The purpose of this essay is to understand a comparative study of the leadership styles which have been identified in different situation in Snowball and Napoleon of George Orwell’s Animal Farm and giving an essential and significant consideration of these change and leadership styles which have implications and linked on different situations of organisational change. This essay is divided into two parts, in first part it will discuss and defines about the leadership style and behaviour linking to the two characters, Snowball and Napoleon of George Orwell’s Animal Farm and how these leadership styles made implications in different situations. Also the comparison between the leadership styles of the character, to view the success and failure of the farm and whose leadership style has been lead to be inspirational or motivation to others in the scene of change in organisation. As every individual has its own style and skills to represent their leadership quality which comes into activation due to change and situation. In the second part it discusses in detail about the leadership styles in the organisation. Argues about the organisational change with respect to the ‘pros and corns’, of the leadership style leading in the organisation. Identifying which leadership style has more implication on organisational change. The different views of organisational change and leadership styles with respect to different leaders and managers, lead to the success and failure of the organisation. This shows that how leadership and organisation change are related and link to each other in the organisation success and failure.
Everyone has a characteristic of leadership participation, depending on the situation and the changes occur in the organisation. (Leigh, A. 1988, pg.18). Many researchs have been conducted in the past decades to understand the insight into the history of leadership styles and approaches and their impact on the society. ‘Leadership is defined as a people with certain motives and purposes mobilize resources so as to arouse, engage and satisfy the motives of followers.’(Leigh, A. 1988, pg.17). Leadership is regarded as an inborn talent to power others by controlling the behaviour of other members of a group, leadership styles have evolved and extended beyond influence, to include motivation and enabling of others to help achieve organisational goals (House et al., 2004; Rosette and Tost, 2010; Caldwell and Dixon,2010; Jogulu, 2010). There has been different models and theory studied to define the leadership as a variety of collection of effective behaviours for leaders. According to Pearce et al. 2003, had provide an historical study which distinguish four main leadership styles each focussing on a particular set of behaviours: directive, transactional, transformational and empowering leadership. The theories between the four styles of leaderships are different which can be understandable. Directive leadership are associated with the behaviour that is mainly task oriented such as issuing instructions and assigning goals (Pearce et al., 2003; Houghton and Yoho, 2005, Koen and Maaike, 2011). Snowball in chapter 3(Orwell’s, 1945) shows this leadership style, when they hoist the flag and sand the beats of England song, after that they are gathered for the general assembly known as meeting in which they assigned and instructed the task or job for the weekly bases and debates on the improvement of the farm in success. Even Napoleon showed the same leadership style later when he became the leader in chapter 6 (Orwell’s, 1945) he became the fully directive leader. Transactional leadership style “occurs when characterized as when leaders offer contingent rewards or benefits and management-by-exception. It refers to whether a leader rewards his followers when they act in accordance with contracts, rules, norms, agreed-upon objectives, or expend the necessary effort on a certain task (Howell and Avolio,1993; Schepers and Wetzels 2005). The latter applies when a leader does not give any directions if the current ways of doing a job still apply or are still effective. Only if mistakes are made, something has gone wrong, or performance standards are not met any more, the leader takes action.(Schepers and Wetzels, 2005). Transactional leadership were found in both the characters, Snowball from the battle of cowsheds in the chapter 4(orwell’s, 1945), he started rewarding the animals with the brass medal. Transactional leadership leads to a calculative compliance of the follower and includes behaviours such as the use of personal or material rewards. But Napoleon had the most of the transactional leadership style behaviour; he focused mostly on the rules and regulation in regards to the growth of youth and farm and personal committee of pigs in chapter 6(orwell’s, 1945), but later in chapter 7(Orwell’s, 1945) he does not give any directions, if the current ways of doing the task are effective, he became the absolute dictator in chapter 8(Orwell’s, 1945). If the mistakes are made he leads to take action against the animals by punishing them or giving rewards against the success. Transformational leadership style “occurs when leaders develop positive relationships with subordinates in order to strengthen employee and organizational performance. Characteristic such as the attributes of charismatic, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, and individualized consideration may be present in the leader.”