Sociology 210 Final Exam Practice

The system that maintains male privilege in society is known as:
Conflict Theory
___ highlights tension in the social structure that may fracture and lead to social change.
August Comte
The social thinker who coined the term “sociology” in 1838 was ___.
Karl Marx
Conflict theory originated in the work of ____.
Altruistic Suicide
According to Durkheim’s typology, “suicide bombers” would be an example of _____.
Co-founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
W.E.B Du Bois believed that the elimination of white prejudice would reduce racial conflict and create more equality between blacks and whits. In order to advance his interest in creating racial equality, Du Bois
Participant Observation
To achieve the deepest and most through understanding of the rationalizations and motives that criminals use, and the meaning and consequences of their actions, which method would you use
that societal meanings never change
Which off the following is not a feature of symbolic interactionism?
Social Causes
Sociologists say we must look beyond individual states of mind to explain human behavior. What do sociologists focus on in their explanations of human behavior?
Symbolic Interactionist
Which theoretical perspective is most likely to focus the meanings behind fashion choices made by the consumers?
Social Structure
Stable patterns of social relations are called:
Understand the relationship between social issues and private troubles
The sociological imagination allows people to:
One aspect of social organization is the patters of intimate social relations that are formed during face-to-face interpersonal interactions. Sociologists call these patterns:
Patterns of social relations that are intimate and personal.
Sociologists use the term microstructures to refer to
The social class system in the United States would be an example of what kind of social structure?
Global Structures
The entire social world has become more interconnected economically and politically. This is creates which type of social organization?
Competing Interests
Which of these is not considered one of the key features of functionalism?
Talcott Parsons
The sociologist best known for emphasizing that various institutions must work to ensure the smooth operation of society as a whole is ______.
Max Weber
An early critic of Karl Marx, and the person who noted the rapid growth of the service sector within the industrial economy, was _____.
Experiments to measure the impact of media violence on children are most like to lack ____ because of the artificial setting in which experiments are conducted.
Ideas or standards for what is right or wrong, good or bad, and other types of judgements are called _____.
A computer
Which of these is the best example of material culture?
When humans make and use tools and techniques that improce their ability to take what they want from nature, they are engaged in ____.
Jim traveled to Thailand for a vacation and became shocked and judgmental toward “foreign” practices. Which term best describes Jim’s reaction?
Cultural Relativism
The necessity to understand that other people have values that differ from ours and that we should not see these values as inferior but merely different is known as _____.
Cultural Relativism
The opposite of ethnocentrism is _____.
Cultural Relativism
The belief that all cultures and all cultural practices have equal value is known as _____.
People are freer to choose their own identities and are more tolerant of differences.
One benefit of the lack of consensus and erosion of authority within postmodernism is that
The tendency of symbolic culture to change more slowly than material culture.
Brym and Lie define cultural lag as
The application of the most efficient means to achieve any particular goal.
In Weber’s sense of the term, rationalization is
When people make purchases in order to feel good about themselves or their situation, they are engaging in _____.
It drive people into debt and requires more work.
Some sociologists argue that consumerism acts as a constraint in people’s lives because
American core values have remained remarkably stable despite the changes brought by postmodernism.
Postmodernism has many parents, teachers, politicians, religious leaders, and some university professors worried about the future.
Because people contribute to the creation of culture, culture is always liberating.
There has been a decline in confidence in the government
What has happened to attitudes toward government within postmodern society?
In the popular film, “Borat: Cultural Learnings of America for Make Benefit Glorious Nation of Kazakhstan,” ____ us a major source of humor.
In contemporary society, we are overly busy and often feel rushed trying to accomplish too much during the average workday. Our lives seem so highly regimented that each moment is precisely planned. Sociologists attribute this to the growth of _____.
Advocates of ___ have argued that school and college curricula should present a more balanced picture of United States history, culture, and society by reflecting the ethnic and racial diversity of the United States.
Making reparation for past discrimination.
The authors suggest that the “rights revolution” has raised difficult issues. One of the most controversial is the question of
Most of our human potential remains unlocked until we are socialized.
