W. Edwards Deming Joseph M. Juran Philip B.
Crosby Prepared by:Abdelatif Hegazy Director Quality TECOM Investments Tel: +971 4 3913239 Fax: +971 4 3918777 Mobile: +971 50 4670973 A member of DUBAI HOLDING www. dubaiholding. com FOREWORD Many organizations worldwide are focusing today on quality to restore their competitive edge. We know now that an emphasis on quality improves overall productivity and reduces costs. Business people used to think just the opposite; that quality costs and that they have to create products of high quality.As a result organizations emphasized productivity at the expense of quality and began to lose many of customers as competition increased. After World War II, many quality experts to slowly cause a “Paradigm Shift” to everybody in the global marketplace introduced some revolutionary ideas to the world.
To name but few, W. Edwards Deming, Philip B. Crosby and Joseph M. Juran. OBJECTIVE To cover the background and ideology of the 3 Quality Gurus (Deming, Juran & Crosby) who contributed to the Quality Science and undertakes some aspects of their methodologies in order to highlight the commonality and differences between the 3 approaches.SCOPE The reports will include the following: 1. Research Methodology 2.
Introduction 3. 3 Experts on Quality 4. Gurus define Quality 5. Gurus Basic Principle 6. The three approaches: Commonality & Differences 7. Summary 8. Conclusion 9.
References 1. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Due to the tremendous information regarding the three Quality Gurus in addition to the diversity of books that tackles the Gurus’ methodology and achievements, this report is based on an integrated approach in research. The utilised tools and techniques encompass qualitative and quantitative approaches. 2. INTRODUCTIONWhoever starts a learning process about quality quickly becomes familiar with the names of the 3 Gurus: Philip B. Crosby, W. Edwards Deming, and Joseph M.
Juran. Those recognized quality experts have been carrying forth the message of quality for more than three decades. Nevertheless, there is always a consistent demand for information about the unique approach of each of these experts. This essay concentrates on the approaches of Deming, Juran and Crosby as comprehensive management philosophies introducing ideas such as: improvements and customer satisfaction through leadership. . THREE EXPERTS ON QUALITY W. Edwards Deming, Joseph M.
Juran and Philip B. Crosby pursued their efforts and devoted their lives to helping organizations improve the quality of their products and services. Their impact is now worldwide and their accomplishments eminent. DEMING, W. Edwards W. Edwards Deming, senior of the three, at 91, he continues to teach and consult Deming holds a Ph. D.
in physics, but is a statistician by experience. He is an best known for leading Japanese businesses on the course that has made them leaders in quality and productivity throughout the world.In recognition of Deming, the Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers established the Deming Prize. U. S. recognition of Deming’s methods of quality improvement came late in 1980 He has been called The Father of the Third Wave of the Industrial Revolution Deming is author of many books, to name but few; Out of the Crisis (1986); Quality, Productivity, and Competitive Position (1982); as well as of numerous papers. Deming is the recipient of many awards, including the Order of the Sacred Treasure of Japan and the Shewhart Medal from the American Society of Quality Control.
JURAN, Joseph M. Joseph Juran, 87, has worked devotedly to establish his own institute, which provides education, training, and consulting in how to manage for quality. Juran holds degrees in electrical engineering and law. He is also well known in Japan for his contributions to the practice of total quality control. In the early 1950s, Juran introduced the Pareto principle, which he popularised as the principle of the vital few and the trivial many. Juran is also known for the Juran trilogy and the concept of managerial breakthrough. He is the hief editor of many writings, to name but few; The Quality Control Handbook (1988), Juran on Leadership for Quality (1989); Juran on Planning for Quality (1988)… Juran has received the Order of the Sacred Treasure of Japan the Australian Organization for Quality Control established the Juran Medal in 1975.
CROSBY, Philip B. Philip B. Crosby, 65, is an internationally known quality expert. He has established a Quality College, which has trained more than 100,000 managers. In 1979, Crosby’s book Quality is Free was published and became a best seller in the field of management.Crosby is also the author of many books, to name but few; Leading (1990); Let’s Talk Quality (1989)… He became Director of Quality and Corporate Vice President of ITT Corporation, where he spent 14 years. In 1991 Crosby In 1991, Crosby retired from the firm Philip Crosby Associates (PCA) and started a new company, Career IV, Inc.
, for the purpose of conducting seminars, writing books, and conducting a limited lecture tour. He passed away in August 18, 2001 leaving the world yet anchoring in our minds as the “Zero Defects” Guru. 4. GURUS DEFINE QUALITY DEMING Deming does not define quality in a single phrase.He asserts that the customer can only define the quality of any product or service. Definitions extracted from his writings (Lowe & Mazzeo, 1986, Out of the Crisis) reflect this emphasis on quantitative methods, the application of which results in products having: A. A predictable degree of uniformity resulting from reduced variability B.