(Bass and Avolio, 1993; Sarah Burke and Karen M. Collins, 2001; Schepers and Wetzels 2005). Transformational leadership are found in both Snowball and Napoleon, in the chapter 2(Orwell’s, 1945); Snowball had taken the initiative and controlled the farm by taking the charge of leadership with respect to the consideration of all the animals in the farm with creating the seven commandments, Snowball had become the inspirational animal hero, to all animals in chapter 5(Orwell’s, 1945) by winning the battle of cowsheds, had the intellectual stimulation in chapter 5(Orwell’s, 1945) where he proposed an idea of generating the wind mill which will help the farm as well as reduce the job of the animals, as an individual consideration Snowball had always engaged himself with orchestrating Animal Committees and education for the betterment of the animals. Napoleon to some extend has the transformational leadership style, chapter 8(Orwell’s, 1945) he become the. Finally, empowering leadership style which aims at the self-development of the supporters motivating behaviours such as self-leadership, participative goal setting and teamwork (Pearce et al., 2003; Houghton and Yoho, 2005, Koen and Maaike, 2011). Both Snowball and Napoleon have the empowering leadership style which made the animals motivated to do the task or job at the time which during the Snowball leading it was in peace and happiness while napoleon leadership empowered happily or forcefully at some situations. It has been argued that the behaviour of directive, transactional and transformational leadership had developed into unrelated in empowered in the organisation. This shows that leadership styles or behaviours and effectiveness are moderated by the situation in which they are deployed (Burnes, 1996, p.349). Snowball and Napoleon were good leaders depending on the situation, Snowball had always taught of developing the animals and production in the farm. The impact on animals by Snowball’s leadership style was that they were organised into groups for their tasks and also encouraged for education and they were satisfied with their leader. And Napoleon has been always thinking beyond the snowball in developing the youth and the farm production from other farms. The impact of Napoleon’s leadership style was that the animals were unsatisfied with their leader as the task was forced on them through punishments, and their needs were not fulfilled. This show that as the snowball and napoleon have the similar leadership styles and but depending on the situation it differs. Napoleon leadership style had made the drastic changes in the farm; he is an inspiration for the growth of youth and the production in the farm but snowball leadership styles also was inspirational to some extend to develop within the farm. It’s very difficult to know which leadership style is more suitable for the organisation as the changes occur due to the situation, but both the leaders are effective and have efficient leadership style for an organisation change.
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‘Organisational Change is defined as the understanding more fully how the formal aspects of organisational life respond to pressures from the internal, external and temporal environments-that is how change is leveraged through strategy, structure and operational processes. In addition, it means understanding the more informal processes such as power, politics and conflict, culture and leadership.’(Senior, B., 1997, pg.20). This definition shows how leadership styles and implementations are linked with the organisational change. In past it has been trusted that the main aspect for different success for organisation would recommended the being of self-motivated and effective leadership (Yukl, 1994; Burnes 1996,p.346). And from the conversation in recent study it suggests the numerous conclusions and dissimilar aspect for leadership in the organisational change. ‘One best way’ of leading, with the characteristic essential for successful organisational change would be theories of leadership, leadership styles and behaviour but they can vary according to the different organisational situations. These situation for change vary according to the organisation’s stage of development, the nature of the change process itself and the forces for or against any change, including individuals’ and group, resistance to change (Senior, 2002, p.247-248). Dulewicz and Higgs (2003) argue that leaders with the different leadership styles perform better or worse on different types of change in situations (Turner and Muller, 2005). According to the Kerr et al 1974, it has been argued that the effectiveness of the two forms of leadership behaviour i.e., consideration and initiating structure are in promoting high levels of performance from subordinates is moderated by the three situational variables time pressure, initiating structure and job satisfaction (Burnes1996, p.348). According to the Kotter(1996, p.25), Management is a set of processes that can keep a complicated system of people and technology running smoothly. And leadership is a set of processes that creates organisations in the first place or adapts them to significantly changing circumstances. But many companies and universities develop management programs and encourage thousands and hundreds of people to develop management skills than leadership as it is difficult to teach leadership. And lack of leadership leaves no strength within the organisations to break out the knot (Kotter,1996, p.27). Change is an expected procedure of organisational structure; it brings out conflict from the people, mostly in terms of their working condition, nervousness, fear of the unknown, and issues arising from managing such change in organisations on the heels of new methods resulting upon change. However, whatever is the outcome of change, it is predicted, and that it affects all facets of the operation, functioning and wellbeing of