Last Updated 03 Mar 2020

Human Resource Practices in Sme Sector

Category Human
Essay type Research
Words 5787 (23 pages)
Views 826

EuroEconomica Issue 3(31)/2012 ISSN: 1582-8859 Human Resource Practices in SME Sector: An Exploratory Case Study of Pakistan Naveed R. Khan Faculty of Management and Economics Sciences, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900, Malaysia naveed. r. [email protected] com Mustafa Rehman Khan Faculty of Management Sciences, Institute of Business and Technology, 75190, Pakistan [email protected] com Abstract The role of human resource practices (HRP) at its significance in small and medium enterprises (SME) become an emerging topic, especially in developing countries.

This study aims to gauge the level of HR practice being exercise in SME. Quantitative approach has been followed and data was collected from 195 SMEs through a structure questionnaire. Findings suggested that SME are performing moderate level of HR practices and owner/managers are aware with the importance of HR practices in their organizations. Moreover, compensation is the most significant factor of HR practices followed by employee performance, recruitment and selection and training and development.

HR function has been substantially implemented and HR practices are being carried out in number of SME and is contributes at all phases of organization’s functions. The globalization and dynamic milieu is forcing the SME sector to switch informal functions to formal manner. However more coherent approach is required to replace the traditional way of practicing HR functions. This study validates the implementation of HR practices in SME as documented in the literature. It further provides a reference for academicians and practitioner to build upon a contention for future research. 7 7

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on

Human Resource Practices in Sme Sector

just from $13,9 / page

get custom paper

Keywords: recruitment and selection, training and development, employee performance, compensation. COUNTRY CASE STUDIES Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn. com/abstract=2155840 EuroEconomica Issue 3(31)/2012 1. Introduction In the era of globalization, business environment becomes highly dynamic with high risk and uncertainty. This uncertainty decreases market share and increases organizational inefficiency. As elsewhere, Pakistani SMEs too are affected by the recent global economic meltdown. Escalating inflation in Pakistan further compounded the situation for SME growth.

Human resource working in SME sector plays a vital role in economic growth without any space for their personal growth. It is therefore observed that retention is one of the major problems in small and medium size industries. Slightly better emoluments provide good reasons to an employee to switch over from one organization to another organization. Growth in salary in SME sector is far behind the growth in inflation which is a source of depression and made them less productive at their workplace (Khan, 2011). SMEs are identified as the leading employment generation sector, nation wide.

In context of the Karachi city which contributes 30% in manufacturing sector of Pakistan and 90% in Sindh’s GDP and around 20% of the total GDP of Pakistan. These figures indicate the potential and further growth in this sector further it prove the argument that SME sector shall plays pivotal role and have potential to grow. Moreover, extensive economics activities at sea ports and industrial zones increase the significance of Karachi city, hence is called the financial and business hub of Pakistan, providing millions of economic opportunities (Ghouri et al. 2011). This study has been conducted to measure the gap between philosophies and practices of HR practices. HR scholars have argued that SMEs are insignificantly practicing the HR function in Pakistan. It may be consider that the owner / managers are not able to utilize their human resource strategically and coherently. Perhaps this is due to the shortage of HR professional in SME sector. Further, fragile structure and substandard formalization intends management to ignore organization’s most valued assets, that is, 8 the workforce.

This ignorance causes the job dissatisfaction in employees and ultimately affects the organizational performance. However, employees perform the essential tasks within the organization, and organizational human resource systems are designed to support and manage this human capital. 7 This study aims to measure HR practices in SME operating in Karachi, Pakistan. The city is considered as the hub of commerce and financial activities of Pakistan. SMEs operating are having a mix of proper and casual setup.

The study is designed to measure the level of HR practices and identify the most significant HR practice among recruitment and selection, training and development, compensation and employee performance. Consistent with the discussion so far, this study seeks to answer the following questions. 1. What is the level of HR practices followed in the SME? 2. What is the most/least important practice of HR, among four facets, in SME? 1. 2 Brief Overview of Employment in Pakistan Over the years, Pakistan has substantially moved from agriculture economy to manufacturing economy.

Economically active size is the largest in the total population of the country. Human capital is enriched with diverse skills from unskilled labor to high-skilled critical mass. Pakistan’s urban growth rate is highest in South Asia. Estimated in 1980s, urban population growth rate was 4. 5% per annum and projected to 60% by the turn of the century. That proved true. Karachi’s urban economy and its employment pool is the glaring example of this. Its formal and informal sectors provide greater employment potential and are in a position to use human capital efficiently (Khan et al. , 2011).

