Smoking And Health Outcomes

Category: Cancer, Gender, Smoking
Last Updated: 05 Jul 2021
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This essay will try to analyze assorted articles in order to try replying four chief inquiries go arounding around smoking and wellness results. Specific mentions will be made to Anu Katainen s article: Social category differences in the histories of smoking `` endeavoring for differentiation? The four chief inquiries revolve around how different groups account for their smoke and how societal factors, category factors and personal positions influence facets of smoke and wellness results.

Question 1: How different groups account for their smoke

Previous surveies have suggested that smoke is a pick and that the research participants in these surveies emphasise the positive points of smoke and restrain every bit far as possible from speaking about their dependence and the negative points of smoke ( Katainen 2010:1091 ) . In this treatment we will specifically mention to Katainen s research survey.

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The focal point of Katainen survey was on the cultural and societal facets of smoke ( Katainen 2010:1090 ) . Her survey consisted out of interviews conducted with two groups viz. manual and non-manual workers, aged between 24 and 58, the workers came from diverse work environments ( Katainen 2010:1090 ) . The interviews covered two chief subjects existent smoke behavior and the significances which attributed to smoking ( Katainen 2010:1090 ) .

First we will discourse the consequences of the non-manual workers. The first determination in Katainen s ( 2010:1091 ) survey provinces that non-manual workers link smoking with E?pleasurable minutes. Non-manual workers do non merely see smoking portion of mundane life but besides see it as a memorabilia to singular minutes in life ( Katainen 2010:1091 ) . The one respondent expressed the followers: It s like a small bead of A¦like the concluding touch at some fantastic minutes ( Katainen 2010:1091 ) .

The following determination was singular, the respondents considered their smoke as an single wont and emphasised their ain individualism ( Katainen 2010:1091 ) . They province that their smoke cues were non dependant on others ( Katainen 2010:1092 ) . This was interesting due to the fact that it is by and large accepted that smoke is a societal dependence. The respondents refrained from lending to any generalizations or stereotypes ( Katainen 2010:1092 ) . This determination was besides applicable to white-collar respondents, who found it hard to depict or categorize themselves ( Katainen 2010:1092 ) .

Another noteworthy find was that no category differentiations were made associating to smoking but differentiations were instead made associating to smoking wonts ( Katainen 2010:1092 ) . An illustration made, was that for certain participants smoking in the smoke room, at the work topographic point, was considered uncomfortable, and these participants would see their smoke as different from the other tobacco users being their smoke was a voluntary act and the other tobacco users smoking was more a modus operandi or an dependence ( Katainen 2010:1093 ) .

Adding on to the above mentioned were besides the white-collar respondents who made a clear division between functional smoke and everyday smoke ( Katainen 2010:1093 ) . Smoke was considered more acceptable if it had a map ( e.g. relaxation after a nerve-racking state of affairs ) and less acceptable when it was done routinely ( e.g. smoking whilst walking indicates dependence ) ( Katainen 2010:1093 ) . Although it may look that the respondents all considered smoke in a positive manner there was an exclusion with two respondents, who had a negative attitude towards their ain smoke ( Katainen 2010:1093 ) . In general middle-class respondents viewed their ain smoke as witting Acts of the Apostless and reacted with disgust towards anybody who could non command their E?appetites ( Katainen 2010:1093-1094 ) .

Next we will discourse the consequences of the manual workers. In researching the manual workers histories for smoke, consequences proved to be most surprising. Positive concluding such as rebellion, independency and wont which is associated with smoke was expected to correlate with the motive of manual workers but these premises were proven incorrect to some grade ( Katainen 2010:1094 ) . The first positive motive mentioned for smoke was in the instance of work context, for these respondents smoking provided a legitimate ground for interruption every bit good as protracting interruptions ( Katainen 2010:1093-1094-1095 ) .

Harmonizing to the respondents the most important ground for their smoke was relaxation, for emphasis and anxiousness increased their smoke wont ( Katainen 2010:1095 ) . For illustration the one respondent, Antti ( R49 ) , said that smoke helps quiet you in minutes when something truly pisses you off ( Katainen 2010:1095 ) . Another positive facet of smoke was the sociableness of smoke ; it made it easier to acquire acquainted with other workers ( Katainen 2010:1095 ) . Smoke was at its most gratifying when uniting coffin nails with java ( Katainen 2010:1095 ) .

