Sociology: Chapters 1 – 3 Online Quizzes

Sociology is the study of:
– What seems natural or normal to a given group of people
– Human society
– How groups interact with one another
Using the sociological imagination helps sociologists:
create an image of how people in other societies live
Which of the following is an example of using one’s sociological imagination?:
– Creating different hypotheses to explain an individual’s behavior
– Creating a story to explain unfamiliar social customs
– Being comfortable in unfamiliar surroundings
– Thinking about why people in a particular country green each other in a certain way
Creating different hypotheses to explain an individual’s behavior
People’s social identity is:
A way that they define themselves in relation to groups they are a part of or groups they choose not to be a part of
A social institution can be described as:
A group of social positions connected by social relations, that perform a social role
Examples of social institutions:
– Government
– Education system
– Marriage
Which contributor to the development of sociology argued for the importance of identifying scientific laws that govern human behavior?
Auguste Comte
According to Karl Marx, throughout history, social chance has been sparked by:
class conflict
Which of the “founding fathers” of sociology put forth the idea that sociologists should examine social behavior from the perspective of those engaging in the behavior?
Max Weber
The Chicago School of American Sociology emphasized the importance of
the environment in shaping people’s behavior
Which American sociologist applied Emile Durkheim’s theory of anomie to explain African American crime rates?
W.E.B. DuBois
Adekunle enters a clothing store and a security guard immediately notices him and follows his actions on a security monitor. Adekunle is aware of the security guard’s actions and adjusts his own behavior to avoid a potential confrontation. This is an example of what sociological concept?
double consciousness
Allison is concerned with the messages that her little sister receives from her elementary school teacher about suitable careers. For example, class lessons portray nurses and secretaries as female, while doctors and engineers are male. Allison’s concern is that she is a:
feminist
Examining the interactions between people with a focus on how the people talk, dress, and use body language is an example of which theory?
symbolic interactionism
Which of the following is an example of an application of midrange theory?:
– Exploring the role of churches in rural areas
– Examining the origins of World War II in terms of class conflict
– Analyzing how a shopkeeper interacts with customers
– Analyzing how a dictator rose to power
Exploring the role of church in rural areas
Postermodern theorists argue that
All phenomena have multiple meanings and no one meaning can be valid than another
Sociology is distinct from other academic disciplines in its attempt to:
Detect patterns in how different societies respond to similar phenomena
Which of the following describes a different between sociology and psychology?:
– Sociology focuses on group dynamics, while psychology focuses on one-on-one interactions
– Sociology focuses on social structures and group interactions, while psychology focuses on the urge, instincts, and mind of the individual
– Sociology draws on quantitative methodology, while psychology relies on interviews
– Sociology focuses on the individual in society, while psychology focuses on the individual in private life
The focus on what social phenomena means to individuals is
interpretive sociology
Justin decides to conduct research for a class project by recording and assessing how people choose where to sit on a public bus. What type of sociology is this?:
– Feminist
– Positivist
– Microsociology
– Macrosociology
Microsociology
Which of the following is the best example of a quantitative research method?:
– Interviewing people about the last book they read
– Conducting a survey of how often people read
– Observing children as they learn to read
– Analyzing the language style of newspaper ads
Conducting a survey of how often people read
A researcher observes that most women entering a café choose to sit near other occupied tables, whereas most men choose a table that is farther away from other customers. The researcher then theorizes that women like to feel part of a larger group of people, whereas men are more comfortable being alone. This is an example of which kind of research approach?:
– Deductive reasoning
– Inductive reasoning
– Quantitative research
– A case study
inductive reasoning
A correlation is:
a relationship between two variables
What three factors are needed to establish causation?
1. Correlation
2. Time order
3. Ruling out alternative explanations
In social research, a hypothesis is defined as:
A proposed relationship between two variables
Hypothesis: Children in families that eat dinner together as least four times per week experience fewer behavior problems in school. In this hypothesis, what is the dependent variable?:
– The number of times per week that a family eat together
– How much time children spend with their families
– How often children misbehave in school
– The types of behavior children exhibit in school
How often children misbehave in school
Which of the following is an example of a negative relationship between a independent and a dependent variable?:
– Employees with more responsibility are less likely to miss work.
– Employees with more responsibility are more likely to receive promotions.
– Healthier employees are more likely to receive promotions.
– Employees with lower incomes miss fewer days of work.
employees with more responsibility are less likely to miss work
What is a moderating variable?
A factor that affects the relationship between the independent and dependent variables
In his experiment, Duncan Watts created a website where respondents could rate songs. His sample size was 14,341 respondents. If Watts selected a new sample of 14,341 different respondents and their average ratings of each song were significantly different than the first sample, what problem would Watts’s research suffer from?:
– Reverse causation
– Low reflexivity
– Low reliability
– Low response rate
Low reliability
A thermometer that consistently gives reading that are five degrees cooler than the actual temperature is:
– Valid but not reliable
– Reliable but not valid
– Neither reliable nor valid
– Both reliable and valid
Reliable but not valid
What is the meaning of the term “reflexivity” with regard to social research?
Being aware of the effects that researchers have on the processes and relationships they are studying
Feminist approaches to social research:
1. Observing female and male behaviors that traditional social scientists have not thought significant
2. Taking the role of the researcher into account
3. Engaging in research that may bring about policy changes to help improve women’s lives
What data collection methods are commonly used in social research?
historical methods, participant observation, interviews
Which of the following is an example of a panel survey?:
– A survey of 1,000 high school seniors that is repeated with a new group of seniors every year for 10 years
– A onetime survey of 25 percent of each of the four grades in a particular high school
Correct!