ISSN: 1582-8859 COUNTRY CASE STUDIES Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn. com/abstract=2155840 EuroEconomica Issue 3(31)/2012 ISSN: 1582-8859 At present, SMEs are recognized as the backbone of the country’s economy by representing nearly 90% of all the enterprises in Pakistan. SMEs form a significant portion of the manufacturing and services sector. According to the Lahore Chamber of Commerce & Industry’s report (2010) the labor force today is divided in agriculture 43%, manufacturing 13%, construction 7%, transport 6%, and services 14% and the other head carrying the rest of the burden.

The total workforce in Pakistan is 102. 7 million; out of which 55. 77 million people are employed in 2010 with $2400 per capita income; this labor force will increase to 154. 4 million by 2030 with the growth rate of 2. 05. However, 15. 2% unemployment rate was recoded in 2010. SMEs provide 80% employment of the non-agricultural labor force. In Pakistan small and medium enterprises offer diverse employment and production and share 40% in annual GDP of Pakistan (Khan, 2011). 2. Literature Review Pakistan’s SMEs sector is very different from SMEs working in industrialized world.

Here, small and medium size businesses are usually not documented mostly with purpose. Pakistan has also a unique culture of not sharing information with others. Freedom of public information is only on paper. Businesses profiles are not uploaded on the website and it is even so difficult for field researchers to collect basic information through interviews. Limited academic studies are conducted so far on HR practices in Pakistan’s SME environment. This study thus dependent on earlier researches conducted in environment other than Pakistan for conceptual understanding and theory development.

Selected literature is reviewed for this study whose results are generalizable to any other environment. Basically, employees perform the essential tasks within the organization, and organizational human resource systems are designed to support and manage this human capital (Gramm and Schnell, 2001). HRM philosophy emphasizes on the benefits of meeting employee needs and enables them to have control over their work, moreover, satisfied workers willing to improve their efficiency, effectiveness and productivity to get the work done.

The extensive use of high-involvement work practices represents a significant investment in human 7 capital. Basic microeconomics suggests that investments in human capital (employees) are justified when such investments are more than offset by future returns in the form of increased productivity. Thus, firms will make greater use of such practices when employees are viewed as particularly vital to firm success (MacDuffie, 1995). By adopting effective HR practices firms can acquire not only new skills and knowledge and change the attitudes of their employees but also improve their organizational performance.

Through effective HR practices firm can get rid of traditional ineffective and inefficient practices which in turn enable the firm to maximize the achievement of its objectives (Delery and Doty, 1996). Armstrong (2006) defines human resource management (HRM) as the strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization's most valued assets - the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of the objectives of the business.

Findings from previous studies indicated that increased concern for HR practices among firms resulted from the need to develop HR as a source of competitive advantage (Walker, 2001; Wright et al. , 2001; Wright and Snell, 1991). In relation with the SMEs recent studies acknowledged the relevance and applicability of HR practices in small and medium scale firms (Nankervis et al. , 2002; Singh and Vohra, 2005; Chang and Huang, 2005; Schlogl, 2004) SMEs who successfully integrate their HR system with their vision and organizational objectives, are achieve their goals in a more organized manner (Singh and Vohra, 2005).

Hence it would build-up more 9 COUNTRY CASE STUDIES Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn. com/abstract=2155840 EuroEconomica Issue 3(31)/2012 ISSN: 1582-8859 comprehensive business strategy to retain the position in the industry. According to Chang and Huang (2005) human resources are viewed as a strategic asset that creates value when embedded in the operational system in a manner that can enhance firm’s abilities to deal with a turbulent environment. Sevral studies indicated that to improve organizational performance and develop a competitive advantage, firms need to implement an ffective HR practice system (Zheng et al. , 2006; Osman et al. , 2011; Katou, 2012). Studies on HR practices indicated that HR theories and models are assumed that they are applicable to all types of organizations regardless of their type, sizes and nature of human resource practice functions (Arthur, 1994; MacDuffie, 1995; Huselid, 1995; Youndt et al. , 1996). However, Nankervis et al. (2002) study findings suggested that previous empirical evidences are still not able to provide enough evidence to suggest that HR practices works for all kinds of organizations.