Lower cost C. Suitability for the market The difficulty in defining quality is to translate future needs of the user into measurable characteristics, so that a product can be designed and turned out to give satisfaction at a price that the user will pay (Deming, 1986, p. 69). JURAN Juran defines quality as fitness for use. He stresses a balance between product features and products free from deficiencies. As used by Juran, the word product refers to the output of any process, and that includes goods as well as services (Juran & Gryna, 1988). The second element of Juran’s definition of quality addresses products free from deficiencies.
Juran’s definition of quality reflects his strong orientation to meeting customer’s expectations. Anyone affected by the product is considered a customer, according to Juran.This group includes the internal customers, and the external customers. CROSBY To Crosby, quality means conformance to requirements (Crosby, 1979). To Crosby, quality is either present or not present. There is no such thing as differing levels of quality. Crosby refers to this as the price of non-conformance.
To aid managers in tracking the cost of doing things wrong, he developed the following formula: Cost of Quality (COQ) = Price of Conformance (POC) + Price of non-conformance (PONC). The POC refers to the cost of getting things done right the first time.PONC provides management with information regarding the wasted cost and a visible indication of progress as the organization improves. 5. Gurus’ Basic Principle DEMING Deming takes a systems and leadership approach to quality. Concepts associated with his approach include: A. The System of Profound Knowledge B.
The Plan–Do–Check–Act Cycle C. “Prevention by Process Improvement” D. The Chain Reaction for Quality Improvement E. Common Cause and Special Cause Variation F. The 14 Points; and G. The Deadly and Dreadful Diseases. A.
System of Profound KnowledgeDeming states: “Without profound knowledge, management action can cause ruination (Deming, 1989, revised 1991). It is made up of four theories: Theory of Systems. A system is a series of functions or activities within an organization that work together for the aim of the organization (Deming, 1989, revised 1991). Theory of Variation. Measurement of variation provides the means for predicting the behaviour of a system. Theory of Knowledge. Occasionally breakthroughs occur that produce rapid advances in knowledge, but the general process is that of slow, incremental growth based upon experimentation, guided by theory.
Theory of Psychology. People are different from one another, and it is management’s responsibility to be aware of those differences and use them to optimise performance. B. The Plan–Do–Check–Act Cycle The concept of ongoing improvement is illustrated by the Plan–Do–Check–Act (PDCA) cycle . C. Prevention by Process Improvement His approach is a shift from detection to prevention. To Deming, the prevention approach to quality is achieved by process analysis, control, and improvement.
D. Chain Reaction for Quality ImprovementDeming’s philosophy can best be depicted by what he calls the chain reaction for quality improvement (Deming, 1986, p. 3). To appreciate fully the meaning of improving quality in Deming’s chain reaction, an understanding of the concept of variation is required. E. Common Cause and Special Cause Variation Deming says that there’s no such thing as two of a kind, since variation is inherent in everything we do. Deming has labelled sources of variation as common cause and special cause.
F. 14 Points According to Deming, the 14 Points or obligations apply in any organization.Deming says, Adoption and action on the 14 points are a signal that the management intend to stay in business and aim to protect investors and jobs (Deming, 1986, p. 23). G. Deadly and Dreadful Diseases Deming categorizes roadblocks to institutionalising the transformation as deadly diseases and dreadful diseases. The cure for deadly diseases requires a complete change of management style.
The dreadful diseases are management practices that are harmful, but, in Deming’s view, are easier to cure. JURAN Juran proposes a strategic and structured approach to achieve quality including:A. The Spiral of Progress in Quality B. The Breakthrough Sequence C. The Project–by–Project Approach D. The Juran Trilogy, and E. The principle of the Vital Few and Trivial Many.
A. The Spiral of Progress in Quality The spiral shows actions necessary before a product or service can be introduced to the market. Each department in the spiral is responsible to carry out special function; and assigned a share of the responsibility with other department in the company such as human relations, finance, and quality (Juran & Gryna, 1988, p. 2. 4).B. Breakthrough Sequence Breakthrough is a dynamic, decisive technique leading to higher levels of performance (Juran, 1964).
All breakthroughs follow the same sequence; Policy making – Setting objectives – Breakthrough in attitudes – Use of Pareto principle – Organizing for breakthrough in knowledge – Creation of steering arm – Creation of diagnostic arm – Diagnosis -Breakthrough in cultural pattern – Transition to the new level. C. Project–by–Project Approach The quality improvement methodology requires project–by–project implementation.His approach requires that members of the involved teams develop skills in team leadership and team participation and acquire knowledge of problem–solving tools. D. The Juran Trilogy This trilogy states that management for quality consists of three interrelated quality–oriented processes–quality planning, quality control, and quality improvement (Juran, 1986). Juran compares the activities of the trilogy with those of financial operations; quality planning is equivalent to budgeting, quality control to cost control, and quality improvement to cost reduction.
