1 INTERNSHIP REPORT MTN RWANDA PO BOX 264 BY Kalimunda Hakim Student At RTUC Bachelor In Business Information Technologies _____________________ SUPERVISED BY Aymard Mbonabucya Information & Network Security Administrator _____________________ FROM 26 November, 2012 TO 15 January, 2013 INTERNSHIP REPORT 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am deeply intended to almighty God who has protected me through the whole period of internship.
My special thanks are addressed to the MTN RWANDA administration for giving me such opportunity of passing an internship in their company, My sincere acknowledgement go to the Human resource Director Merry Assimwe for their acceptance of my intern . Thank you for all. I am grateful to my Supervisor Aymard MBONABUCYA for being a best man I have ever known and his modesty, encouragement and understanding s on all my daily questions and answer it because of his spiritual and technical support; I used to became free to ask any question regarding network because he is very good at networking, may thanks be given to him.
I finally thank all MTN staff in technology department for their good collaboration during this very important internship. INTERNSHIP REPORT 3 PREFACE The purpose of this report is to fulfill the internship requirement for the Bachelor degree in Business Information Technology program at Rwanda Tourism University College ; to till 15 January, 2013) with a private organizations in Rwanda called MTN RWANDA. successes and short. explain what I did achieved and learned during my internship period (26 November, 2012 The report focuses primarily on intern’s duties and responsibilities, internship results, its INTERNSHIP REPORT 4 About MTN Rwanda
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MTN is a global communications company and world-class cellular network. empowerment. As a major communications company, MTN is specifically focused on the Africa and the Middle East. We believe that through access to communication comes economic Serving you since 1998, MTN Rwanda continues to expand its network, offer new and innovative packages and services and keep up with the latest trends in communications while maintaining affordability. MTN Mobile Money has transacted over US$36 million Bulk Payment Services. MTN Rwanda has over 2. 9 million subscribers and its network coverage extends to over 98% of the population. ince its launch in 2010. The payment platform is now offering Cash Power Top-up and INTERNSHIP REPORT 5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT PREFACE. …………………………………………………… ……………………………………………. 1 BACKGROUND OF COMPANY. ………………………………………………………………………………2 CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………… II. 1. OVERVIEW OF SWITCHING…………….. II. II. 1. OVERVIEW OF ROUTING……… II. II. 2. CONCEPTS OF ROUTING………. ?II. 2. CONCEPTS OF SWITCHING……………….. TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………………………………. ….. …………………3 CHAPTER II. PRESENATION ON SWITCHING AND ROUTING CONCEPTS AND CONFIGURATION……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
II. 3. SOME CONFIGURATION OF SWITCHING…………. II. II. 3. SOME CONFIGURATION OF ROUTING……………….. II. III. NETWORK LAYER……………………………………… II. III. 2. CISCO HIERARCHIAL LAYER…………… II. III. 3. CORE LAYER…………… II. III. 4. DISTRIBUTION LAYER………….. II. III. 5. ACCESS LAYER…………….. II. III. 1. OVERVIEW OF NETWORK LAYER…………….. II. IV. NETWORK DESIGN CONCEPT …. II. IV. 1. THEORIES ON NETWORK DESIGN…… II. IV. 4 SWITCH PASSWORD RECOVERY II. IV. 2. OVERVIEW ON VIRTUAL LOCAL AREA NETWORK (VLAN) II. IV. 5. FIREWALL PASSWORD RECOVERY II. IV. 3. ROUTER PASSWORD RECOVERY…………………………………………………………………………..
INTERNSHIP REPORT 6 INTERNSHIP REPORT 7 Chapter 2. Presentation on switching, routing concepts and configuration II. 1. OVERVIEW OF SWITCH What is switching? Networking concept has two basic concepts and they are Switching and Routing . They using one of these methods. are fundamental concepts in Networking ,other topics like network security are based on these concept. Routing and Switching are the base packet or data delivering methods in When we are talking about the switching ,the protocols and concepts are related to the layer 2 and data packets with in this layer that are called frame . re bigger and bigger and also more expensive. 10base5, 10base-T for cabling were used . . Better switches have more choices than 2 condition and because of this capacity, they In Networking there is a long history for switches. At first time the direct connection network and each device like router , switch , hub , firewall , proxy , cash server, modem are As you know the switch refers to the device that can select one condition from 2 or more conditions .