The discussion of the “wild boy of Aveyron” in the text illustrates that without childhood socialization
The Self
George Hebert Mead is best known for his study of ____.
When people enter military boot camp they are epected to radically change physically, mentally, and emotionally. This is an example of what kind of socialization?
At birth
The process of socialization begins
Through the process of face-to-face
The core idea of the perspective of symbolic interactionism is that
George Herbert Mead called the impulsive and spontaneous aspect of the self the ____.
The differences are the result of different cultural standards passed on to boys and girls.
According to the research of Carol Gilligan, the moral development of boys and girls does not reflect biological or cognitive differences tied to sex. Rather
Gender Roles
Widely shared expectations about how males and females are supposed to act are called ____.
A ____ is the behavior expected of a person occupying a particular position in society.
Total Institutions
Settings in which people are isolated from the larger society under the strict control and constant supervision of a specialized staff are called _____.
Conflict Theorists
The idea of the hidden curriculum was first proposed by ____.
Which of these is not one of the stages in an initiation rite?
The self
The individual’s conscious experience of a distinct, personal identity that is separate and meaningful from all other people is called _____.
Imitating important people in their lives.
According to Mead, children learn to use language and other symbols by
the Internet
The fastest growing mass medium is ____.
____ emphasize how socialization serves to create orderly social relations.
Symbolic Interactionist
The Thomas theorem was first proposed by _____.
A self-fulfilling prophecy
When an expectation leads a person to create the very situation that they predicted, this is known as _____.
Peer Group
A category of people composed of individuals who are not necessarily friends but are about the same age and of similar status is called a _____.
Socially disadvantaged
Today, those who watch the most TV tend to be _____.
Social Groups
____ are composed of one or more networks of people who identify with one another and adhere to defined norms, roles, and statuses.
When people are altruistic and fair they are generally following social norms
How do symbolic interactionists explain people’s altruistic and fair behavior?
the largest bureaucracies are the most efficient
Which of these statements is not part of Weber’s analysis of bureaucracies?
Most gestures and postures mean the same thing in all cultures
Which of the following is false in regards to facial expressions, body language, and gestures?
When considering the strength of weak ties who is most likely to provide the most useful information about employment opportunities
formal organisations
secondary groups designed to achieve explicit objectives are called
the actions of the perpetrators were consistent with the values of the adults around them
The horrifying case of gang rape of a young woman with mental retardation in Glen Ridge New Jersey did not result in serious punishment for the perpetrators . How does the research Bernard Lefkowitz explain this?
the process was broken down into many small tasks
In the Nazi genocide operations it was possible for some officials to ignore the fool or of what was happening because
Role Strain
In the 1950s and 1960s, stewardesses were expected to behave suggestively and appear available romantically. At the same time they were expected to politely ward off any advances from passengers. This balance, which was difficult to achieve, is an example of _____.
Emotional Labor
People who work as teachers, sales clerks, nurses, and flight attendants are expected to manage their own emotions but also those of students, customers, patients and others. Hoschchild has termed this type of work ____.
A winner-takes-all process
Which of these does not describe social interaction?
Erving Goffman
Dramaturgical analysis originated in the work of ____.
Role distancing
____ involves giving the impression that one is “going through the motions” even though one lacks a serious commitment to a role.
Impression Management
When people try to control how others see them, they are engaged in _____.
Status Cues
____ are visual indicators of other people’s social postition.
Structures of authority tend to render people obedient
Solomon Asch
The classical experiment involving gauging the relative lengths of lines drawn on cards was conducted by ____.
Emotional responses are not involuntary reactions
Every society has norms that govern the expression of emotions.
Milgrim’s experiment teaches us that as soon as we are introduced to a structure of authority, we are inclined to obey those in power.
Today Americans are more comfortable seeing their problems as medical or psychological conditions
How has the diagnosis of mental illness changed since the 19th century?
Geographical distribution
Which of the following is not identified as factoring into the disproportionately high arrest, conviction, and incarceration rates of African Americans?