E. The Vital Few and the Trivial ManyJuran applied this concept to the industrial world to classify problems of quality. He stressed the prioritisation problem solving using the Pareto diagram. CROSBY The foundation of Crosby’s approach is prevention. His approach to quality is best described by the following concepts: A. Do It Right the First Time B. Zero Defects and Zero Defects Day C.
The Four Absolutes of Quality D. The Prevention Process E. The Quality Vaccine; and F. The Six C’s. A. Do It Right the First Time He stresses that the way to manage quality is by prevention, not detection and testing.To Crosby, any product that falls within its design specifications is a quality product (Garvin & March, 1986).
B. Zero Defects and Zero Defects Day Zero Defects does mean that every individual in the organization is committed to meet the requirement the first time, every time, and that not meeting the requirement is not acceptable. He created a Zero Defects Day that provides a forum for management and employees to reaffirm its commitment to quality. C. Four Absolutes of Quality To Crosby Quality improvement begins with the four absolutes of quality management:Quality is conformance to the requirements: All the actions necessary to run an organization produce a product and or service, and deal with customers must be met and agreed. The system of quality is prevention: Management must consciously be committed to a prevention–oriented work environment. The performance standard is Zero Defects (Do it right the first time) The measurement of quality is the price of non-conformance: Non-conformance is a management tool for diagnosing an organization’s effectiveness and efficiency.
This reasoning led to Crosby’s famous phrase, Quality is free, but it is not a gift (Crosby, 1979).To implement his quality improvement process, Crosby delineates a 14–step approach representing the techniques for managing quality improvement and communicating the four absolutes. D. Prevention Process Crosby’s approach addresses prevention rather than inspection and correction of errors. Crosby suggests this is a continuing activity. E. Quality Vaccine He has formulated a quality vaccine that consists of three distinct management actions–determination, education, and implementation.
Top management is responsible for continually administering the vaccine. F. Six C’sThe first stage, or C, is comprehension, which addresses the importance of understanding what is meant by quality. The second C is commitment, which represents the stage when managers establish a quality policy. The third is competence; developing an education and training plan. The fourth C is communication; all efforts must be documented and success stories published. The fifth is correction, which focuses on prevention and performance.
The sixth is continuance, which emphasizes that the process must become a way of life in the organization. 6. THE THREE APPROACHES: COMMONALITY & DIFFERENCESThe approaches of Crosby, Deming, and Juran are not supposed to be programs as a general rule; they do not have starting and ending dates. These are management philosophies targeting long–term improvements by practicing and implementing strategic planning for quality. They urge the pride in workmanship, education, and the work environment as well as to team building, teamwork, cooperation, and participation, all essential to cultural change. THE COMMONALITY Crosby, Deming, and Juran agree that: To establish an organizational culture focusing mainly on the commitment to quality is the management’s responsibility.The mission of the organization must be clearly communicated to everyone, and all management action must lead to fulfilling that mission.
Continuous education and training at all levels is essential to promote the concept of quality and to develop employee skills and knowledge. Effective communication, cooperation, and teamwork throughout the organization are essential. More than 85 percent of all problems associated with quality can be attributed to management policy or action. This means that management action is required to achieve improvements.The pursuit of customer–focused quality is a long–term process that will not produce results overnight. The improvements will be evident over time in terms of reduced costs, but, more importantly, organizations will eventually be able to anticipate and prevent problems. Current inspection methods to achieve quality are not effective in producing a quality product at an affordable price.
Both Crosby and Juran explained that measurement has to focus on the cost of quality. They use the reduction in cost as an indicator to meet customer requirements. Deming put more weight to the unknown costs (e. g. Impact from loosing a customer). He explained that measuring and meeting customer needs and expectations are major to implementing quality improvements. He emphasis more on quantitative methods and statistical methods rather than did his counterparts.
Goal SettingTo Crosby, the ultimate goal should be defect–free products and services. To him, a quality product or service results when the process has consistently produced something that falls within specification limits. Deming, on the other hand, considers that being within specifications is just the first step to continuous process improvement. He advocates reducing process variation on a continuing basis to improve quality. Deming also opposes the use of numerical goals and quotas to manage work. Juran addresses quality–related goals and company–wide objectives, but more important to him is the deployment of goals throughout the organization.Strategic goals need to be deployed to all divisions and sections of the organization, and more specific goals need to be deployed to people so that they know what to do.
