of Ishaq tribe in England established “Somali National Movement” (SNM).
Later in 1989, the United Somali Movement was formed by Hawiya tribe and controlled Mogadishu. The next year about (100) politicians signed a document demanding Barre to resign and appointing a transitional government.
In 1991, the Somali Congress Forces (SCF) led by Mohammed Farah Aidid defeated the government forces, however Barre coerced to escape to “Gedo” near Kenyan borders. The ouster of Barre’s government left behind a vacuum power which inspired the appetite of opposing groups to govern.
An armed combat between (USC) commanders Mohammed Aidid and Ali Mahdi Mohammed to control of the capital. The fighting lasted for 100 days and the number of the victims was estimated about (30.000) thousands. On the meantime, the (SNM) proclaimed independence under the name of Somaliland. In 1992, a cease fire between Aidid and Ali Mehdi was a greed, and no one controlled the capital which amplify the gap between the north and the south.
The United Nation Operation in Somalia I (UNOSOM I) was establish in 1992 to maintain ceasefire and support humanitarian relief efforts (Khaleji, 2007). Unfortunately, the ceasefire was ignored and fighting nonstop. In 1992, about (350.000) Somali died due to illness, hunger and civil war. The US established multinational forces to secure humanitarian processes and it became United Task Force (UNITF) after approving by Security Council.
In March 1993, the United Nation operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II) started to reconstruct Somali state and economy. They withdraw in 1995 after having incurred causalities. In 1995, the military combat between local parties became less intense. Aidid stated himself as a president of the Somalia without getting any recognition. His forces occupied Daidoa. In 1996, Ali Mehdi elected as a chairman of the United Somali Congress and Somali Calvation Alliance (USC//SSA).
In the same year, Aidid died of his wounds. In 2000, Ali Mehdi lost votes to Abdulqasim Salad Hasssan. In the same year, the transitional national government (TNG) was established because of Somali National Arta Conference in Djibouti. In 2004, the Transitional Federal Government was established in Nairobi. In 2006, a clash between U.S backed militia leaders and Islamic Courts Union (ICU) which won the combat and controlled most of the Southern Somalia (Dresso,2009).
Thus, Ethiopia entered Somalia as allies to (TFG) against (ICU). The next year president Abdullah control Mogadishu and US began strike against al-Qaida. In 2010, al-Shabaab declared a coalition with al-Qaida and attacked the capital. In the same year, the famine killed about 260,000 people.
In 2012, the Federal Government of Somalia was established. In 2013, US recognized the Somali government for the first time since 1991. In the same year and the next, al-Shabaab conducted some attack operations against Kenya like what happened in November a mass killing in north-east Kenya.
In 2016, the African Union leaders agreed to raise their troops and support their military to deteriorate al-Shabaab. In 2017, Mohammed Abdullah selected as a president of Somalia. In October 2017, bombing killed about 350 people in Mogadishu. In march 2018, about 18 citizens were killed and 22 others injured because of blast close to hotel in Mogadishu.