Traditional literature on human resource practices identified four general categories, which include: Staffing, training, evaluation and compensation (Dessler, 2008; Mathis and Jackson, 2008; Fisher et al. , 2006). In few cases, these categories are aggregated in a slightly different manner, and certainly there is overlap and interrelationship among them (Shub and Stonebraker, 2009). Shub and Stonebraker (2009) define these categories as: Staffing generally involves the human resource activities of planning, job analysis and design, recruitment and selection.

Training generally involves the HR activities of employee training, organization development and career development. Evaluation generally involves HR activities of various evaluation designs, both formal and informal, and different evaluation periodicities. Lastly, Compensation generally involves the HR activities of base wage or salary system, incentive system and perks, as well as benefits. Generally, the relationship-based approaches to staffing, training, evaluation, and compensation are shown in the literature to be directly associated with firm performance (Huselid, 1995; Osman et al. 2011; Ngo et al. , 1998) 2. 1 Human Resource Management and its Measurability Stone (2005) defined human resource management as it involves the productive use of people in 7 achieving the organization’s strategic business objectives and the satisfaction of individual employees need. This definition clearly indicates that the organizations’ objectives are dependent on their work force productivity. Moreover, work task, work environment, freedom in work, opportunities provided and the benefits are provides are few of the most important needs a worker may perceive.

The effective HRM practices are able to link these practices with organization structure and objectives. Many studies investigating human resource management practices have looked primarily into an organizational structure construct. To accurately measure “human resource practices”, a number of HR functions may need to be evaluated. However, these characteristics or facets may not be of equal importance to every organization. One of the most comprehensive and widely used measures for human resource practice is presented by Dessler (2008) and Fisher et al. 2006). In this study human resource management practices is characterized as multidimensional, and it has four major facets namely i) recruitment and selection, ii) training and development , iii) compensation, iv) employee performance evaluation. 2. 1. 1 Practice of Recruitment and Selection Recruitment and selection is the first facet of human resource practice, which involves planning, forecasting, and job analysis for the future demand of employees according to the need and demand of the firm.

Moreover, various tools and techniques have been used by the firms for the improvement of staffing process to avoid the loss in terms of time, money and potential employees. 2. 1. 2 Practice of Training 10 COUNTRY CASE STUDIES EuroEconomica Issue 3(31)/2012 ISSN: 1582-8859 Training is another dimension of human resource practice where firms invested on the development of their employees’ knowledge, skills ability and other on-job required skills to improve the productivity of employees.

Training can transform human resource to human capital where skilled employee would better perform in the success of organization as compare the employees who can get training lesser or never. 2. 1. 3 Practice of Compensation Compensation is one of the most extrinsic practices of human resource function in an organization setting. This dimension determines the level of job of an employee on the basis of their perceived knowledge and experience.

Moreover, the matching of their job knowledge with the pay or compensation provided them must demonstrate the market level competitive packages. Good compensation plan would therefore, inevitably influence on employees’ performance. However, the extent to which an employee who is getting the good compensation package will perform well would also depend on his/her overall assessment of various factors like the compensation package in other organizations in relation to the work load and the possibility of getting better compensation packages (Purani and Sahadev, 2008). . 1. 4 Practice of Evaluation This aspect of human resource practices generally involves the activities of various evaluation designs, both formal and informal, and different evaluation periodicities (Shub and Stonebraker, 2009). It is a means of getting better results by understanding and managing performance within an agreed framework of planned goals, standards and competency requirements. It functions as a continuous and evolutionary process, in which performance improves over time.

Moreover, it provides the basis for regular and frequent dialogues between managers and individuals about performance and development needs (Armstrong, 2006). 3. Research Methodology The study comprises on a quantitative survey of 195 SMEs. The data was collected from the companies operating in Karachi through a self-administered questionnaire. The study covered manufacturing and 7 service sectors SMEs. In the study, SME referred to the firms employed between 10 to 250 employees, this definition have been adopted from the SME policy 2007 and SMEDA.

The SME were identified and randomly selected from the listing of Korangi Association of Trade and Industry (KATI) and Jamal’s Yellow Pages. The questionnaire was adopted from Chew (2004) and modified according to the nature and objectives of the study and tested for reliability, prior to data collection. The questionnaire used in this study consisted of three sections. Section one focused on collecting background information of the respondents. Section two captured the characteristics of the firm and last section obtained the information concerning the HR practices adopted by the firm.

