Ifrs Adoption And Financial Comparability Accounting Essay

Globalization of fiscal markets has meant an increased focal point on international criterions in accounting and has intensified attempts towards a individual set of high quality, globally acceptable set of accounting criterions. Fiscal statements prepared in different states harmonizing to different set of regulations, mean legion national sets of criterions, each with its ain set of reading about a similar dealing, doing it hard to compare, analyse and interpret fiscal statements across states. A fiscal coverage system supported by strong administration, high quality criterions, and steadfast regulative model is the key to economic development. Indeed, sound fiscal coverage criterions underline the trust that investors place in fiscal coverage information and therefore play an of import function in lending to the economic development of a state. Needless to advert, internationally accepted accounting criterions play a major function in this full procedure.

An approaching economic system on universe economic map, India, excessively, decided to meet to International Financial Reporting Standards ( IFRS ) . With the acceptance of IFRS by Indian houses, the comparing of two fiscal statements becomes easier and besides expects to ensue in better quality of fiscal coverage due to consistent application of accounting rules and betterment in dependability of fiscal statements. Again, one of the major pre-requisites of acquiring listed on European markets is readying of histories as per IFRS demands. Meanwhile, the proposed convergence with IFRS is likely to make important challenges to the accounting patterns in industrial and fiscal sectors. While regulators, standard compositors and jurisprudence shapers sit together to rollout the route map for execution of International Financial Reporting Standards ( IFRS ) in India, a broad subdivision of the industry is already debating the impact and the execution challenges of transitioning into IFRS.A

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A singular and of import component of smooth passage into IFRS is the convergence of RBI guidelines with the rules laid down in IFRS.A In other words, the successful acceptance of IFRS is based on flexibleness and acceptableness of IFRS by RBI. Banks will hold to shortly set to accounting alterations that are enforced by IFRS.A It is by and large expected that IFRS acceptance worldwide will be good to investors and other users of fiscal statements, by cut downing the costs of comparing alternate investings and increasing the quality of information Companies are besides expected to profit, as investors will be more willing to supply funding. Companies that have high degrees of international activities are among the group that would profit from a switch to IFRS. Companies that are involved in foreign activities and puting benefit from the switch due to the increased comparison of a set accounting criterion.

Comparison in fiscal statements is critical for investors to pull sensible decisions about the comparative public presentation of entities. However for a assortment of grounds an entities fiscal statements may non be as comparable to its rivals as preparers or users would prefer in the close term. Another manner to heighten comparison is to see handling the fiscal statements non merely as an accounting exercising but besides an exercising in pass oning of import elements that in fact affect the year-to-year comparison of fiscal statement informations. Adoption of IFRS, the new planetary coverage criterions, would better comparison, transparence and credibleness of fiscal statements and in a globalised universe, would take to greater economic efficiencies.

Research suggests that cultural differences cause comptrollers in different states to construe and use accounting criterions otherwise. Translation of IFRS into assorted linguistic communications poses another menace to comparison. A It will be of import for transnational corporations and planetary audit houses to beef up cultural consciousness preparation. This could profit transnational corporations and their hearers by doing them cognizant of possible prejudices held by their international staff and by co-workers in their international offices, and by assisting professionals recognize their ain state ‘s cultural accounting inclinations and better understand how these values affect their ain readings and judgements.

Most significantly, the initial and on-going IFRS convergence will impact reported net worth, available capital and capital adequateness for Indian Bankss. Further, the finalised roadmap for the convergence of Indian Accounting Standards with IFRS, with regard to banking companies, requires all scheduled commercial Bankss to change over their opening balance sheets as of April 1, 2013. RBI has besides emphasised to Bankss that they need to pitch up to follow the new criterions. Therefore, there is ever a demand to hold an appraisal of the possible chances and challenges for Bankss in India while meeting to IFRS. Subsequent to the proclamation of the proposal by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India ( ICAI ) to meet the Indian accounting criterions ( Indian GAAP ) with IFRS effectual April 1, 2011, there has been important argument among the criterion compositors, regulators, corporate India and professional accounting houses, on the roadmap to convergence and its deductions.

