Sociology Chapter One

What might a sociologist say about people’s selection of marriage partners?
influenced by society
Which discipline defines itself as “the systematic study of human society”?
sociology
The pioneering sociologist who studied patterns of suicide in Europe was:
Emile Durkheim
Because there is more social isolation in rural ares of the US than in urban areas, we would expect suicide rates to be:
higher (outsiders feel alone)
Sociologists use the term “social marginality” to refer to:
those at the margins of social life, or those who have challenges in society
The US falls within which income category of the world’s nations?
high-income
Which of the following is a reason that it is important to understand the world beyond our own borders?
helps us learn more about ourselves
Making use of the sociological perspective encourages:
“common sense”, see opportunities and constraints in life, be active participants, and live in a diverse world
Sociologist Lenore Weitzman carried out research showing that women who divorce:
experience dramatic loss of income
Learning more sociology helps us to:
prepare for the world of work
The “In the Times” article explains that having a college degree today is very important if you’re to have a:
job
The term “sociology” was coined in 1838 by:
Auguste Comte
Sociology differs from the older discipline of philosophy by focusing on:
nature of society
The major goal of sociology’s pioneers, including Comte and Durkheim, was:
improve society
According to Comte, people begin to see society as a natural – rather than supernatural – phenomenon as their society enters which stage of development?
metaphysical
According to Comte, people living in Europe during the Middle Ages thought of society as:
society expressed as God’s will
When did sociology become established as an academic discipline in the US?
beginning of the 20th century
Most of today’s sociologists agree with Auguste Comte that science is crucial part of sociology, but most also recognize that:
human behavior is far more complex
Looking at the US, high suicide rates are typical of states in which people:
where people live far apart from others
What term is used to describe relatively stable patterns of social behavior?
social structure
Social structures sometimes have negative consequences for the operation of society as a whole. What is the term for these negative consequences?
social dysfunction
Identify the three sociologists who played a part in the development of sociology’s structural-functional approach.
August Comte, Emile Durkheim, and Herbert Spencer
The recognized and intended consequences of a social pattern are referred to as:
manifest functions
Which of the following is the best example of a latent function of going to college?
“marriage broker” (bringing together people of similar interest)
The main characteristic of the _______ approach is its view of society as orderly and stable.
structural-funtional
The social-conflict approach draws attention to:
inequality and change
Which of the following statements might be made by a sociologist using the gender-conflict approach?
women and men are not treated equally
Which woman helped launch the discipline of sociology by studying the evils of slavery and also by translating the writings of Auguste Comte?
Harriet Martineau
Which pioneering sociologist founded Chicago’s Hull House to assist immigrants and was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize?
Jane Addams
Karl Marx, speaking for the social-conflict approach, argued that the point of studying society was:
change the world
Which of the following early sociologists had an important influence on the development of the social-conflict approach?
Karl Marx
Which early sociologist received the first doctorate ever awarded by Harvard University to a person of color?
William Edward Burghardt DuBois
Which early US sociologist studied the African American community and served as a founding member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)?
William Edward Burghardt DuBois
The social-conflict approach sometimes receives criticism for:
ignores unity in society
Which of the following examples illustrates a micro-level focus?
how personalities develop due to society
Which theoretical approach claims that it is not so much what people do that matters as much as what meaning they attach to their behavior?
symbolic-interaction approach
Which founding sociologists urged sociologists to understand a social setting from the point of view of the people in it?
Max Weber
A criticism of the symbolic-interaction approach is that it:
risks overlooking the widespread influence of culture, class, gender, and race
Encouraging people to compete and strive for success are two of the _______ of sports.
functions
Racial discrimination in professional sports is evident today in:
salary and position
Using the symbolic-interaction approach, sports becomes:
an ongoing process rather than a system
Unlike simple stereotypes, sociological generalizations:
do not carelessly apply any generalization to everyone in a category, make sure generalizations square with facts, and offer generalizations fair mindedly, with interest of the truth