sociology chp 5and 6 cont.

nature vs nurture
inherited genetic characteristics vs. environmental and social learning
ex of aptitude
natural talent for music or art
exs of parental characteristics that can influence a child’s personality…
lv of education, religious orientation, economic status, cultural heritage and occupational background
Ik of northern Uganda
powerful ex of the effects of cultural env. before WW2, hunter-gatherers/small farmers. after, govt turned much of land into national park. Ik resettled on barren land. Ik’s social structure soon collapsed-> turned on eachother. today children are thrown out of house at 3 and survive by forming age bands. no parent help. only the strongest and most clver survive.
feral children research
Kingsley Davis studied Anna and isabelle
institutionalization
Rene Spitz studied the effects of institutionalization on a group of infants living in an orphanage with little human contact. 1/3 of children died within 2 years. could do little
John Locke
an English philosopher from the 1600s insisted that each newly born human being is a tabula rasa, or clean slate, on which just about anything can be written. John B watson made same claim
Cooley’s 3 step process for the development of the looking-glass self
1- we imagine how we appear to others 2-based on their reactions to us, we attempt to determine whether others view us as we view ourselves 3- we use our perceptions of how others judge us to develop feelings about ourselves
George Herbert mead
Another founder of the interactionist perspective, developed ideas related to Cooley’s theories. Seeing ourselves as others see us is just the beginning. Eventually
we not only see ourselves as others but actually take on or pretend to take the roles of others
Examples of total institutions
Prisons, military bootcamps, monasteries and psychiatric hospitals
Difference between total institutions and resocialization
total institution are primarily concerned with resocializing their members. resocilization involves a break with past experiences and the learning of new values and norms
resocialization is directed toward changing an individual’s ___ and ___
personality and social behavior
adolescence
the period between the normal onset of puberty and the beginning of puberty
puberty
the physical maturing that makes an individual capable of sexual reproduction
T/F: adolescence as a distinct life stage is the creation of modern industrial society
true
T/F: puberty does not exist as a concept in many parts of the world; however, puberty occurs in all human societies
false; otherway around
in many ___ societies, young people go directly from childhood to adulthood once they have taken part in formal ceremonies known as ___ rites
preindustrial; puberty
the adolescent experience has become an acknowledged stage of _____ _ _____ _____ in only the past century
development in industrialized countries
3 factors important in the development of adolescence as a distinct life stage in the US
1-education 2-the exclusion of youth from the labor force 3-the development of the juvenile-justice system
5 characteristics of adolescence
1- biological growth and development 2- an undefined status 3-increased decision making 4-increased pressures 5-search for self
2 things that control biological development
brain and the endocrine system (a group of glands that produce various hormones)
Anticipatory socialization
involves learning the rights, obligations, and expectations of a role to prepare for assuming that role in the future
3 common forms of anticipatory socialization during adolescence
part-time job, club membership, and dating
dating
the meeting of people as a romantic engagement. most commonly found in societies that allow individuals to choose their own marriage partners
courtship
express purpose is eventual marriage. roles were strictly defined. young many was expected to meet her parents and ask their permission. conducted in the parlor of the woman’s house under close supervision.
2 technological developments that have young people added freedom leading to dating increase
telephone and automobiles
Willard Waller
conducted analyses of American dating patterns. studied Penn students’ dating habits. concluded that casual dating was a form of entertainment that had little to do with mate selection.
based on Willard Waller, 2 centers of the dating process
status attainment and excitement
Based on Waller, individuals dated people of ___ ___ ___
similar social rank
homogamy
the tendency of individuals to marry people who have social characteristics similar to their own
5 functions of dating
1- form of entertainment 2-a mechanism for socialization 3-dating fulfills certain basic psychological 4- dating helps individuals attain status 5- in the later stages of dating, spouse selection becomes an important issue
traditional dating patterns
-found in small towns and rural areas -responsibility for arranging a date fell to the man -both parties knew what was expected of them bc the rules of conduct were well defined by the group to which they belonged
contemporary dating patterns
-no set stages of dating -both men and women now activitely initiate dates -either partner pays for the date or each pays for own way -based on friendship and the group more than a couple (compared to traditional)
courting buggy
horse-drawn carriage. Amish men customarily receive one.
sexual revolution
development of birthcontrol, a youth counterculture and the feminist movement… sexuality became a topic that was openly discussed and explored.
social and economic factors found to influence early sexual activity
1- family-income lv 2- parents’ marital status 3-religious participation
consequences of early sexual activity
-babies lower birth weights and more likely to die within first year -teenagers less likely to finish highschool and college -lower lifetime earnings -children more likely to experience learning difficulties -mothers emotional stress -children increased risk of becoming teenage parents themselves
AIDS
a fatal disease caused by a virus that attacks the human immune system, laving the person vulnerable to a host of deadly infections.
drug
any substance thatr changes mood, behavior, or consciousness. exist in any forms. medicines, alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, cocaine and heroin
___ ___ is the principal cause of the dramatic rise in drug-violence
crack cocaine
____ most widely used illegal drug among high-school seniors
marijuana
chief influences on teenage drug use
-having friends who regularly engage in drug use -having social and academic adjustment problems -living in a hostile and rejecting family setting
EMile Durkheim
studied Suicide. interested in why some societies or groups within a society have higher rates of suicide than others. variations in suicide rates can be explained by the level of social integration in a group or society
social integration
the degree of attachment people have to social groups or to society as a whole.. extreme high or low lvs will have high rates of suicide
Brad L. Neiger and Rodney W. Hopkins
studied the social factors that are important to suicide
7 social factors important to suicide
1-alcohol or drug use (low lv of self-control/easily frustrated, more likely to act on impulse and use drugs and alcohol as the method to commit suicide) 2- triggering events3 -age (risk increases with age) 4-sex (women 3 times more likely) 5-population density (higher rates in underpopulated areas) 6-family relations 7-cluster effect (other suicide attempts results in suicide)