Human Development Categories of culture, race, and ethnicity are fluid, continuously shaped and redefined by social and political forces. Cognitive Development Pattern of change in the mental abilities such as learning, attention, memory, language, thinking, reasoning, and creativity. Cohort A group of people born at about the same time. Critical period A specific time when a given event or its absence, had a specific impact on development. Culture A society's or group's total way of life, including customs, traditions, beliefs, values, engage, and physical products-all learned behavior passed on from parents to children.
Developmental Scientists Study? Change and stability in all domains of development throughout the life p Domains of Development Development lists study processes of change and stability in all domains, or aspects of development throughout all periods of the life p. ; Physical, cognitive, psychosocial. Each affects the others Environment The totality of nonhereditary or experiential, influences on development. Ethnic gloss An overexploitation that obscures or blurs such variation (term such as Black or Hipic).
Ethnic group A group united by ancestry, race, religion, language, or national origins which contribute to a sense of shared identity and shared attitudes, beliefs, and values. Ethnicity and cultural patterns Affect development by their influence on the composition of a household, it economic and social resources, the way its members act toward one another, the foods they eat, the games children play, the way they learn, how well they do in school, the occupations adults engage in, and the way family members think and perceive the world. Extended Family
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Multidimensional network of grandparents, uncles, cousins and more distant relatives who often share breadwinners and child rearing responsibilities and the older children are responsible for younger brothers and sisters. Heredity ; Is inborn traits or characteristics inherited from the biological parents Historical generation A group of people strongly influenced by a major historical event during their formative years. Human Development The field of human development focuses on the scientific study of the systematic processes of change and stability of people. Ways of studying human velveteen are still evolving, making use of advanced technologies. ; Almost from the start, human development has been interdisciplinary which means that it draws from a wide range of disciplines, including psychology, psychiatry, sociology anthropology, biology, genetics, family science, education, history, and medicine. Imprinting The instinctive form of learning which during a critical period in early development, a young animal forms and attachment to the first moving object it sees, usually the mother. Canard Lorenz, Austrian, Zoologist (1957); got a newborn ducklings to follow him. Lorenz believes that imprinting is the result of (pre) disposition toward learning, that is, the readiness of an organism's nervous system to acquire certain formation during a brief critical period in early life. Individual differences Differences in characteristics, influences, or development outcomes. ; Influences on development come from both heredity and environment. Many typical change during childhood are related to maturation. Individual differences tend to increase with age. In some societies, the nuclear family predominates; in others, the extended family. Socioeconomic status affects developmental process and outcomes through the quality of home and neighborhood environments, nutrition, medical care, and schooling. Multiple risk factors increase the likelihood of poor outcomes. ;Influence may be normative (age-graded or history-graded) or normative. Life-p development Developmentally have come to recognize that human development is a lifelong process. Maturation The unfolding of a natural sequence of physical and behavioral change.
Multidimensional households Have become more common in recent years b/c, both men and women are arraying a t later ages and due to an influence of immigrant populations that embrace this type of household (Latino, African Americans, Asian). Non-normative A characteristic of an unusual event that happened to a particular person or a typical event that happened at an unusual time of life b/c they disturb the expected sequence of the life cycle. (Such as women having a baby in her mid-flies, losing a parent at an early age, surviving a plane crash).
Normative age-graded influences Highly similar for people in a particular age group. The timing of biological events is fairly predictable within a normal range. When do people experience puberty? 10 girls and 12 boys Normative history-graded ; Influences are significant events like the Great Depression or WI that shape the behaviors and attitudes of a historical generation. Normative influence There are two types and they are biological or environmental events that affect many or most people in society in similar ways and events that touch only certain individuals.
Nuclear family A household unit consisting of one or more parents and their children, whether biological, adopted, or stepchildren. Two-generational kinship, economic. Paul Ballet Identified seven key principles of a life-p development approach. A. Development is lifelong B. Development is multidimensional C. Development is multidimensional D. Relative influences of biology and culture shift over the life p E. Development involves changing resource allocations F. Development shows plasticity G.