Durkheim’s controversial claim that deviance is actually beneficial for society is part of the ____ perspective on deviance and crime
The sociological term for the ability to carry out one’s will against the resistance of others is _____.
A dramatic increase in the incarceration rate of non-violent offenders
A major consequence of the War of Drugs in the U.S. since the 1980s is
Norm-breakers can provide outsiders with the oppurtunity to become insiders
A point illustrated in the film Easy A that is related to Durkheim’s thinking but was not made by Durkheim is that
Negative Sanction
A ____ is a means of showing disapproval of deviance.
Symbolic Interactionism
Which theoretical perspective is most focused on learning and labeling deviant and criminal roles?
Robert Merton
The theory of deviance and crime that emphasizes the disparity between the value placed on success and the opportunities for achieving it was introduced by ____.
According to Robert Merton, which of the following social types would accept cultural goals but replace conventional means with alternative means of achieving them?
Which theory focuses on the power and influence of the wealthy and elites in defining those with less power as deviant and criminal?
Which theory contends that criminals are those likely to have few social attachments, few legitimate opportunities, weak conventional beliefs, and few involvements in their community?
Women achieved greater status within the family, employment and other social institutions
After 1970, more attention was brought to crimes against women that had been largely overlooked previously. New laws brought attention to date rape and marital rape, as well as sexual harassment. What is the explanation for these changes?
As society has become modern, revenge is no longer a motivation for prisons
Which of the following is false in regards to prisons in the U.S.?
White-collar crime
Such crimes embezzlement, false advertising, tax evasion, insider stock trading, fraud , copyright infringement, and price fixing are all examples of _____.
Drug prevention and treatment
Which of the following is the most cost effective drug policy?
Not just from the actions of the deviant but also from the responses of others.
Labeling theory holds that deviance results
There is no longer a gender gap in arrests; women are now arrested as often as men.
One of the positive aspects of the death penalty is that because it is so severe it it applied in a just and consistent way for all persons convicted of crimes.
One must learn how to get high, and also to recognize the effects of marijuana. These things do not just occur “naturally.”
Members of the upper class were given a better chance of survival
In the story of the Titanic what was/were the consequences of social inequality?
through tax and welfare policies
During the recent period of postindustrialism, social inequality has increased in the US and the UK, but remained fairly stable in countries such as France, Germany, and Canada. How did these countries achieve a stable level of inequality?
The Gini Index
___ is the measure of income inequality that ranges from zero to one. It measures the level of internal stratification, and allows researchers to compare inequality between societies.
What you are able to earn in a given period of time is called your ___.
If you are not wealthy, but do well in school and are able to obtain a very high paying job, your social position would be based on ____.
Technological factors that have created new jobs made others more routine and less skilled.
The trend most responsible for the gap between the rich and poor increasing over the past fifty years is
Market Situation
Class position in a stratification system is determined by ____, according to Max Weber
The Poverty Rate
The percentage of Americans who fall below the poverty threshold is called ____.
The US has a low level of internal stratification compared with the rest of the world.
Functionalism argues that because all occupations are necessary for the smooth functioning of society, social stratification is unfair and unjustified.
the US has less income inequality than most other countries
Which of these statements about income is false?
Vertical social mobility
Over a lifetime, an individual may experience considerable movement up or down the stratification system. Sociologists call this movement ___.
It first increased, then tapered off, and then began to decline
In general, over the course of history, as societies became richer and more complex, what has been the pattern in terms of levels of social inequality?
The domestication of animals is a characteristic of which type of society?
Was not apparent in the first stages of industrial growth
The tendency of industrialization to lower the level of social stratification
The capitalist class would get smaller and richer, while the working class grew larger and poorer.
Marx argued that as the capitalist economy matured
The proletariat
Marx called those who do not own the “means of production” and who work for wages ____.
The bourgeoisie
Marx called the member of the class that owned the owned the factories, land, and tools, or “means of production,” ____.
According to Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore, society needs to create incentives to motivate the most talented people to train for the most important jobs. This is a core assumption within the ___ perspective on social stratification.
___ are not just political groups but, more generally, organizations that seek to impose their will on others.