2. Review of Literature

Since European Union was the first to follow IFRS across the Earth, most of the researches have been carried out on IFRS analysing the information from member states of EU. Research workers have given assorted sentiments on the public-service corporation of acceptance of IFRSs across the Earth as a individual set of coverage criterions. Existing literature supports this position of research workers that acceptance of IFRS as individual set of coverage criterions improves the quality of fiscal information and besides ensures timely loss acknowledgment. Summarily, following individual set of fiscal coverage criterions bring many benefits to describing entities, Investors, bankers and other interested parties as in this period of international boundaries acquiring eliminated, they will non hold to mention to describing statements prepared on the footing of different coverage criterions.

Harmonizing to Epstein & A ; Jermakowicz, ( 2010 ) IASBaˆYs Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements states that the nonsubjective usage of fiscal statements is to show the broad scope of users of these fiscal statements with information about the entityaˆYs fiscal place, public presentation and the alterations in fiscal place. This helps in better fiting the users with more suited economic determination devising. Elliott B. & A ; Elliott J. , ( 2002 ) explains that ab initio, regulated fiscal statements were needed on state degree in order to guarantee that all the companies present their fiscal statements in a similar and consistent manner.

But the gait with which globalisation is taking topographic point, the demand for internationally comparable fiscal studies were brought frontward. Therefore, in order to diminish the national differences and the differences in fiscal coverage, the international compositors and regulators, for illustration, Financial Accounting Standards Board ( FASB ) and International Accounting Standards Board ( IASB ) have issued accounting criterions such as Generally Accepted Accounting Standards ( GAAP ) and International Financial Reporting Standards ( IFRS ) , severally. Chorafas D. ( 2006 ) says that IFRS is considered by direction think-tanks as a stage displacement in the general accounting, balance sheet place ratings and fiscal coverage techniques.

Harmonizing to Drury and Tayles ( 1997 ) there is a demand for more in-depth instance survey to research the linkage between external fiscal coverage and direction accounting. This survey regards the IFRS ‘ acceptance as an chance to develop the overall planning systems of a company instead than a narrow coverage system. Fiscal accounting and direction accounting are seen as systems complimentary to each other. Gordon ( 2008 ) notes that the harmonisation of fiscal coverage, which has led to comparable accounting and fiscal information across states and companies, continues to back up and progress the concern itself. Harmonizing to Soderstrom and Sun ( 2007 ) the voluntary acceptance of high-quality accounting criterions -IFRS included- is found to hold a positive impact on accounting quality.

El-Gazzar et Al. ( 1999 ) province that houses adopt international criterions in order to spread out their gross revenues to foreign markets, to achieve more clients and to cut down political costs when spread outing activities into foreign markets. These companies see the benefits of using the IFRS transcending the costs of execution and in-usage. Meek and Thomas ( 2004 ) province that the coverage environment of a company besides affects the relevancy of fiscal coverage, non the accounting criterions entirely, i.e. the state in which the company operates may hold an impact on the relevancy of the information. It is argued, that even when using the International Financial Reporting Standards, the fiscal statement information may non be comparable among different states due to cultural differences ( Scott 2009 ) . Harmonizing to Ball ( 2006 ) companies may even confront a competitory disadvantage from an inefficient fiscal coverage theoretical account. Particularly, houses viing in planetary markets face turning force per unit area to use globally accepted fiscal coverage criterions.

Cai and Wong ( 2010 ) in their survey of planetary capital markets summarized that the capital markets of the states that have adopted IFRS have higher grade of integrating among them after their IFRS acceptance as compared to the period before the acceptance. Paananen and Lin ( 2009 ) gave a contrary position to prior research that IFRS acceptance ensures better quality of accounting information. Their analysis of German companies describing showed that accounting information quality has worsened with the acceptance of IFRS over clip. They besides suggested that this development is less likely to be driven by new adoptive parents of IFRS but is driven by the alterations of criterions. The survey carried out by Callao and others ( 2007 ) on fiscal informations of Spanish houses revealed that local comparison is adversely affected if both IFRS and local Accounting Standards are applied in the same state at the same clip. The survey, hence calls for an pressing convergence of local Accounting Standards with that of IFRS.

Therefore, based on the reappraisal it can be deduced that IFRS on fiscal instruments as being really complex, convergence with IFRS contributes to different subdivisions in the economic system viz. the investors, accounting professionals and the industry as a whole. As IFRS is in the infant phase there is demand for more specific surveies utilizing scientific methodological analysis so that the pros and cons of IFRS could be understood in a larger context.

