Major Risk Factors Of Cardiovascular Diseases Health And Social Care Essay
Methodology: An urban based descriptive, cross sectional, quantitative survey was conducted among 144 adolescent pupils of class XI and XII in one populace and one private higher secondary schools of Kathmandu territory.Students and schools were selected purposively.Datas were collected with the aid of semi structured ego administered questionnaire.
Questionnaire was based on Likert graduated table. Data analysis was performed by utilizing SPSS 17.0 for Windows.
Consequences: Overall 36.8 per centum of respondents had good cognition, 55.6 per centum had fair cognition and the left 7.6 per centum had hapless cognition sing the major hazard factors of CVDs. Beginnings of wellness information was found statistically important ( p=0.004 ) with the cognition of respondents. Sing overall attitude, the bulk ( 47.9 % ) had the impersonal attitude followed by positive ( 31.9 % ) and one fifth possessed negative attitudes. Knowledge versus attitude sing the major hazard factors of CVDs was found statistically important ( p=0.002 ) .
Decision: Consequences of this survey revealed that good cognition every bit good as positive attitude towards major hazard factors of CVDs among the adolescent pupils is unsatisfactory. And socio demographic factors for good cognition and good cognition for the development of positive attitude dramas critical function.
Cardinal words: Knowledge, Attitude, Major hazard factors, Cardiovascular diseases, Adolescent
Cardiovascular diseases ( CVDs ) are a group of upsets of the bosom and blood vessels.1 Surveies have shown that some people are at greater hazard of cardiovascular disease than others. Factors linked to an increased hazard of developing cardiovascular disease are heredity or household history, age, sex, baccy chewing/smoking, raised blood cholesterin degree, high blood force per unit area, physical inaction, inordinate intoxicant ingestion, corpulence and obesity.2 Although cardiovascular diseases typically occur in in-between age or subsequently, hazard factors are determined to a great extent by behaviors learned in childhood and continued into maturity, such as dietetic wonts and smoke. Throughout the universe, these hazards are get downing to look earlier. Physical activity decreases markedly in adolescence, peculiarly in misss. Obesity has increased well, non merely in Europe and North America, but besides in traditionally slight populations such as the Chinese and Japanese.3 By the clip that bosom jobs are detected, the implicit in cause ( coronary artery disease ) is normally rather advanced, holding progressed for decennaries. There is hence increased accent on forestalling coronary artery disease by modifying hazard factors, such as healthy feeding, exercising and turning away of smoking.4
More than half of the Nepali work forces and about one fifth of the Nepali adult females were found Current baccy users ( both fume and smokeless signifiers ) . And the average age of the start of smoke was found to be 18.8 old ages for work forces and 12.9 old ages for adult females. Similarly more than one 4th of the respondents were found to be current users of alcoholic drinks. Around 9 % of the population was found to hold reported prevalence of high BP as told by their wellness attention professional. And around 7 % in both sexes were identified fleshy whereas out of entire respondents, more than 80 % were found holding either one or more hazard factors.5 Bed tenancy rate of Shahid Gangalal National Heart Center was 85.61 % which was the 2nd highest among the cardinal infirmaries. And the instance burden of the in the same infirmary during Fiscal Old ages 2005 to 2008 was in increasing tendency by more than 14 % per year.6
CVDs are the taking cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide.7 The South Asiatic states Nepal, India, Pakistan, Sri-Lanka and Bangladesh contribute most to the worldwide CVDs load. 8 In Nepal, it is estimated that 5.6 % of people populating in the mountains, 1.5 % in the hills and 5 % of people in the terai part suffer from CVDs. Five to 20 % of grownups are reported to endure from high blood pressure, with a lower prevalence in the rural countries. 9
An urban based descriptive, cross sectional, quantitative survey was conducted among 15-19 old ages old adolescent pupils of Kathmandu territory. The survey was took topographic point after the blessing of research proposal by the research commission at the Department of Community Medicine and Family Health, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University. The questionnaire for the study was constructed taking mention of WHO STEPS Manual for chronic disease. To mensurate the peculiar and overall attitude widely utilizing Likert graduated table was applied. The questionnaire was prepared in Nepali, a local linguistic communication, so that pupils could understand easy. Questionnaire was pretested. Before the study conductivity intent of the survey was explained and informed consent was taken from school disposal every bit good as from the pupils. Schools and pupils were selected purposively. Selected both of the schools were from Maharajgunj vicinity of Kathmandu territory. Among the two schools selected, one was public ( Shivapuri Higher Secondary School ) and another was private ( Orient International College ) . All present pupils of one subdivision in each of class XI and XII were involved to make full up the ego administered semi structured questionnaire. Out of entire 492 pupils enrolled 144 ( 29.3 % of the sum ) were selected, 75 from grade XI and 69 from Twelve, for the survey. Data analysis was performed by utilizing SPSS 17.0 for Windows. To prove the statistical significance of cross tabulated informations, non parametric chi-square trial was applied. Study took topographic point in November 2010.