Although there are a batch of similarities between the positive facets of smoke for both manual and non-manual workers the bulk of results remain different ( Katainen 2010:1095 ) . When discoursing the facets of smoking with manual workers they were more inclined to portray the negative facets of smoke and found it hard to portray positive facets of smoke ( Katainen 2010:1095 ) . This can be clearly seen through the interviews conducted with two of the respondents ( Katainen 2010:1096 ) :

Int: Why do you smoke?

R50: That s a good inquiry [ laughs ] ! I don t know. It s merely a bad wont. I don t

hold anything wise to state about it.

Int: Don t you think there s anything positive in smoke?

R50: Well I haven t found anything positive yet. I can t believe what could be positive

about it. ( 39-year-old male, building worker )

Int: Why do you smoke?

R54: Because I m dependent on nicotine. It s every bit simple as that. It s a wont. ( 27-year-

old female, building worker )

Non-manual workers accounted for their smoke through justifications and manual workers accounted for their smoke through alibis ( Katainen 2010:1096 ) . For white-collar workers smoking was a witting act/decision ; blue-collar workers on the other manus described it as compulsive, rooted in day-to-day modus operandis and merely happened ( Katainen 2010:1096-1097 ) . Thus the important point that differentiates manual workers from non-manual workers is the manner in which they account for their smoke ( Katainen 2010:1097 ) .

There are multiple grounds why these histories differ the five chief facets are the undermentioned. First the different working environments of the two groups have a major impact, for smoke is more common in manual work environments ( Katainen 2010:1097 ) . Second the sum of coffin nails smoked on a day-to-day footing differs greatly among the two groups and thirdly the deficiency of justifications among manual workers every bit good as the accent on negative facets has another great influence ( Katainen 2010:1097 ) . The following major impact was the interviewees because they were female and the male respondents most probably would reply their inquiries in a manner that would do them sound good and hence go forth a good feeling ( Katainen 2010:1098 ) .Then in conclusion the inactive positions among the manual workers have a great influence over their thought procedures ( Katainen 2010:1098 ) .

Question 2: Identify societal factors runing in the logical thinking behind smoke

In general it has been proposed that the ground behind the societal differences account for smoke is that educated people are more concerned about wellness related issues and therefore are more goaded to give up smoke ( Katainen 2010:1088 ) . Contradictory to the above mentioned, the latest surveies on category and wellness reveal that all societal groups consider wellness every bit of import but the ways in which these groups execute this importance differs ( Katainen 2010:1088 ) . The upper categories consider wellness as a norm that should be achieved which is reflected in day-to-day patterns, where lower categories consider wellness as enabling day-to-day modus operandis.

In her article Katainen ( 2010:1088 ) references that it is of import to detect that surveies on wellness behavior may overrate the significance of witting wellness considerations in mundane life. Terminology used in wellness research may differ from nomenclature used in mundane life for illustration ; habitus termed as E?health behavior, in wellness research, is in mundane life more likely to be governed by modus operandis, cultural forms and societal patterns, than made by a witting attempt to better one s wellness as suggested by wellness research ( Katainen 2010:1088 ) .

Habitus is E?the manner society becomes deposited in individuals in the signifier of permanent temperaments ( Wacquant 2005: 316 ) . For Katainen ( 2010:1089 ) Bourdieu s construct of habitus A¦for the different societal groups, it serves as a common frame of reading through which action becomes apprehensible, based on shared life conditions and life events ( Katainen 2010:1089 ) . In contrast to this habitus has besides been critiqued for being excessively deterministic, people are more cognizant of the regulations and determiners of societal life, more than Bourdieu seemed to presume ( Katainen 2010:1089 ) .