Development is influenced by the historical and cultural context Physical Development Growth of body and brain, including patterns of change in sensory capacities, motor skills, and health. Plasticity The range of modifiability of performance. Additionally, evidence shows that it is to Just general characteristic of development that applies to all members of a species, but that there are individual differences in plasticity of responses to environmental events as well such as children with different temperaments.
Poverty A risk factor or a condition that increases the likelihood of a negative outcome (health, education, longevity, economic acquisitions). ; If it is long-lasting, can be harmful to the physical, cognitive, and psychosocial well-being of children and families. Psychosocial Development Patterns of change in emotion, personality, and social relationships. Sensitive periods Times of development when a person is particularly open to certain kind of experiences. Scientists Study The scientific study of human development began with studies of childhood during the 19th century.
Adolescence was not considered a separate phase of development until the 20th century, when scientific interest in aging also began. ; Developmental change, both quantitative and qualitative, as well as with stability of personality and behavior. ; Four goals are: describe, explain, predict, and modify Social Construction Division of the life p into periods is a social construct, that is, a concept or reactive that may appear natural and obvious to those who accept it, but in reality is an invention of a particular culture or society. Concept of periods of development Socioeconomic Status (SEES) ; Based on family income and the educational and occupational levels of the adults in the household. Periods of Human Development (Life Span) Prenatal (conception to birth) The abilities to learn and remember and to respond to sensory stimuli are developing. Infancy and Toddlers (birth to 3) The use of symbols and ability to solve problems develop by the end of the second ear and comprehension and the use of language develops rapidly.
Early Childhood (30th) Children gain more self-control and become interested in other children ; Preschool experience is common and kindergarten experience is more so. ; Egocentric thinking exists but the understanding of other people's perspective grow. Additionally, intelligence becomes more predictable. Middle Childhood (6 to 1 1) Control over behavior gradually shifts from parent to child, and peer groups become increasing important. ; Memory and language skills increase and children begin to think logically but concretely Adolescence (11 to 20)
Signifies a unique period of development in industrial societies ; The search for identity-personal, sexual, and occupational ; The ability to think abstractly and use scientific reasoning develops. However, immature thinking persists in some attitudes and behaviors but education focuses on preparation for college or vocation. Emerging and Young Adult (20 to 40) Exploratory period in the early to mid-twenties, many people are not yet ready to settle down to the typical tasks of young adulthood which include establishing independent lifestyles, occupations, and family. Thought and moral Judgments come more complex and educational and occupational choices are generally made. Middle Adulthood (40 to 65) Some decline in physical capabilities is likely and middle-age people find excitement and challenge in life changes, such as the launching of new careers and adult children. However, some face the need to care for elderly parents. ; Mental abilities peak and expertise and practical problem solving skills are high which may contribute to career success and earning powers. Additionally, creative output may decline but improve in quality. Late Adulthood (65 and over)
People generally need to cope with losses in their faculties, the loss of loved ones, and preparations for death. Additionally, if they retire, they must deal with the loss of work-based relationships, but may get pleasure out of exploring neglected interests and engagement in volunteer work. ; Most people are mentally alert although intelligence and memory may deteriorate in some areas. They have a tendency to find ways to compensate for memory deterioration. True/False Life-p studies in the US grew out of long-term studies designed to follow children through adulthood. (T)
Researchers have discovered that adolescence has been considered a separate period of development since at least 200 BC. (F) ; It is easy of developmental scientists to consider the physical, cognitive, and psychosocial domains of development separately, because they are almost entirely unrelated to one another. (F) Dividing the human lifep into periods is a social construction, which means that it is obvious to everyone exactly how to define when a person passes from one stage to the next. (F) Different societies divide the lifep into different periods from the ones listed in your textbook.
T) ; Individual differences include the ways people differ in physical build, health, intelligence, and lifestyle. (T) As people age from childhood to adulthood, the role of maturation becomes more influential in their development than individual differences. (F) Socioeconomic status is unrelated to most people's development. (F) A critical period is a time when a given event, or its absence, has a specific impact on development. (T) ; Paul Ballet's life-p developmental theory is incomplete because it does not consider the influences of culture and history upon development. (F)
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