Socio demographic Features of the Study Population
Median age of the respondent was 17 old ages. Sexual activity ratio was 1.03 ( M: F ) . Brahmin/Chhetri possessed 47.9 per centum followed by Mongolians ( 26.4 % ) , Newar ( 19.4 % ) and other castes ( Majhi, Pariyar, Tharu etc ) possessed 6.3 per centum. Major faith was Hindu ( 84 % ) followed by Buddhism ( 11.8 % ) and 4.2 per centum were Christian. Most of the respondents ( 83.3 % ) belonged to middle category household followed by higher category ( 14.5 % ) and 2.08 per centum were from lower category household. 20.8 per centum of respondents ‘ male parent and 46.5 per centum respondents ‘ female parent had no formal instruction at all. Service, agribusiness, concern and homemaker were the major businesss of the respondent ‘s parents. Sing the question whether they had of all time known anyone ( family/friends/relatives ) diagnosed as CVD. Remarkable per centum ( 42.4 % ) was responded as “ yes ” . Similarly sing the question about chief beginning of wellness information, the bulk ( 44.5 % ) were responded that they were acquiring the wellness information from electronic media ( Television, Radio, Internet ) followed by Family/friends/health worker ( 28.4 % ) and from publishing media such a newspaper, curricular books etc. ( 27.1 % ) .
Knowledge sing the major hazard factors
The highest 91.7 per centum respondents identified baccy chew/ fume as a hazard factor followed by inordinate intoxicant ingestion ( 88.9 % ) , fatty/oily/ high cholesterin ( 87.5 % ) , high BP ( 86.1 % ) , obesity/overweight ( 69.4 % ) , physical inaction ( 59.7 % ) , old age ( 52.8 % ) and the respondents who identified heredity as a hazard factor of CVDs was 48.6 per centum.
Knowledge rating sing the CVD hazard factors
Table 1 shows that the highest ( 55.6 % ) had the just cognition followed by good cognition ( 36.8 % ) and 7.6 per centum had hapless cognition.
Table 1: Knowledge rating sing the CVD hazard factors ( N= 144 )
Number ( n )
Percent ( % )
Poor ( & lt ; 4 right response )
Fair ( 4 – 5 right response )
Good ( & gt ; 5 right response )
Analysis of cognition by socio-demographic features of respondents
Findingss show that good cognition was higher in males ( 42.5 % ) than the females ( 31.0 % ) . Majority of respondents of Newar ethnics ( 53.6 % ) possessed good cognition than that of other ethnics. Good cognition was found highest among respondents of higher category household ( 38.1 % ) followed by in-between category ( 36.7 % ) and lower category household ( 33.3 % ) . Findingss besides show respondent ‘s good cognition was higher among them whose parent ‘s educational position was high. Good cognition was found higher ( 41.0 % ) among those respondents who had of all time known person diagnosed as CVDs. Those who had responded household friends/health works every bit chief beginning of wellness information had higher good cognition ( 43.9 % ) and it is statistically important ( p=0.004 ) at 5 per centum of significance degree.
Attitude sing major hazard factors:
Attitude of respondents sing the major hazard factors of CVDs were assessed through already pretested eight attitudes proving statements based on the Likert graduated table.
Sing the statement “ CVD is an old age job so I do n’t care ” two 3rd ( 66.7 % ) of the respondents showed their strongly dissension followed by dissension ( 18.1 % ) . Sing the statement “ CVD is either heredity job or non, I do n’t care ” bulk ( 55.6 % ) of respondents showed their strongly dissension followed by dissension ( 22.9 % ) . Similarly, sing the statement “ High BP is a minor job so no demand to worry about ” 30.6 per centum of respondents showed their strongly dissension every bit good as dissension followed by understanding ( 21.5 % ) . Sing the statement “ Majority of physically inactive people get CVD ” 46.5 per centum of respondents showed their understanding followed by strongly understanding ( 25 % ) . Likewise, attitude sing the statement “ Tobacco chewing/smoking cause CVD ; non certain ” 35.4 per centum of respondents showed their strongly dissension followed by dissension ( 26.4 % ) . Similarly, attitude sing the statement “ Over weight: godown of diseases/CVD ” more than half ( 52.1 % ) of respondents showed their understanding followed strongly understanding ( 26.4 % ) . Sing the statement “ Fatty diet taking old people are still alive ” more than one 3rd ( 34.7 % ) of respondents showed their dissension followed by strongly disagreement ( 29.2 % ) . Similarly, sing the statement “ Consumption of inordinate intoxicant is to ask for CVD ” 42.4 per centum of respondents showed their understanding followed by strongly understanding ( 41.7 % ) .