For example an electrical switch can select 0 as turn off and select 1 for turn on between to or more computer used to make a network and such technology like 10base2, In those technologies , the base topology was BUS Technology and the most advanced of more devices for sending and receiving data , and when a device wants to send data for figure below we can see a logical view to a hub and the meaning of bus . II. 2. CONCEPTS OF SWITCHING this technology is HUB. A bus or data bus refers to the one link(shared link) between 2 or another device ,this bus should be empty and none of devices should not use the bus . In INTERNSHIP REPORT FIGURE 1: SWITCH II. 3. SOME CONFIGURATION OF SWITCHING Command switch>? switch>enable switch# switch#disable switch>exit switch#show version switch#show flash: switch#show mac-addresstable switch#show running-config switch#show startup-config switch#show vlan switch#show interfaces switch#show interface vlan1 descriptions The ? works here the same as in a router Used to get the list of all available commands User mode, same as a router Privileged mode Leaves privileged mode Leaves user mode Displays information about software and hardware. Displays information about flash memory (will work only for the 2900/2950 series).
Displays the current MAC address forwarding table . Displays the current configuration in DRAM. Displays the current configuration in NVRAM. Displays the current VLAN configuration. Displays the interface configuration and status of line: up/up, up/down, admin down. Displays setting of virtual interface VLAN 1, the default VLAN on the switch. INTERNSHIP REPORT 9 II. II. 1. OVERVIEW OF ROUTING is the process of selecting paths in a network along which to send network traffic. Routing is performed for many kinds of networks, including the telephone network (circuit switching technology.
Routers switching), electronic data networks (such as the Internet), and transportation networks. This article is concerned primarily with routing in electronic data networks using packet II. II. 2. CONCEPTS OF ROUTING Whereas switches and bridges operate at OSI Layer 2 (the data link layer), routers primarily operate at OSI Layer 3 (the network layer). Like bridging, make the forwarding decisions. Routers make decisions based on network layer protocols such as Internet Protocol (IP) and Novell NetWare Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX). growing beyond the capability of bridges. Before this popularity, networ he primary act of routing involves moving packets across a network from a source to a destination. The difference involves the information that is used to Routing gained popularity in the mid- to late 1980s as a result of internetworks Figure 2: Image of Router II. II. 3. SOME CONFIGURATION OF ROUTING modes, and the resulting prompts. The prompt helps you identify which mode you are in and, therefore, which commands are available to you: Mode of Operation Usage Mode How to Enter the Prompt The following table describes some of the most commonly used modes, how to enter the INTERNSHIP REPORT 10
User EXEC Change terminal settings on a temporary basis, perform basic tests, and list system information. First level accessed. Router> Privileged EXEC Global Config System administration, set operating parameters. Modify configuration that affect the system as a whole. Modify the operation of an interface. Create the initial configuration. From user EXEC mode, enter enable password command Interface Config Setup From privileged EXEC, enter configure terminal. From global mode, enter interface type number. Router# Router(config)# Router(config-if)# Prompted dialog From privileged EXEC mode, enter command setup. User EXEC Mode:
When you are connected to the router, you are started in user EXEC mode. The user EXEC commands are a subset of the privileged EXEC commands. Privileged EXEC Mode: Privileged commands include the following: • Configure – Changes the software configuration. Enter the command disable to exit from the privileged EXEC mode and return to user EXEC mode. • Debug – Display process and hardware event messages. • Setup – Enter configuration information at the prompts. INTERNSHIP REPORT 11 Configuration Mode Configuration mode has a set of submodes that you use for modifying interface settings, routing protocol settings, line settings, and so forth.