3. Methods

The present survey is analytical in nature based on secondary informations collected from books, periodicals, commission studies and the Internet.

For Bankss in India, convergence to IFRS is likely to present important challenges, as shown by planetary experience. Certain big Indian Bankss, which have the benefit of traveling through the procedure of international GAAP such as US GAAP in the yesteryear, have recognised the challenges of convergence and have already started be aftering their elaborate roadmap to accomplish a smooth convergence. It is clip for other Bankss to take the cue and follow suit. Critical to the successful execution of IFRS in the Indian context would be the degree of regulative sponsorship, the appropriate degree of investing in systems and procedures and consistence in market patterns for countries where judgement is critical.

A move to IFRS can be compared to the mountain extremum which can surely be scaled if good planned and suitably executed. This is likely to hold a important impact on the fiscal place and fiscal public presentation, straight impacting cardinal parametric quantities such as capital adequateness ratios and the results of rating prosodies that analysts use to step and evaluate public presentation. In add-on to the fiscal accounting impact, the convergence procedure is likely to imply several alterations to fiscal describing systems and procedures adopted by Bankss in India. These alterations would necessitate to be planned, managed, tested and executed in progress of the execution day of the month. Despite the assorted hindrances to the proposed passage, until the clip IFRS is implemented, it would be worthwhile to measure its challenges and chances for the primary fiscal institutional apparatus in India, called Bankss.

4. Consequences

Opportunities for Banks in India

Indian Banks as an early adoptive parent to IFRS enables to better pull off the outlooks of internal stakeholders such as Board of Directors and senior direction, regulators and internal investors and analysts associating to the impact on net incomes and equity. Banking companies are required to bring forth better quality information in the notes to fiscal statements and are obliged to uncover information non required antecedently. Publicly posted fiscal information allows for unfastened and crystalline treatment with clients and providers, employees understand better the fiscal wellness and way of the banking company and better fiscal notes allow stakeholders to do more in depth analysis of the fiscal statement.

The commissariats of IAS 39-Financial instruments, acknowledgment and measurement- issued by the International Accounting Standards Board ( IASB ) , establishes the rules for acknowledging and mensurating fiscal assets and fiscal liabilities. This criterion is of peculiar importance to the Indian banking sector and NBFCs which deal chiefly in fiscal instruments. The same is being replaced as IFRS 9 in the convergence procedure. In Indian banking industry, the convergence of IFRS 9 is in three stages which will assist in cut downing complexnesss. The first stage was completed with the issue of the part of IFRS 9 which trades with the categorization and measuring of fiscal assets and fiscal liabilities. The 2nd and 3rd stages are in the country of hedge accounting and damage, where presently work is underway.

At present, as per RBI ‘s prudential norms, Bankss have to put in authorities securities and history such investings at ‘amortised cost ‘ . Under IFRS 9, these securities may hold to be accounted for on a ‘fair value ‘ footing, with the just value changes taken to the income statement. This will assist Indian Bankss to exhibit the income statement on a ‘fair value ‘basis. Under RBI norms, investings in equity instruments ( other than subordinates, joint ventures ) are recorded at market value. Net losingss are recognized but net additions are ignored. Under IFRS 9, investings in equity instruments are just valued. The additions or losingss are either recognized in the income statement or in a modesty history. This makes the statement more accurate. That pick is required to be made at the origin, on an instrument by instrument footing, and is irrevokable.

Training is a cardinal component of a successful convergence in the Indian banking sector. A workshop-based preparation demand to be provided to internal staff every bit good as high functionaries for more complex and specific facets of IFRS such as fiscal instruments or portion based compensation on income revenue enhancements, or different media such as web-enabled preparation to make a broader audience. Using an external adviser to all hard appraisals which are underestimated by internal staff will supply a great support during the existent transition procedure, doing the executing more successful. As the markets expand globally the demand for convergence additions. The convergence benefits the economic system by increasing growing of its International concern. It facilitates care of orderly and efficient capital markets and besides helps to increase the capital formation and thereby economic growing. It encourages international investment and thereby leads to more foreign capital flows to the state. Indian banking sector besides contributes to the economic growing through the convergence.