Attitude rating sing CVD hazard factors
Table 2 shows that the highest ( 47.9 % ) had the impersonal attitude followed by positive ( 31.9 % ) and 20.1 per centum had negative attitude.
Table 2: Attitude rating sing CVD hazard factors ( N=144 )
Number ( n )
Percent ( % )
Negative ( & lt ; 4 positive response )
Neutral ( 4-5 positive response )
Positive ( & gt ; 5 positive response )
Knowledge versus attitude sing CVD hazard factors
Table 3 shows that respondents holding hapless cognition had highest ( 54.5 % ) negative attitude whereas respondents holding just cognition had the highest impersonal ( 53.8 % ) attitude and those holding good cognition had the highest positive attitude toward the major hazard factors of CVDs and it is besides statistically important ( p= 0.002 ) at 5 per centum of significance degree.
Table 3: Knowledge versus attitude sing CVD hazard factors
Attitude sing CVD hazard factors
6 ( 54.5 )
17 ( 21.3 )
6 ( 11.3 )
4 ( 36.4 )
43 ( 53.8 )
22 ( 41.5 )
Findingss suggested that adolescent pupils lack overall cognition sing the major hazard factors of cardiovascular diseases and are consistent with the survey conducted among the pupils of classs ( 9-12 ) from four high schools of Michigan, USA in 2005.10
The figure of respondents who knew high blood force per unit area as hazard factor ( 86.1 % ) was lower ( over 91 % ) , baccy chewing/smoking ( 91.7 % ) was slight more ( over 90 % ) , physically inactive ( 59.7 % ) was lower ( over 72 % ) than reported by Richard Frost, MD, in an survey conducted in pupils of State University of New York at Plattsburgh in 2006. 11
The figure of respondents who had shown positive attitude sing the hazard factors such as physically inactive ( 71.5 % ) was lower ( over 88 % ) , baccy chewing/smoking ( 61.8 % ) was higher ( over 55 % ) , high fatso, oily/cholesterol diet ( 63.9 % ) was lower ( over 91 % ) than that of reported by Aysha Almas et Al. in an survey conducted in University pupils of Karanchi, Pakistan in 2005. 12
The findings of the survey show that boys possessed more “ good cognition ” than misss. This difference can partially be explained by the patriarchal society where gender favoritism is prevailing. Normally male childs have higher chance to have information as they are more open to the outer universe than that of misss. The findings of the survey stress the influence of socio demographic variables on the degree of cognition. Knowledge sing major hazard factors varied among different cultural groups. Respondents belonging to Newar ethnics had highest “ good cognition ” followed by Brahmin/Chhetri, Mangolian and others severally. This may be due to Newars are locals of capital metropolis and Brahmins/Chhetri are frontward advantageous group since antediluvian. In instance of parents educational position highest good cognition was observed in respondents holding their parent ‘s educational position higher. And the lowest cognition was observed in respondents holding their parent ‘s educational position as no formal instruction. Therefore it can be said that parent ‘s instruction has decidedly played some function in the respondents ‘ cognition. It may be because educated parents might hold taught their offspring about the healthful behaviours. Sing the chief beginning of wellness information good cognition was found highest ( 43.9 % ) among the human resource users followed by publishing media ( 30.7 % ) and electronic media ( 28.1 % ) . This might be due to easy handiness of fee suggestions in our society by people.
Positive attitude among the respondents who preferred the printing media as chief beginning of wellness information was found higher. It might be due to in depth information that we can acquire from printed stuffs such as newspaper, books etc.
Finding of Knowledge versus attitude cross tabular matter besides shows that those who had higher cognition possessed positive attitude and frailty versa. This might be due to the demand of cognition for the attitude formation.
Consequences of the survey show that good cognition and positive attitude sing the major hazard factors of CVDs among the adolescent pupils of Kathmandu territory are unsatisfactory. And socio demographic factors for the development of good cognition and good cognition for the development of positive attitude dramas critical function. Due to the altering life manner of Nepali people these yearss, they are more susceptibleness to life manner related diseases like CVDs. Therefore to forestall CVDs, timely acceptance of healthful wonts are most and the really age group for this is the stripling. Adolescent centered activities that can raise cognition and develop positive attitude towards hazard factors so that healthful wonts can be formed are strongly recommended.
I would wish to show my sincere gratitude to the Department of Community Medicine and Family Health, Institute of Medicine for supplying me an chance to carry on this research work. I would besides wish to widen my profound gratitude to my research supervisor Associate Prof. Dr. Rajendra Raj Wagle for his nonstop counsel and punctilious redaction of faux pass.