Public Health Issue Of Chlamydia Health And Social Care Essay
Chlamydia infection increases the likeliness of being at hazard for HIV infection and cervical malignant neoplastic disease ( Steben, 2004 ) .Known as the “ concealed Venereal disease ” because of the comparative trouble in observing infection, chlamydia is peculiarly common among immature adult females ( Alexander, 2006 ) .Numerous prevailing surveies in assorted clinical populations have shown that sexually active striplings and immature grownups have higher rates of chlamydia infection compared to the general population ( Adderley-Kelly, 2005 ) .
In add-on, regional sterility undertakings that perform everyday large-scale showing and appraisal among adult females have found that younger adult females are more likely than older adult females to be tested positive for chlamydia infection ( Alexander, 2006 ; Adderley-Kelly, 2005 ) .
Controling the spread of chlamydia has been a precedence of The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( CDC ) ( 2010 ) . CDC recommends that sexually active females aged 20 old ages old and below and those over 20 old ages old possessing hazard factors ( e.g. multiple sex spouses ) be screened yearly. Literature besides supports the recommendation that Chlamydia testing through nursing wellness appraisal can help in early designation of the disease ( Steben, 2004 ) . Furthermore, instruction on bar could besides be implemented to raise consciousness about the hazard factors that are associated with the spread of this infection. Ahmed et Al. ( 2009 ) identified several hazard factors of Chlamydia, including age, race. deficiency of general cognition, holding multiple spouses, non-use of proper protection like rubber usage, and the use of resources or available plans to educate and forestall.
This survey recognizes that the high incidence of chlamydia can be mitigated through proper showing and early designation. More specifically, testing at-risk persons such as females aged 12 to 15 old ages old, would assist in the early sensing and bar of chlamydia infection. Due to the fact that the addition in chlamydia infection is among striplings, and the fact that it is many times symptomless, failure to seek medical attending occurs and later leads to long-run wellness concerns ( Alexander, 2006 ) .
Harmonizing to Burns, Briggs, & A ; Gaudet, ( 2007 ) , set uping a chlamydia testing or testing plan for striplings has ever been hard. Barriers to testing include the inability to pay for wellness showing due to a deficiency of wellness insurance, deficiency of transit to the clinic site, uncomfortableness with the clinic, and confidentiality issues. These barriers, in concurrence with a disease that exhibits minimum or no symptoms, generate a challenge for STD plans to test a bad population.
The U.S. Preventive Service Task Force ( USPSTF, 2001 ) strongly recommended that clinicians routinely screen all sexually active adult females aged 25 and younger, and other symptomless adult females at increased hazard for infection. Since age is the most of import hazard factor, adult females and striplings through age 20 old ages are at highest hazard for chlamydia infection. Other hazard factors associated with high prevalence included: being single, Afro-american race, holding a anterior history of sexually transmitted disease, holding new, or multiple sexual spouses, holding cervical ectopy, and utilizing barrier preventives inconsistently ( Adderley-Kelly, 2005 ) . Individual hazard depends on the figure of hazard factors and local prevalence of the disease.
Surveies have shown that unequal showing, besides consequence from three things: foremost, it takes clip for any new recommendations to be implemented. Second, practician ‘s attachment to testing recommendations varies widely. Third, attachment to testing recommendations varies by site of attention. Therefore, it is of import to be able to discourse and obtain a sexual wellness history with all patients, place the marks and symptoms of chlamydia and acknowledge possible hazard factors that are associated with chlamydia infection that would put persons at higher hazard ( Steben, 2004 ) . As nurses, it is imperative that we complete a full wellness appraisal which would include a sexual history to place early hazard and sensing of the disease. Appropriate screens have non being followed to measure persons with possible hazard factors.
The intent of the survey is to look into whether annually testing of sexually-active females aged 13 to 25 will increase bar and early sensing of chlamydia infection, as compared to females aged 13 to 25 who are sexually active and are non screened.
Designation of Variables and Target Population
The independent variable related to this research is testing. The dependent variables are 1 ) bar and 2 ) early sensing. The mark population is sexually active females aged 13 to 25 old ages old.
Hypothesis or Research Question ( s )
This survey aims to reply the undermentioned inquiry: Does testing take to bar and early sensing of chlamydia infection among sexually active females aged 13 to 25 old ages old?
In relation to this research inquiry, the survey hypothesizes that:
RH1: Sexually active females aged 13 to 25 old ages old who are screened are less likely to hold chlamydia infection than females who are non screened.
RH2: Sexually active females aged 13 to 25 old ages old who are screened are detected earlier for chlamydia infection than females who are non screened.
Definition of Footings
The undermentioned footings are defined in theoretical and operational footings, as follows:
Theoretical Definition: Harmonizing to the CDC ( 2010 ) , chlamydia is defined as a common sexually familial disease ( STD ) caused by chlamydia trachomatis, a bacteria that can damage adult females ‘s generative variety meats. Even though the symptoms of chlamydia are normally mild or absent, serious complications that cause irreversible harm, including sterility, can happen “ mutely ” before a adult female recognizes a job.
Operational Definition: For the intents of this survey, chlamydia refers to a positive diagnosing made by a doctor through a urine-based PCR showing for chlamydia.