Use caution with configuration mode because all changes you enter take effect immediately. Note: To enter configuration mode, enter the command configure terminal and exit by pressing Ctrl-Z. Almost every configuration command also has a no form. In general, use the no form to disable a feature or function. Use the command without the keyword no to re-enable a disabled feature or to enable a feature that is disabled by default. For example, IP routing is enabled by default. To disable IP routing, enter the no ip routing command and enter ip routing to re-enable it.
INTERNSHIP REPORT 12 Getting Help In any command mode, you can get a list of available commands by entering a question mark (? ). To obtain a list of commands that begin with a particular character sequence, type in those characters followed immediately by the question mark (? ). Router#co? configure connect copy Router>? To list keywords or arguments, enter a question mark in place of a keyword or argument. Include a space before the question mark. Router#configure ? memory Configure from NV memory network Configure from a TFTP network host terminal Configure from the terminal
You can also abbreviate commands and keywords by entering just enough characters to make the command unique from other commands. For example, you can abbreviate the show command to sh. INTERNSHIP REPORT 13 Configuration Files Any time you make changes to the router configuration, you must save the changes to memory because if you do not they will be lost if there is a system reload or power outage. There are two types of configuration files: the running (current operating) configuration and the startup configuration. Use the following privileged mode commands to work with configuration files. show running-config – display the running configuration. • show startup-config – display the startup configuration. • configure terminal – modify the running configuration manually from the terminal. • copy running-config startup-config – copy the running configuration to the startup configuration. • copy startup-config running-config – copy the startup configuration to the running configuration. • erase startup-config – erase the startup-configuration in NVRAM. • copy tftp running-config – load a configuration file stored on a Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) server into the running configuration. copy running-config tftp – store the running configuration on a TFTP server. INTERNSHIP REPORT 14 IP Address Configuration Take the following steps to configure the IP address of an interface. Step 1: Enter privileged EXEC mode: Router>enable password Router#config terminal Example: Example, Step 2: Enter the configure terminal command to enter global configuration mode. Step 3: Enter the interface type slot/port (for Cisco 7000 series) or interface type port (for Cisco 2500 series) to enter the interface configuration mode. Step 4: Enter the IP address and subnet mask of the interface using the ip address ipaddress subnetmask command.
Step 5: Exit the configuration mode by pressing Ctrl-Z Router(config-if)#[Ctrl-Z Router (config-if)#ip address 192. 168. 10. 1 255. 255. 255. 0 Router (config)#interface ethernet 0/1 II. III. NETWORK LAYER II. III. 1. OVERVIEW OF NETWORK LAYER INTERNSHIP REPORT II. III. 2. CISCO HIERARCHIAL LAYER 15 Hierarchy has many of the same benefits in network design that it does in other areas of life. When used properly, it makes networks more predictable. It helps us define at which levels of hierarchy we should perform certain functions.
Likewise, you can use tools such as access lists at certain levels in hierarchical networks and avoid them at others. large networks can be extremely complicated, with multiple protocols, detailed configurations, and diverse technologies. Hierarchy helps us summarize a complex collection of details into an understandable model. Then, as specific configurations are needed, the model dictates the appropriate manner to apply them. The Cisco hierarchical model can help you design, implement, and maintain a scalable, reliable, cost-effective hierarchical internetwork.
The following are the three layers: ? ? ? FIGURE 3 : CISCONHIERARCHIAL Each layer has specific responsibilities. However, that the three layers are logical and are not necessarily physical devices. Consider the OSI model, another logical hierarchy. The seven layers describe functions but not necessarily protocols. Now, let's take a closer look at each of the layers. II. III. 3. CORE LAYER the core layer is responsible for transporting large amounts of data quickly The Core layer or Backbone The Distribution layer The Access layer and reliably.