To examine the hypotheses of the study, descriptive statistics analysis were performed using SPSS 17. The sample size for this study was 300 however only 195 questionnaires, with response rate of 65%, were found acceptable for analysis. 3. 1 Reliability Testing To measure the reliability of the instruments used, Cronbach’s alpha was employed. According to Sekaran (2005), if the alpha value is greater then 0. 7, the instrument is acceptable. The internal consistency reliability coefficients (Cronbach’s alpha) for the scales used in this study are well above the level of 0. , thus are acceptable for the analysis purpose. In Table 3. 1, alpha scores of all variables with complete response of 195 SMEs are given. 11 COUNTRY CASE STUDIES EuroEconomica Issue 3(31)/2012 Table – 1: Reliability Coefficients of the Constructs (n = 195) Constructs Recruitment and selection Training and development Compensation Employee performance No. of Items 4 6 6 5 Cronbach’s Alpha . 750 . 792 . 845 . 824 ISSN: 1582-8859 4. Research Findings 4. 1 Characteristics of the Respondents The characteristics of the respondents are presented in the following table.

Table – 2: Characteristics of the Respondents (n = 195) Variable(s) Gender Male Female Age 20-25 yrs 26-30 yrs 31-35 yrs 36-40 yrs 41-45 yrs 46-50 yrs Over 50 Education Intermediate Bachelors Masters MS/M. Phil PhD Other Total Frequency 167 28 %age 85. 6 14. 4 Variable(s) Marital Status Married Unmarried No response Position in Firm Owner but not manager Owner and manager Manager but not owner No Response Frequency 130 64 1 %age 66. 7 32. 8 0. 5 29 48 40 32 16 21 9 3 77 103 7 0 5 195 14. 9 24. 6 20. 5 16. 4 8. 2 10. 8 4. 6 1. 5 39. 5 52. 8 3. 6 0 2. 6 100. 14 108 70 3 7. 2 55. 4 35. 9 1. 5 12 7 Work Experience 1 - 4 Years 5 – 7 Years 8 – 10 11 – 13 14 – 16 ; 17 Total 42 37 45 20 19 32 195 21. 5 19 23 10. 2 9. 7 16. 4 100. 0 As shown in the table 2, statistics of the respondents clearly and logically depict the picture of their characteristics. In total of 195 respondents 167 were males and 28 were females. Likewise 130 respondents were married and 64 were unmarried. The age and years of work experience among the respondents ranged from 20 to more than 50 years and one to more than 17 years respectively.

In terms of education 3 respondents obtained intermediate certificate, 77 obtained bachelor’s degrees, 103 have master’s degree and 7 have MS/M. Phil degree, however none of the respondent has a PhD. COUNTRY CASE STUDIES EuroEconomica Issue 3(31)/2012 ISSN: 1582-8859 The in-depth analysis of statistics highlighted some interesting facts of the respondents. The Female owner/manager represented the 14. 4 % of total respondents which show significant contribution of females in the total workforce, however, this proportion need to be increase at substantial level.

Moreover, sixty percent respondents’ age ranged from 20 to 35 years, it shows that young entrepreneurs/managers are coming into the industries with new passion for growth. Likewise 52. 8 percent respondents have a Master’s degree. This combination of ‘young age’ along with ‘education’ shall change the mind-set of traditional business practices and may bring new innovative ideas and measures which shall boost the SME sector in near future. 4. 2 Characteristics of the Firm The characteristics of the firm are summarize in Table 3.

These characteristics depict the picture of the firm’s form of business, number of employees working, age of the firm and type of business. Table – 3: Characteristics of the Firm (n = 195) Variable(s) Form of Business Solo proprietor Partnership Private limited Age of Company 3-5 years 6-8 years 9-11 years 12-14 years ; 14 years Total Frequency 24 74 97 23 15 42 51 64 195 %age 12 38 50 11. 7 7. 6 21. 5 26 32. 8 100. 0 Variable(s) No of Employees 10 to 50 51-100 101-150 151-200 201 – 250 Type of Business Manufacturing Services Total Frequency %age 45 16 26 73 35 89 106 195 23. 8. 2 13. 3 37. 4 17. 9 45. 6 54. 4 100. 0 13 7 The in-depth statistical analysis shows that fifty percent SME are the private limited firms and 32. 8 % firms are operating since more than 14 years. Likewise, 37. 4 % SME employed the workers range from 151 to 200. Lastly, 54. 4 % SME are fall under the category of services firms. 4. 3 Distribution of firm by Business sector The SME, participated in this study, represented various business sectors in the manufacturing and services industry. The distribution of the sample firms by type of business sector is presented in table 4.