Another point Katainen makes is when mentioning to the societal significance of patterns and its ability to bespeak societal distance, which is derived from the place it has in the system of objects and patterns and is non derived from the built-in belongings of the pattern ( Katainen 2010:1089 ) , therefore it is of import obtaining objects and holding complete cognition on their use but besides the manner of gestating them in relation to others ( Katainen 2010:1089 ) . This returns to health-related affairs being personal thoughts of one s behavior every bit good as people actively negociating their topographic point in the universe and constructing and keeping their societal individualities as Katainen ( 2010:1089 ) acknowledged.

Through her interviews Katainen besides observed that for some participants smoke was a socialising tool assisting them to do friends and acquire to cognize people ( Katainen 2010:1095 ) . To back up the above mentioned Katainen ( 2010:1097 ) besides states that a societal environment in which smoke is really common and, in a sense, axiomatic, may easy ease its continuation without break, and accordingly does non make the demand to warrant the wont. One can reason that smoke has a broad scope of societal factors that contributes to persons taking up smoke every bit good as halting it. These factors range from personal issues to societal surroundings for illustration ; smoke can come from personal wonts, civilization, and instruction to socialization tools.

Question 3: Address the function of category in wellness result

In this inquiry we will discourse three articles of three separate writers viz. Katainen, Henry and Stacey. We will get down with Katainen. In her research Katainen ( 2010:1087 ) provinces that it is by and large accepted that in-between and upper categories tend to populate long healthy lives whereas lower categories tend to populate short lives filled with unwellness. Although certain research workers consider category and societal classs as disentangled from the modern twenty-four hours issues, smoking provides the cogent evidence of the uninterrupted importance of category ( Katainen 2010:1087 ) . In Western states smoking seems to be a tendency under the lower socioeconomic groups bespeaking to inequalities in wellness ( Katainen 2010:1087-1088 ) .

Harmonizing to the habitus construct, people s behavior and determinations are affected by their life conditions ( Katainen 2010:1089 ) . Where people live will bespeak what they can afford, their penchants and what is appropriate for their category ( Katainen 2010:1089 ) . For illustration a truck driver eating heavy, fatty repasts and a immature white-collar adult female preferring a light salad: the rightness of certain wonts is related to the single s societal place ( Katainen 2010:1089 ) Smoking inclinations do non merely alteration because of wellness but besides by the image one wants to portray to society ( Katainen 2010:1089 ) .

Next we will look at Paul Henry s article ( 2001 ) : An Examination of the Pathways Through Which Social Class Impacts Health Outcomes. In his article Henry ( 2001:07 ) discusses the different motives for the continuation of smoke ( Henry 2001:07 ) . The most important influence among the lower categories was that of equal force per unit area ( Henry 2001:07 ) . Amongst the higher upper categories wellness was considered an inherently of import norm ( Henry 2001:07 ) .

Upper classes tend to see good wellness as something you must accomplish, a end to work towards whereas lower category viewed good wellness as a means-to-an-end ( Henry 2001:07 ) . For lower categories wellness was valued in the sense that it allowed them to work and hold fiscal stableness ( Henry 2001:07 ) . This could be best described through the comparing of an upper category single exercise and eating healthy ( good wellness demands to be gained and maintained ) whereas the lower category person would see good wellness as merely doing it through the twenty-four hours peacefully without unneeded strains ( Henry 2001:07 ) .

The last article we will be discoursing is that of Stacey, M. ( 1998 ) : The Plurality of Mending Systems in Tudor and Stuart England. In her survey Stacey researched category systems in the late 1970 s. In this epoch there was a clear category and gender division which had a major impact on wellness results. Peoples populating in the towns had a greater assortment of wellness attention than people populating in the countryside who were dependent on common people therapists ( Stacey 1998:39 ) . Well off people, who could pay, had a broad assortment of knowing physicians ( elect doctors ) although fees sometimes differ ( Stacey 1998:39 ) . The hapless were left to depend on cunning common people and assorted therapists go forthing them to a hapless diagnostic and intervention ( Stacey 1998:39 ) .

Back in this epoch it is of import to besides observe gender division. Womans were left to run the families and hence had a greater duty of wellness care and Restoration for the whole household for the greatest sum of mending took topographic point at place ( Stacey 1998:39 ) . Here gender and category overlapped for lower category housewives all had similar accomplishments and cognition and therefore were dependent on upper category neighbors, for upper category homemakers had more cognition and accomplishments and hence ministered their poorer neighbors every bit good as their ain families ( Stacey 1998:39 ) .One can reason that over the old ages category has and will stay an of import factor in wellness results.


