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Chapter 9 Psychology Notes

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Chapter 9 Psychology Thinking? Cognition: All mental activities associated with processing understanding and communicating Concept: A mental grouping of similar object events and people Prototype: mental imagine that incorporate all the features that we associate with the concept How do we solve problems? Algorithms: Step by step procedure that guarantees a solution. How does it work? Heuristics: Quicker, more efficient but more prone to error. “Rule of Thumb” Strategy Insight: When you have a sudden flash of inspiration. Johnny Appleton and construction workers.

Obstacles to Problem Solving Confirmation Bias: When we search for information that confirms our beliefs Fixation: Inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective Functional Fixedness: When we perceive the function of object as fixed and unchanging. Thinking is also affected by Overconfidence: Our tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our knowledge and judgment Framing: The way an issue is presented Belief Perseverance: Our Inclination to hold on to over belifeinspite of evidence that contradicts them. Language Our spoken written, or gestured words and the way we combine them.

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How do we acquire it? Babble at 4 months Distinct babbling at 10 months 1 year 1 word sentence Two year say two word sentences. Girls babble before boys, and say sentence before boys too and follows into Elementary school. Three Theories of Language Development Skinner: believes we talk because of Association. Imitation, Reinforcement Chomsky: believes we are pre-wired for language with a LAD (Language Acquisition Device) Whorf: Linguistic Determinism different languages impose difference realities Animal Intelligence Do animals think? They can solve problems and make tools.

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Do animals have language? They can learn human sign language and communicate with each other. Hunger Hunger pangs Blood sugar drops Release of hormone orexin Hunger may affect -Thinking -Mood -Behavior Set Point – the point at which out weight is set Basal Metabolic Rate – the rate at which your body expends energy to maintain basic body functions Sexual Orientations Long term enduring sexual attraction to the same sex 3-4% of men are homosexual 1-2% of women are homosexual LeVays’s Research – Measured a cluster of cells in brains to determine their sexual orientation.

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