Table – 4: Characteristics of the Firm (n = 195) Variable(s) Business Sectors Financial Institution Engineering/Construction Energy/Petroleum Frequency 18 23 5 %age 9. 2 11. 8 2. 6 COUNTRY CASE STUDIES EuroEconomica Issue 3(31)/2012 Chemical/Pharmaceutical Education Textile Telecommunication Logistics Others Total 18 15 19 18 17 62 195 9. 2 7. 7 9. 7 9. 2 8. 7 31. 8 100. 0 ISSN: 1582-8859 The statistics indicated that eight different business sector firms were participated in this study. Most of the firms are from Engineering/Construction business sector which comprises of 11. % of the firms participated in the study. Energy/Petroleum business sector have the least presentation in the sample which comprises of only 2. 6%. However, the ‘others’ head carrying the rest of the burden comprises of 31. 8%. 4. 4 Human Resource Practices The mean and standard deviation scores of HR practices variables which include recruitment and selection, training and development, compensation and employee performance are recorded, from the firms, are presented in table 5. The results depict that the mean scores of HR practices ranged from 3. 352 to 3. 83. Hence, at the general level, results suggest that the SME in the study practiced the HR function, to a certain extent. Furthermore, recruitment and selection is moderately practiced in the organization (mean = 3. 49, SD = 1. 10) along with training and development (mean = 3. 35, SD = 1. 081), compensation (mean = 3. 68, SD = . 975), and employee performance (mean = 3. 69, SD = 1. 34). Table – 5: Descriptive Statistics of Variables (n = 195) Items Recruitment and selection Training and development Compensation Employee performance Overall HRM Practices 4. . 1 Recruitment and selection Table 6 highlights the descriptive statistics for each item. Out of the four items of selection, “only the best people are hired to work in this organization” (mean = 3. 74, SD = 1. 07) followed by “the values and beliefs of this organization are discussed in interviews with potential employees” showed the second highest mean value of 3. 69 (SD = 1. 054), followed by, “when new employees are hired, they must go through an extensive hiring process in which they are interviewed a number of times” (mean = 3. 44, SD =1. 53), and “employees of this organization are involved in the hiring of their peers” (mean 3. 11, SD = 1. 152). In general, the SMEs appeared to have moderate level selection practices in their organization. Table – 6: Descriptive Results of recruitment and selection (n=195) Mean 3. 497 3. 352 3. 683 3. 682 3. 553 Standard (SD) 1. 10 1. 081 . 975 1. 349 1. 126 Deviation 14 7 COUNTRY CASE STUDIES EuroEconomica Issue 3(31)/2012 Items Only the best people are hired to work in this organization. The values and beliefs of this organization are discussed in interviews with potential employees.

When new employees are hired, they must go through an extensive hiring process in which they are interviewed a number of times. Employees of this organization are involved in the hiring of their peers. Total Mean (Selection) 4. 4. 2 Training and development Table 7 highlights the descriptive statistics for each item. Out of the six items, “people are properly oriented and trained upon joining this organization” showed the highest level of training practice (mean = 3. 67, SD =1. 042), followed by “the company provides enough training for the employees to learn new ways to do their job” (mean = 3. 9, SD = 1. 037). “This organization does provide regular opportunities for personal and career development” (mean = 3. 43, SD = 1. 045). “Training provided by the firm often consists of both classrooms teachings and On-Job-Training (OJT)” (mean = 3. 27, SD = 1. 168); “This organization subsidizes, assists or reimburses employees for training they get outside the organization”, mean = 3. 22, SD = 1. 097). However, “employees in this organization receive additional compensation” have the lowest level of practice in the variety of activities (mean = 2. 0, SD =1. 099). Table – 7: Descriptive results of Training and development (n = 195) Items People are properly oriented and trained upon joining this organization. This organization does provide regular opportunities for personal and career development This organization subsidizes, assists or reimburses employees for training they get outside the organization Employees in this organization receive additional compensation Training provided by the firm often consists of both classrooms teachings and On-Job-Training (OJT). The ompany provides enough training for the employees to learn new ways to do their job Total Mean (Training) 4. 4. 3 Compensation Out of the six items in table 8, “Employees are given positive recognition when they produce high quality work” showed the highest level of compensation practice (mean = 3. 89, SD =. 965), followed by “This organization pays well” and “This organization offers good opportunities for promotion” (mean = 3. 723, Mean 3. 6769 3. 4359 3. 2205 2. 9077 3. 2769 3. 5949 3. 352 SD 1. 04202 1. 04524 1. 09713 1. 09906 1. 16885 1. 3793 1. 081 Mean 3. 6923 3. 7436 3. 1128 3. 4410 3. 497 ISSN: 1582-8859 SD 1. 05405 1. 07737 1. 15213 1. 15337 1. 10 15 7 COUNTRY CASE STUDIES EuroEconomica Issue 3(31)/2012 ISSN: 1582-8859 SD = . 927) and (mean = 3. 723, SD = 1. 018) respectively. “The way in which employees in this organization are compensated” (mean = 3. 65, SD = . 920). “This organization values individual excellence over teamwork” (mean = 3. 61, SD = 1. 015); “This organization offers a good benefits package compared to other organizations”, mean = 3. 49, SD = 1. 007).