Question 4: What societal factors influence and determine your determinations about wellness picks

There is a assortment of societal factors which influence my positions and determinations go arounding around wellness issues more specifically smoking. The first most of import fact I must edify you with, in order for you to understand my motives, is that I am a non-smoker. The first influence would be through societal establishments viz. household and faiths. Family and faith are the two chief facets which shapes an person into who they are. I was brought up in a conservative yet unfastened minded Christian family. My parents taught me it was incorrect to smoke and demo disrespect towards others, my faith Tells me, through the Ten Commandments, to esteem and obey my parents. These two societal establishments act as a signifier of societal control. My parents were fondly and my faith cost me no injury and therefore I had no demand to arise against them.

The 2nd and most of import societal influence was my instruction. I have learned the undermentioned list of facts over the old ages. First baccy consists out of 4500 chemicals, the chief toxicants in baccy are ; a ) Cd ( auto batteries ) , B ) DDT ( insect powder ) , c ) H nitrile ( gas Chamberss ) , vitamin D ) methylbenzene ( industrial dissolver ) , e ) vinyl chloride ( plastics ) ( National Council Against Smoking ) . Tobacco besides consists out of 43 unknown carcinogens which are malignant neoplastic disease doing agents ( National Council Against Smoking ) . Smoking well increases the hazard of TB ( TB ) and decease ( National Council Against Smoking ) . Smoking besides causes the undermentioned diseases viz. : malignant neoplastic disease of the oral cavity, lingua, lip, nasal, salivary secretory organs, voice box and the lungs every bit good as sphacelus ; shots ; redness of the oculus and unnatural motions of the oculus ; cataracts and psoriasis ( National Council Against Smoking ) .

Another danger which is caused via smoke is second-hand fume. Second-hand fume consists out of 4000 chemicals where merely 250 are known and 50 % are known to do malignant neoplastic disease ( National Council Against Smoking ) . The most noteworthy chemicals are

  1. arsenous anhydride ( a heavy metal toxin ),
  2. benzine ( a chemical found in gasolene ),
  3. Cd ( a metal used in batteries ),
  4. Cr ( a metallic component ),
  5. Ni ( a metallic component ),
  6. Po `` 210 ( a chemical component that gives off radiation ),
  7. vinyl chloride ( a toxic substance used in plastics industry ) ( National Council Against Smoking ).

Second-smoke besides causes a assortment of unwellnesss under which is TB and a battalion of malignant neoplastic diseases ( National Council Against Smoking ) .

The last influences are of a personal nature I am a terpsichorean ( concert dance and modern ) and as seen in the above mentioned smoking causes multiple wellness jobs. Dancing is my manner of loosen uping and maintaining fit and for that one needs a healthy organic structure. I besides suffer from asthma and smoke will merely decline my asthma and coerce me to halt the thing I love in life dance. In my household we are besides susceptible to malignant neoplastic disease and smoke doubles my opportunities of developing malignant neoplastic disease. The above mentioned can be associate to all wellness issues and non merely smoking.


One can clearly observe that through the eras category has remained an of import factor when act uponing wellness results. Another important determination is that all the assorted writers had the same position point affecting the lower and upper category differentiations. The lower categories viewed wellness as an mundane experience, where the upper categories viewed wellness as a end something to work towards, an purpose that needs to be achieved. Lower categories accounted for their smoke as an unmanageable desire and identified their wont most comfortably with negative facets. The upper categories viewed smoke as a witting act or determination and identified their wont most comfortably with positive facets. There were assorted similarities between the two groups but the most cardinal similarity was that both groups viewed smoke as a relaxation tool. Social factors, including societal establishments and societal control measurings, play an every bit of import function as subscriber to get down or halt smoke every bit good as to wellness results. The last of import factor is that these surveies provided the grounds to turn out generalizations and pigeonholing incorrect till a certain grade.

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Smoking And Health Outcomes. (2018, Aug 12). Retrieved from

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