Supplier Relationships The three advocates view the role of suppliers differently. Deming favours the practice of working with a single supplier, where feasible, to reduce variability of incoming materials. To maintain long–term contracts, suppliers will be more likely to improve their own processes to provide better products or services.Crosby and Juran recognize some of the advantages of single suppliers, but they take a more conservative view and simply advocate reducing the number of suppliers. Crosby and Juran consider it important to have different suppliers for the same product when the product is a critical one. Leadership Commitment Crosby, Deming, and Juran, each emphasizes leader participation differently. Crosby describes the Zero Defects Day as the time when management reaffirms its commitment to quality and communicates it to all employees.
Similarly, Juran presents the Juran’s annual quality program used by managers to communicate to all employees’ management’s commitment to quality improvement. Although Deming acknowledges that top management commitment is imperative, he does not describe a program for accomplishing it. To him, the leader’s new job is to remove barriers and create a culture that value helping others to do a better job and to feel pride in workmanship (Deming, 1986). 7. SUMMARY SUMMARISING Deming defines quality in terms of current and future needs of the customer.He places emphasis on statistical thinking and statistical methods. An understanding of profound knowledge (e.
g. , systems theory) is essential to his approach to quality. He gives management the responsibility of adopting the 14 points and of leading by example, but does not provide a step–by–step approach on how to implement these roles and responsibilities. The application of the PDCA cycle and quantitative methods to analysis and reduction of variation in all work processes is another important contribution, as is the distinction he makes between special and common causes of variation.Deming’s approach is associated with the application of SPC. As described by Deming, problem solving is similar to putting out a fire, that is, removing problems to put the process right back where it was, but that such action does not make the process better (an insight of Juran years ago; see Deming, 1986, p. 51).
CROSBY Crosby’s main point is that preventing defects and conforming to requirements achieve quality. He urges activities (e. g. , Zero Defects Day). The ultimate goal of his approach is to provide defect–free products and services to the customers.One of Crosby’s strengths is his emphasis on transforming the culture of the organization. Crosby provides education on the concepts of quality management, but realizes that each organization must create its own quality improvement process plan.
Second, Crosby has a structured training program for managers that are taught at the Quality College. His approach emphasizes measuring the cost of doing things wrong versus the cost of doing things right the first time and does not emphasize a statistical basis for reduction of variation.As a result, organizations that do not focus on statistical methods may not be able to achieve improvements beyond initial cost reductions. JURAN The project–by–project approach is at the heart of Juran’s philosophy. Using the concepts of the spiral of progress and the breakthrough sequence, managers are able to target and improve specific areas. Quality is defined by fitness for use and customer requirements. His approach focuses on quality planning, quality control, and quality improvement processes as a way to manage for quality.
Juran advocates the annual formation of teams to analyse problems and find solutions to them.Like Deming, he also emphasizes the use of graphics and statistical methods. Juran has devoted more than 300 pages in his Quality Control Handbook (1988) to statistical methods, and he views them as essential tools. One of the processes addressed by the Juran trilogy concerns problem solving and removal of problem causes. The following table summarizes the 3 Gurus approaches and clarify the commonality and differences. A comparison of Deming, Juran, and Crosby | |W. Deming |J.
M. Juran |P.Crosby | |Basic orientation toward |Technical |Process |Motivational | |quality | | | | |What is quality? |No faulty systems |Fitness for use; freedom from |Conformance to requirements | | | |trouble | | |Who is responsible for quality? Management |Management |Management | |Importance of customer |Very important |Very important; customers at |Very important | |requirements as standard | |each step of product life | | | | |cycle | | |Goal of quality |Meet/exceed customer needs; |Please customer; continuous |Continuous improvement; zero | | |continuous improvement |improvement |defects | |Methods for achieving quality |Statistical; constancy of purpose; |Cost of quality; quality |14-point framework; | | |continual improvement; cooperation |trilogy: planning, control, | | | |between functions |improvement | | |Chief elements of |14-point program |Breakthrough projects; quality|14-step program; cost of quality;| |implementation | |council; quality teams |quality management “maturity | | | | |grid” | |Role of training |Very important for managers and |Very important for managers |Very important for managers and | | |workers |and employees |employees | 8. CONCLUSIONS While all of the 3 Gurus have their own ideas on how quality should be measured and managed, it is clear that Deming, Juran, and Crosby points together to the same direction.They all insist on the customer being the final arbiter of what quality is or is not with respect to a particular product or service. Using any of those Gurus approach in organizations will certainly develop its system and improve its way of management. The key to successful implementation of quality principles and methods is tied to leadership.
And all three see the importance of feedback in any mechanism designed to measure and manage quality: Deming’s Continuous Improvement Curl, the Juran Trilogy, and Crosby’s Price of Non-Conformance are all feedback mechanisms designed to answer one question: is the product performing in the marketplace as expected? If not, why not? The difference lies mainly in perspective.Deming’s perspective is customer-driven, Juran’s is more engineering-driven, and Crosby’s perspective transcends both of these, taking upper view of management.