Table – 8: Descriptive Results of Compensation (n = 195) Items This organization pays well The way in which employees in this organization are compensated This organization offers a good benefits package compared to other organizations This organization values individual excellence over teamwork Employees are given positive recognition when they produce high quality work This organization offers good opportunities for promotion Total Mean (Compensation) 4. 4. 4 Employee performance SMEs are highly intended to let its employees know, how they are performing (mean = 4. 08, SD = 2. 98).

Table 9 the descriptive statistics is highlighted for each item. The measurement of an employee's performance on the job is a priority in this organization receives the 2 nd highest mean value (mean = 3. 77, 16 SD = . 895), followed by the measurement of turnover and absenteeism is a priority in this organization” and “when evaluating the employees for promotion, seniority is one of the criteria taken into account” (mean = 3. 517, SD = . 937) and (mean = 3. 517, SD = . 970) respectively. However, “this organization 7 makes a point of keeping track of factors that it considers critical for success” receive the lowest mean value (mean = 3. 0, SD =. 959). Table – 9: Descriptive Results of Employee performance (n = 195) Items The measurement of an employee's performance on the job is a priority in this organization. This organization makes a point of keeping track of factors that it considers critical for success. The measurement of turnover and absenteeism is a priority in this Organization When evaluating the employees for promotion, seniority is one of the criteria taken into account Does your company lets its employees know how they are performing Total Mean (Evaluation) Mean 3. 7795 3. 5077 3. 5179 3. 5179 4. 0872 3. 682 SD . 89534 . 95986 . 3799 . 97041 2. 98408 1. 349 Mean 3. 7231 3. 6513 3. 4974 3. 6154 3. 8923 3. 7231 3. 683 SD . 92793 . 92024 1. 00706 1. 01574 . 96522 1. 01800 . 975 COUNTRY CASE STUDIES EuroEconomica Issue 3(31)/2012 5. Discussion and Conclusion Small and medium enterprises may have a significant contribution in the economic growth of a country. The swift progress in entrepreneurial set-ups depicts healthy business activities. The findings of this study measure the level of HR practices in SME. The mean score of overall HR practices reported at 3. 553 indicated a moderate level of HR practices, followed in the firms.

The adequate level of HR practices is an indication that the SMEs, participated in the study, are involved in implementing and practicing HR activities in their organizations. However, sophistication HR practices bring ample opportunities to gain competitive advantage in the market in terms of HR outcomes i. e. employee retention, satisfaction, competencies and commitment. This increase in HR outcomes may significantly affect the SME performance. Hence HR practices should consider as the source of sustain competitive advantage and owner / manager should therefore put the HR agenda in central to any strategy.

Human resources are consider as the activators of all non-human resources and are means for developing competitive advantages in the market place (Stone, 2005). Compensation practice of employees has a significant role followed by employee performance. These are considered as the key factors in managing HR in SME. Hence are practices in a comprehensive manner. However recruitment and selection and training and development practices are still need the attention and would like to practice in a more sophisticated manner.

Especially, training and development, since, trained and motivated employees and managers contribute effectively under these practices. Moreover, scant attention is being paid to new HR practices to manage knowledge and its effective use (Taha, 2006). Efficient HR practices in a SME may bridge the information gap and improve the organizational performance. Moreover, HR practices framework in SMEs requires a collective approach to practices HR functions working as a set or “bundle” rather than independently (Delery, 1998). SMEs owners and managers should broaden the scope of HR practices.