organisations (Senior and Fleming, 2006; Uzoechi, 2011). Lee-Kelley et al. (2003) argues that to consider which project manager’s leadership styles are influences his or her insight of power on the project management knowledge areas for essential project success (Uzoechi, 2011). From above, the leadership styles such as Directive, Transformational, Transactional, and Empowering have made different strategic approach for change in the form of growth and development of the organisation. It has been argued by Collins and Holton (2004) that at the organisational level the leadership development is less considered 10% of studies has been analysed between (1982-2001) in identifying leadership. For example considering universities, where many commentators portended that they should learn from private sector and move towards an entrepreneurial outlook, these changes would motivated a constant essential change in how universities and other higher education institutions would led (Brown, 2001; Davies et al, 2001; Froeschle and Donahue, 1998; Kulati, 2003), and identify for transformational, visionary leadership in universities. Transformational leadership behaviours have also been shown to be positively associated with faculty satisfaction with departmental chair supervision, perceptions of organizational effectiveness and willingness to expend extra effort (Brown and Moshavi, 2002). But Pounder (2001) agrees, and suggests that university leaders would make use of a large series of leadership characteristics, illustrating on the scope of both transformational and transactional leadership. Transformational leaders may be helpful at facilitate self-management (Kirkby et al, 1992 in Brown and Moshavi, 2002; Sharon Turnbull and Gareth Edwards.2005.). But the theory of transformational leadership and organizational effectiveness establish its preliminary appearance in the fundamental work of (Burns, 1978). While Burns studied transformational and transactional leadership as contrasting leadership styles and other researchers, outstandingly (Bass, 1998) and (Howell and Avolio, 1993) suggested that the effective managers are capable of utilizing either transformational or transactional leadership styles (James Castiglione, 2006.). Since transformational leadership styles impacts on self-efficacy (Dvir et al., 2002; van Knippenberg et al., 2004; Shamir, House and Arthur, 1993; Shamir, Zakay, Breinin and Popper, 1998; Walumbwa et al., 2005; Bilha and Hila 2008). In traditional working environment leadership is related to the empowered work situation(Ahearne et al., 2005). Researchers like Walton and Hackman (1986), Manz and Sims (1987), Conger and Kanungo (1988), Thomas and Velthouse (1990) and Neck and Houghton (2006) have all argued that directive leadership models do not cover the complete range of leadership behaviour in empowered working contexts. It is argued that the concept of recognising the importance of the role of the leader in shaping the structures of the organization leadership empowerment behaviour is a central element for structural empowerment (Koen and Maaike, 2011). And usually in expressing the empowerment in the organisation is by touching the individual or team insight of implication, skill, self-determination and /or impact to develop leadership empowerment behaviour (Spreitzer, 1996, Koen and Maaike, 2011). The problem for implementation of empowerment practices and shaping of new leadership quality requires an empowerment approach to realise the benefits for employee, this would drive the success of organisation argues Aheame et al., 2005 (Koen and Maaike, 2011). Houghton and Yoho (2005) found that empowering leadership is different from directive and transactional leadership, to direct the followers. But Manz and Sims (2001) agree that directive and transactional leadership will result in low levels and empowering leadership result in high level of empowerment (Koen and Maaike, 2011). Avolio et al.(2004) research suggested that transformational leadership and organisational dedication for success have a great mediated link from empowerment (Koen and Maaike, 2011).
To understand the different concept of leadership styles and its mystery of implementation in the organisational change with the situation and development is difficult for the leader to implement. Understanding the leadership concept helps an individual to adopt and apply the relevant leadership style and behaviour in the organisational change. By understanding the importance of leadership, identifying leadership styles, and employing appropriate leadership techniques, an organization can create a vision of the future, motivate employees toward common goals and value individual contributions toward the realization of short-term goals and long-term visions. In this essay we have focused on the different leadership styles which taken place in the book animal farm within the two characters, Snowball and Napoleon with the change in situations of farm. This leadership styles are very effective in different organisations and different authors have argued on the different aspect and which leadership style is effective in implementation towards the development and growth of organisation. Every style has its own style and effect for growth and development so it is very difficult to understand which is more effective and efficient than other for organisational change. Leaders are who implement their leadership style and behaviour in the organisational change with the situational and innovation for the growth and development. So in today’s world leadership is essential for the control and manage the situation in the organisational change.
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