The designer must ensure that the core layer is designed with fault tolerance, especially because all users in the network can be affected by a failure. The ability to avoid unnecessary delays INTERNSHIP REPORT in network traffic quickly becomes a top priority for the network designer. What Happens at the Core Layer? 16 The core layer is sometimes called the network backbone. Routers and switches at the core layer provide high-speed connectivity. In an enterprise LAN, the core layer, shown in Figure 1-7, may connect multiple buildings or multiple sites, and may provide connectivity to the server farm.
Goals of the Core Layer The core layer design enables the efficient, high-speed transfer of data between one section of the network and another. The primary design goals at the core layer are as follows: - Provide 100% uptime. -Maximize throughput. -Facilitate network growth. Core Layer Technologies Technologies used at the core layer include the following: - Routers or multilayer switches that combine routing and switching in the same device -Redundancy and load balancing - High-speed and aggregate links II. III. 4. DISTRIBUTION LAYER
The distribution layer is sometimes referred to as the workgroup layer and is the major communication point between the access layer and the core. The primary function of the distribution layer is to provide routing, filtering, and WAN access and to determine how packets can access the core, if needed. The distribution layer must determine the fastest way that network service requests are handled; for example, how a file request is forwarded to a server. After the distribution layer determines the best path, it forwards the request to the core layer. The core layer then quickly transports the request to the correct service.
II. III. 5. ACCESS LAYER The access layer controls user and workgroup access to internetwork resources. The access layer is sometimes referred to as the desktop layer. The network resources most users need will be available locally. The distribution layer handles any traffic for remote services. INTERNSHIP REPORT The following are some of the functions to be included at the access layer: ? ? ? 17 Technologies such as DDR and Ethernet switching are frequently seen in the access layer. Static routing is seen here as well. As already noted, three separate levels does not imply three separate routers.
It could be fewer, or it could be more. Remember, this is a layered approach. II. IV. NETWORK DESIGN CONCEPT My second part of my internship dealt with network design concept. In this I have been able to read different theories of network design from eBooks downloaded from the internet, doing exercises on subnetting, VLSM and VLANs and finally I had opportunity to do some practices on network documentation and laboratories on virtual LAN. II. IV. 1. THEORIES ON NETWORK DESIGN Designing a network for a better performance of data access and resource sharing of any institution is an extremely important thing to consider.
I learned different concept of designing a network whether by reading eBooks or discussing it with my supervisor. A good network design is composed of four parts in general: Continued access control and policies Creation of separate collision domains Workgroup connectivity into the distribution layer through layer 2 switching Identification of customer’s needs and goals: In this part you deal with identifying business goals and technical requirements which include the task of characterizing the existing network, analysis of the network traffic. Logical network design: Here, it’s all about developing a network topology.
During this phase, you devise a network layer addressing model, and selects switching and routing protocols. It also includes security planning, network management design. Finally you make a study of the service provider on how he can meet your WAN and remote access requirements Physical network design: The physical design phase deals with specific technologies and products to realize the logical design. It starts with the selection of technologies and devices for campus networks that includes cabling, Ethernet switches, wireless access points, wireless bridges, and routers.
There is also a selection of technologies and devices for remote-access and WAN needs. INTERNSHIP REPORT Testing, Optimizing and Documentation: The final step is to write and implement a test plan, build a prototype or pilot, optimize the network design, and document your work with a network design proposal. If your test results indicate any performance problems, then during this phase you have to update your design to include such optimization features. 18 In all this different network design steps, I have been able to do some practices on logical network design where I did exercises on subnetting, VLAN as network management requires it.