Theoretical Definition: Screening is performed to place the presence of the disease or of a hazard factor for a disease, typically among symptomless individuals ( those who do non already manifest symptoms of disease ) . In this manner, a disease or the hazard factors for a disease can be detected early, leting either intervention or bar, including forestalling the farther spread of catching or catching diseases ( Robinson, 2002 ) .
Operational Definition: For the intent of this survey, testing involves a wellness history which identifies the hazard factors such as a old history of STD, holding multiple sex spouses, holding sex with new spouse, the usage of non-barrier types of contraceptive method, or holding cervical ectopy.
Theoretical Definition: bar is the maintaining of something ( such as an unwellness or hurt ) from go oning ( Miller-Keane, 1997 ) .
Operational Definition: For the intent of this survey, bar is the absence of chlamydia which will be indicated by a negative consequence diagnosed by a doctor through a urine-based PCR proving for chlamydia infection.
Theoretical Definition: Sexually active agencies engagement or engagement in a sexual act, being involved, and an active participant.
Operational Definition: For the intent of this survey, sexually active females will mention to those who arranged a visit for gestation, STD diagnosing, showing, contraceptive method, or intervention.
The appropriate model selected for this proposal is Nola Pender ‘s wellness publicity theoretical account ( HPM ) . The HPM, originally developed in the early 1980s, is a model that serves as “ a usher for geographic expedition of the complex biopsychosocial processes that motivate persons to prosecute in wellness behaviours directed toward the sweetening of wellness ” ( Pender, 1996, p. 51 ) . The HPM is widely represented in the nursing literature and is the model that underpins over 100 research surveies.
Pender ‘s HPM is a valuable tool for the designation of incentives and barriers toward persons ‘ active engagement in activities that promote wellness ( Pender, 1996 ) . Pender proposed in the HPM that there are by and large three countries which influence the acceptance of health-promoting behaviour: “ cognitive, perceptual, modifying factors and cues to actions ” ( Pender, 1996, p. 53 ) . Pender focuses on enterprise from the person to endeavor for health and positive wellness and views the benefits of such self-directing behaviours to include verve and even self-actualization.
Pender measures an person ‘s “ perceived control of wellness ” by his or her ability to command behaviours that are necessary to advance alterations in overall wellness and wellbeing. Pender views wellness publicity as active instead than inactive. The individual must comprehend that he or she wields entire control of his wellness. Hopefully, this perceptual experience will take to a more frequent and consistent application of health-promoting behaviours. The apprehension of wellness advancing behaviours in striplings may non merely be an application of bing cognition related to wellness publicity in grownups ( Srof, 2006 ) . Rather the development of independency and the associated undertakings of adolescent development contribute to alone organic structure of cognition of wellness publicity in teens ( Srof, 2006 ) .
Pender ‘s HPM provides a paradigm in an attempt to come up with intercession plans to turn to wellness concerns such as chlamydia infection. Literature has revealed that there are several barriers to prevention attempts initiated by authorities bureaus and not-for-profit organisations to control the spread of Chlamydia infection among younger adult females ( Alexander, 2006 ) . The HPM theoretical account identifies seven perceptual and cognitive factors which could discourage or heighten the likeliness of a individual ‘s acceptance of wellness behaviours. For striplings, these factors could be perceived benefits of action, barriers to action, self-efficacy, and activity-related effects are related to interpersonal influences, such as household, equals, situational influences, options, and demands.
As I relate this theoretical account chiefly to striplings and their increased hazard of chlamydia infection, the fact that striplings do non take portion in their ain wellness promotion/disease bar through the usage of rubbers to forestall the spread of STD infections demonstrates the demand to turn to and place each person ‘s perceptual experience of chlamydia infections which could impact his or her quality of life in all developmental phases of life. This survey will stress on modifying factors to include demographics, biological features, interpersonal influences, situational factors, and behavioural factors that could impact a immature adult female ‘s opportunities of prosecuting in behaviours that promote wellness ( Pender, 1996 ) .
Significance of Study
This research proposal seeks to look into the importance of testing as a mechanism to diminish the hazard of chlamydia infections among sexually active females aged 13 to 25. It is of import to screen and educate this population about possible hazard factors and preventative steps such as the usage of instruction, supportive resources, rubbers and abstention. Because the disease is chiefly symptomless in females, it is of import for nurses and other health care suppliers to place and follow recommended showing and appraisal of these persons. A job identified in the literature reappraisal is that there is some incompatibility in testing females for STDs due to varies grounds ( Streben, 2004 ) . The CDC ( 2010 ) has recommended showing of all sexually active females ages 13-25 yearly, but it is questionable whether such showing is really taking topographic point. It is besides dubious how many females of this age group routinely see healthcare suppliers unless a job has been identified.
This survey would do a difference by pulling a relationship between testing and bar and early sensing of chlamydia in a bad population. In so making, it contributes to the organic structure of literature formed by authorities bureaus, research workers, and non-profit wellness organisations that have initiated plans to cut down the prevalence of chlamydia in immature adult females. Screening will besides depict barriers and hazard factors to infection such as multiple sex spouses, STD history, or deficiency of usage of protective barriers such as rubber usage. In the procedure, this survey will foreground the important function of healthcare suppliers in showing, educating, and observing marks and symptoms of chlamydia infection and the importance of systematically executing sexual wellness history, appraisal, and showings to convey about a lessening in the incidence of this disease.