– A study of 1,000 high school seniors who are then contacted every 2 years for a 10-year period to participate in a follow-up survey
– A survey of 1,000 high school seniors conducted by a panel of sociologists with different specialties
A study of 1,000 high school seniors who are then contacted every 2 years for a 10-year period to participate in a follow-up survey
Amber is conducting research on the negative portrayal of Hispanics in the media. She searches through newspapers to document instances of discriminatory language toward Hispanics. What type of research is Amber conducting?:
– Participant observation
– Content analysis
– Cross-sectional survey
– Comparative research
Content analysis
Comparative research usually involves studying which of the following?:
– Two or more units of analysis that have almost nothing in common in order to determine why they are so different
– Two or more units of analysis that have a number of things in common but differ on a dimension (or dimensions) of interest
– Several subgroups in a given country or culture to identify how and why they are similar or different
– A minority and majority group in a particular country
Two or more units of analysis that have a number of things in common but differ on a dimension (or dimensions) of interest
Voluntary participation is the right of a search subject to:
describe whether to participate in a study
In an interview with the text’s author, Mitchell Duneier describes his desire to conduct research that adheres to the ethical guidelines of social research. If Duneier had interviewed street vendors by secretly recording their interactions, what ethical guideline would he have violated?:
– Informed consent
– “Do no harm”
– Participant observation
– Reflexivity
informed consent
In social research, the term “protected populations” refers to:
Segments of the population that a researcher may need special approval to study
Social research that tries to engage a nonacademic audience and influence society is often referred to as:
public sociology
Which of the following is NOT a definition of the term “culture”?:
– The natural environment
– A set of beliefs, traditions, and practices
– Social categories, ideologies, and symbolic representations that a group of people embrace and identify with
– Anything that humans create
the natural environment
Nonmaterial culture includes:
values, beliefs, behaviors, and social norms
Which of the following is an example of nonmaterial culture?:
– A Buddhist temple
– A garden
– A music website
– Spirituality
spirituality
Ideology can be described as
a system of concepts and relationships
What is cultural relativism?
Recognizing differences across cultures without judging those differences as positive or negative
Which of the following is an example of using cultural relativism to think about cultural differences?:
– You read about an indigenous group in South America that still hunts with bows and arrows, and you think that they should use better technology.
– You are greatly offended when a classmate from Bangladesh describes her sister’s arranged marriage, and you think that you would never let your parents choose your spouse.
– You see a news story about a country where people often eat spicy seafood dishes in the morning and then wonder what people there would think of eating chocolate-flavored cereal and milk for breakfast.
– You love sushi and see the influence of Japanese culture on the United States as a positive thing.
You see a news story about a country where people often eat spicy seafood dishes in the morning and then wonder what people there would think of eating chocolate-flavored cereal and milk for breakfast.
Your friend Jerome tells you he believes that culture is an innate biological aspect of human societies. Having already taken an introductory sociology class, you argue that modes of behavior and understanding are not universal or natural. Your supporting argument is based on the idea of:
cultural scripts
Can be described as a group that shares distinct cultural values and behavioral patterns that distinguish it from others within the same culture of society:
subculture
Sociologically speaking, values can be defined as:
moral beliefs
Some businesses in the United States, especially food-service establishments, will post a sign that reads, “No shirt, no shoes, no service.” This is an example of which of the following?:
– Reinforcement of a cultural norm
– Enforcement of a subculture
– Establishment of a shared value
– Manifestation of material culture
Reinforcement of a cultural norm
Socialization is the process by which people:
internalize the beliefs, values, and behaviors of a given society and learn to function as a member of that society
The idea that culture is a projection of social structures that relationships is fundamental to which of the following theories?
Reflection theory
Limitations of the reflection theory:
1. Reflection theory does not explain why the same product changes meaning over time
2. Reflection theory does not consider culture’s impact on society
3. Reflection theory does not explain why some cultural productions stick around while others fall to the wayside
What invention can be said to have led to the first truly mass medium?
printing press
A process in which a dominant group, by virtue of its moral and intellectual leadership in society, secures the voluntary “consent” of the masses”
hegemony
Which political theorist developed the concept of hegemony?
Antonia Gramsci
For a research project in your introductory sociology course, you decide to compare the coverage of health and beauty topics to that of career and professional topics in magazines created for women. You are conducting:
– Cultural jamming
– Textual analysis
– Cultural production
– Media scanning
textual analysis
A television ad campaign for a new car starts playing nationwide. Within weeks, people are bombarding the manufacturer for information about a song that is featured in the ad and trying to find it online. This is an example of a:
– Long-term, negative media effect
– Short-term, positive media effect
– Long-term, intended media effect
Correct!
– Short-term, unintended media effect
short-term, unintended media effect
The use of stereotypes allows people to:
– Better understand cultural differences
– Classify individuals based on facts from the media
– Ignore complex, underlying issues that are difficult to talk about
– Share information about who is to blame for societal problems
Ignoring complex, underlying issues that are difficult to talk about
In the U.S., media ownership is:
– Centralized in the hands of a few big companies
– Owned mainly by private stakeholders
– Spread among a large number of public and private companies
– In a constant flux
Centralized in the hands of a few big companies
In her interview with Conley, Allison Pugh notes that low-income families generally will purchase a few of the “in” toys for their children. This is an example of what concept?:
– Consumer culture
– Culture jamming
– Symbolic indulgence
– Materialism
Symbolic indulgence
Which of the following is an example of soft power?:
– The enduring worldwide popularity of Michael Jordan
– The dominance of American military power around the world
– Requiring the use of English in immigrant communities in South Texas
– The expansion of American corporations into the global Third World
The enduring worldwide popularity of Michael Jordan