II. IV. 2. OVERVIEW VIRTUAL LOCAL AREA NETWORK (VLAN) Definition A VLAN (Virtual Local Network) is a logically separate IP subnetwork. VLANs allow multiple IP networks and subnets to exist on the same-switched network. A VLAN is a logical broadcast domain that can p multiple physical LAN segments. It allows an administrator to group together stations by logical function. A VLAN has three major functions: i. Limits the size of broadcast domains ii. Improves network performance ii. Provides a level of security
Security – Security of sensitive data are separated from the rest of the network, decreasing the chances of confidential information breaches. Advantages of VLAN: Higher performance – Division of Layer 2 networks into multiple logical workgroups (broadcast domains) reduces unnecessary traffic on the network and boosts performance. Cost reduction - Cost savings result from less need for expensive network upgrades and more on this network. Types of VLAN There are different types of VLANs. The type of network traffic they carry defines a particular type of VLAN and others INTERNSHIP REPORT 9 names due to the type or a specific function the VLAN performs. The following describes common VLAN: Default VLAN At the initial boot up of the switch, All switch ports become a member of the default VLAN, which makes them all part of the same broadcast domain. This allows any network device connected to any of the switch port to communicate with other devices on other switch ports. On Cisco switches the default VLAN is VLAN 1. VLAN 1 has all the features of any VLAN, except that you cannot rename or delete it. Data VLAN A data VLAN that can also be referred to as user VLAN.
This is configured to carry only usergenerated traffic. The importance of separating user data from other type of VLAN is proper switch management and control. Native VLAN A native VLAN is assigned to trunk port. An trunk port supports traffic coming from many VLANs as well as traffic that do not come from a VLAN. The trunk port places untagged traffic (traffic that does not come from a VLAN) on the native VLAN. In summary, the native VLAN observes and identifies traffic coming from each end of a trunk link. Management VLAN A management VLAN is any VLAN you configure to access the management capabilities of a switch.
Your configured management VLAN is to be assign with an IP address and subnet mask. Any of a switch VLAN could be configured as the management VLAN if you has not configured or define a unique VLAN to serve as the management VLAN. In some cases, a network administrator proactively defines VLAN 1 as the management VLAN; this enables a loophole for an unauthorized connection to a switch. Voice VLAN Voice VLAN is configured to carry voice traffic. Voice VLANs are mostly given transmission priority over other types of network traffic. Communication over the network is not complete without phone calls.
More calls are made over the network than other forms of a message transmission. Sending emails and text messages are also forms of inter-relations but listening to a real voice provides legitimacy and assurance. SOME EXAMPLE OF VLAN INTERNSHIP REPORT There I was design a network that are composed with 1 router ,2 switch ,6machine. 20 And each switch have 3 computer . one switch to three machine . on the network we have default vlan ,native vlan ,management vlan. Management vlan can control other machine on network. this network have the vlan and trunk . e have design it by using a outils that called packet tracer FIGURE 4: DESIGN OF A NETWORK Example of same machine i ping Machine ip 196. 168. 40. 105 are pinging a switch3 ip address 196. 168. 40. 106 INTERNSHIP REPORT 21 FIGURE 5 : Command Prompt INTERNSHIP REPORT 22 II. IV. 3. ROUTER PASSWORD RECOVERY 1. Connect the router to the PC using a console cable/port. 2. Open an emulation software (Hyper Terminal or Terra Term or Secure CRT, Putty) + setup (Com port and bits=9600, etc. ) 3. Switch on the router HOLDING DOWN CTRL + BREAK (keys) a. The router will boot and display the ROMMON prompt (Rommon;) 4.
Type the CONFREG command to view current status 5. Change the configuration register (this is a hexadecimal number that tells the IOS where to fetch the configuration file. 0x142 bypasses the NVRAM contents, 0x2102 gets the configuration file from the NVRAM) a. Rommon;confreg 0x142 b. Reset (reboot i. e. power-cycle the router) The router will boot in normal but asking for a new configuration. 6. Router; (after saying NO to the configuration wizard) 7. Go to privilege mode (enable) and copy the startup-config to the running-config (Router#copy startup-config running-config).
This will load the configuration with an unkown password back to RAM). 8. As you are already in privilege, the unkown password won’t prevent you from changing the configuration. You can now change the privilege password (LAB#config t ; LAB(config)#enable secret cisco). Also change the console and vty passwords. 9. Change the configuration register back to 0x2102 (LAB(config)# config-register 0x2102) then reload (in privilege mode). 10. Save your configuration. (LAB#copy running-config startup-config or write memory ~ wr) INTERNSHIP REPORT
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