Investors want the information that is more relevant, dependable, seasonably and comparable across the legal powers. Fiscal statements prepared utilizing a common set of accounting criterions help investors better understand investing chances as opposed to fiscal statements prepared utilizing a different set of national accounting criterions. For better apprehension of fiscal statements, planetary investors have to incur more cost in footings of the clip and attempts to change over the fiscal statements so that they can confidently compare chances. Convergence with IFRS contributes to investors ‘ apprehension and assurance in high quality fiscal statements. The Indian banking industry is able to raise capital from foreign markets at lower cost if it can make assurance in the heads of foreign investors that their fiscal statements comply with globally accepted accounting criterions. With the diverseness in accounting criterions from state to state, endeavors which operate in different states face a battalion of accounting demands predominating in the states.

Convergence of accounting criterions simplifies the procedure of fixing the person and group fiscal statements and thereby reduces the costs of fixing the fiscal statements utilizing different sets of accounting criterions. Convergence with IFRS besides benefits the accounting professionals in Indian banking sector in a manner that they are able to sell their services as experts in different parts of the universe. The push of the motion towards convergence has come chiefly from comptrollers in public pattern. It offers them more chances in any portion of the universe if same accounting patterns prevail throughout the universe. They are able to cite IFRS to clients to give them endorsing for urging certain ways of coverage.

Challenges for Banks in India

The first challenge in execution of IFRS in banking sector in India is unity of informations and information. Most scheduled commercial Bankss in India have either already migrated or are in the procedure of migrating to Core Banking Solutions ( CBS ) . In this context, informations unity and information cogency would be of critical importance particularly due to informations intensive demands of IFRS converged criterions. Preparatory work in this respect would enable Bankss to counter a basic challenge in their attempt towards IFRS convergence. Keeping ‘Ethical Standards ‘ and values is a cardinal portion of fiscal coverage. Without a strong codification of moralss and attachment to those moralss, fiscal coverage would neglect to animate and guarantee public and investor assurance in entities. Therefore, along with high degrees of proficient competency, accounting professionals besides need to hold unquestionable and faultless professional unity. Keeping ethical criterions will be a great challenge for Indian Bankss.

The adaptability and compatibility of bing IT solutions used by Indian Bankss to the new demands imposed by IFRS convergence is besides a major challenge. Software which has been written maintaining in head Indian GAAP demands may hold to be modified well to integrate characteristics of IFRS demands. Similarly, compatibility between package and hardware would hold to be addressed to take attention of the new demand. The most of import factor which differentiates the successful and less successful transition undertakings is the presence and absence of undertaking direction sphere. A comprehensive preparation scheme and plan to human resource is a complex country and demands to be carefully considered. Failure to pass sufficient clip and energy on impact appraisal makes the transition more complex for Indian Bankss.

In add-on to the general accounting criterions, Indian banking companies are presently required to adhere to the accounting policies and rules prescribed by RBI, doing the transition a boring procedure. The replacing of IAS 39 by IFRS 9, will present important complexness and application challenges which will ensue in important volatility in income statement of Indian Bankss. Indian Banking companies are capable to regulative reappraisals and review and are besides capable to minimal capital demands. But IFRS requires increased usage of opinion and extended usage of unobservable rating inputs and premises which makes the regulative reappraisal procedure more explanatory and complex.

IFRS prescribes an impairment theoretical account that requires a instance to instance appraisal of facts environing the recoverability and timing of hard currency flows associating to recognition exposure. The bedrock of this impairment appraisal is the current guidelines of Indian Bankss, which requires a limited usage of judgement and are mechanistic in nature. Significantly different IFRS and GAAP in general lead Bankss in India to more cases of transportations neglecting the derecognition standards, thereby ensuing in big balance sheets, capital adequateness demands, lower return on assets, and recess of gains/losses on securitisation minutess.

5. Discussions

To reason, as an early adoptive parent to IFRS it is expected that Indian Bankss enable to better pull off the outlooks of all its interest holders in many ways. The replacing of IAS 39 as IFRS 9 in the convergence procedure, execution of IFRS 9 in a phased mode, rating of investings in equity instruments on just value footing, workshop-based preparation to internal staff for assorted facets of IFRS, etc will undeniably assist to run into their outlooks. Again, fiscal statements prepared utilizing globally accepted criterions enable Indian banking industry to raise capital from foreign markets at lower cost and besides help investors better understand investing chances globally. Though convergence with IFRS consequences some challenges viz. unity of informations and information, high degree of proficient competence and ethical criterions, amortisation accounting, frequent alterations in the policies of RBI etc, the challenges can non lessen its chances.