Phraseology: Classification of Phraseological Units
Phraseology is knowledge of frazeological units (frazeologisms), a combination of indivisible and very stable or persistent phrases in a particular language. In the modern linguistics, frazeology is studied as a significant part of lexicology, a specific area. The Phraseologisms contain at least two independent words.
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They represent a portable meaning as a whole.
For example, the word “master”, “the seed of the ankra”, the spacious word, the word “two words”; fleeing from the bottom of the pit, slandering the lie, laughing the fat of the serpent in three words; he stands on your nose and laughs and takes your soul out of it; it cuts into the one not touching it, and the ass is composed of five words until it ends. Thus, the linguistic unit consisting of two or more words, which expresses a single meaning, is called a phraseological unit or phrase. Here are the main features of the phrazalological units:
- At least 2 words should be included in the FB;
- Several independent words within the FB have been recognized as part of an interview,
- Components of the FB have an indefinable general meaning;
- The components in the FB will remain stable for a long time;
- The FBs influence their listener with their dyeiness and sensitivity.
According to A.V.Kunin, frazeology is the most colorful language in the world. Every language has its own frazeologisms. Frazeologisms clearly show the history, culture, origins and national character of the people. “Phraseology” is derived from the Greek word “phrasis”, phrase, phrase, phrase; “Logos” means knowledge about science, science, and phrases.
When you look at the history of the Frazeology study, it is clear that it originally appeared in literature. When translating specific artworks from one language into another, it is impossible to translate a stable word link. The frazeological units in those languages are being studied. (P.D.Pinhasov, p. 55 “On the Uzbek Language Syllabi”)
Thus, frazeology was first studied as a subject of literary study. Later in the dictionaries, the meanings of the terms were explained, and the frazeological units were also collected and interpreted. Then the meaning of the phrazalogical units and their grammatical structure began to be examined in the linguistic science. The present-day faculties are studied in both linguistics and literature. (A.Pinhasov “About the frazeology of the Uzbek language”, pp. 55-b).
The term phrazeology was first used by the English literary critic Neander in 1558 in the world philology. He had to use this term to translate artistic works.
Study of the frazeological units in the Russian linguistics begins in the XIX century. The Uzbek linguistics began to be studied in the 50’s of the 20th century.
It has been understood that scientists have done much in this area. In particular, in the beginning, the subject of frazeology was studied extensively by the French linguist, the father of frazeology, Sh.Balli.
In his works such as “Stylistics in the Stylistics” and “Stylistics of the French”, he composed the chapters on frazeology by systematizing his speech. Sh. Ballie points to four groups of the frazeological units in his work “Stylistics” (1905), and later in the work of the French Stylistics (1909), he concludes a discussion of the phrazalogical units and separates two groups of frazeological units: 1) free word combinations and (2) compounds.
Sha’b Balli considers the frauds a semantic phenomenon and sees the semantic nature as a clear sign of frauds. Sh. Shortly after the Ball’s frazeology study, frazeology began to form as a separate branch of linguistics. The philosophy has been thoroughly studied, and its scientific literature, dissertations, frazeological dictionaries, and scientific articles covering its various aspects have emerged. A comparative study of the frazeologisms of all languages has been launched. The concept of Shawn Ball was studied by many scientists. (Vinogradov, 1947 (a) 342-344 b., Budagov, 1961, 5-16 b., Amosova, 1963, pp. 5-6, Kunin, 1966; Nazaryan, 1976, 16-19 b.).
We can show the works of academician V.Vinogradov as the major work devoted to frazeology in Russian linguistics. He has come up with a new theory in the study of this field, taking into account the achievements and shortcomings of scholars who are thinking of genius. VVVinogradov has identified and defines the main types of frazeology, has proved frazeology as a part of linguistics and has eliminated a number of shortcomings in this area. VVVinogradov, AIEfimov and others add frazeological compounds to the lexical language of the language. Among those who spoke about frazeology, N.N.Amosova and A.Smirnitsky expressed their opinions and comments.
In conclusion, it can be said that frazeology is remarkable by its dignity, its educational significance, and its direct manifestation of the reasonableness of man. Every scientist witnessed a specific view of frazeology. It is desirable to study frazeology as a separate, important branch of linguistics. Because the phrazalological units relate to humanity, or to all the spheres, which cover the entire universe. You can find frazeologisms that describe each situation, every action. From this point of view, freetologists have their own rules. Frezology is still a matter to be studied and studied.