It will increase the retention rate of employee, enhance the competencies and commitment in work force and levitate the level of 7 satisfaction among employees. This shift in-turn enhances the organizational performance in terms of quality, productivity and market share. Successful HR system also helps to integrate the other organizational functions in lesser time. This integration will open long term investment opportunities through organizational strategy. Finally, appropriate strategies at national level may enable the SME sector to boost the national economy. Acknowledgement: I would like to acknowledge Dr.

Mashhood Ahmad Khan and Dr. S. M. Taha for providing guidance in initializing this study and insightful comments at different stages of this research. ISSN: 1582-8859 17 COUNTRY CASE STUDIES EuroEconomica Issue 3(31)/2012 ISSN: 1582-8859 References Arthur, J. (1994). Effects of human resource systems on manufacturing performance and turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 37(3): 670-87. Armstrong, M. (2006). A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, 10th ed. , London: Kogan Page As’ad, I. , Ahmad, F. , Sentosa, I. (2012). An Empirical Study of E-Commerce Implementation among SME in Indonesia.

International Journal of Independent Research Studies, 1(1): 13-22. Chang, W. A. and Huang, T. C. (2005). Relationship between strategic human resource management and firm performance, International Journal of Manpower, 26(5): 434-449. Delery, J. E. (1998). Issues of fit in strategic human resource management: implications for research. Human Resource Management Review, 8(1): 289-309. Dessler, G. (2008). Human Resource Management, 11th ed. , NJ: Pearson Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River Fisher, C. D. Schoenfeldt, L. F. and Shaw, J. B. (2006). Human Resource Management, 6th ed. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Ghouri, Arsalan. M. , Khan, Naveed. R. , Malik, Muhammad. A. , and Razzaq, Ambreen. , (2011), Marketing Practices and Their Effects on Firm’s Performance: Findings from Small and Medium Sized Catering and Restaurants in Karachi, International Journal of Business and Management, 6(5) Gramm, C. L. and Schnell, J. F (2001). The Use of Flexible staffing arrangements in core production jobs. Industrial and Labor Relations Review. 54(2): 245-251 Huselid, M. A. (1995). The impact of human resource management practice on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance.

Academy of Management Journal, 38: 63518 672 Katou, A. A. (2012). Investigating reverse causality between human resource management policies and organizational performance in small firms. Management Research Review, 35(2): 134-156. Khan, Naveed. R. , (2011) HRM Significance and SME Sector, Business Recorder (DOR April 11, 2011) 7 http://www. brecorder. com/component/news/single/626:news. html? id=1176724 Khan, N. R. , Taha, S. M. , Ghouri, A. M. (2011). Bridging the Gap through E-Recruitment: Evidences from Employment Sector in Karachi. Indian Journal of Commerce and Management, 2(6): in press.

MacDuffie, J. (1995). Human resource bundles and manufacturing performance: organizational logic and flexible production systems in the world auto industry. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 48: 197-221. Mathis, R. L. and Jackson, J. H. (2008). Human Resource Management, 12th ed. , Mason, OH: Cengage Learning/South-Western Publishing. Nankervis, A. Compton, R. , & Savery, L. (2002). Strategic HRM in small and medium enterprise: A CEO’s perspective? Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 40(2): 260-273 Ngo, H. Y. , Turban, D. , Lau, C. M. , and Lai, S. Y. (1998).

Human Resource Practices and Firm Performance of Multinational Corporation: Influence of Country of Origin. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 9(4): 632–52. Nugroho, M. A. (2012). Correlations of Attitude to Avoid Sharing Risk and Trust with Informal Knowledge Sharing. International Journal of Economics Business and Management Studies, 1(3), 86-95. Osman, I. , Ho, T. C. F. , and Galang, M. C. (2011). The relationship between human resource practices and COUNTRY CASE STUDIES EuroEconomica Issue 3(31)/2012 ISSN: 1582-8859 firm performance: an empirical assessment of firms in Malaysia. Business Strategy Series, 12(1), 41-48.

Purani, K. and Sahadev, S. (2008). The moderating role of industrial experience in the job satisfaction, intention to leave relationship: an empirical study among salesmen in India. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 23(7): 475-485. Schlogl, H. (2004). Small and medium enterprises: seizing the potential. Observer, 243: 46-8. Sekaran, Uma. (2005). Research Methods for Business: A Skill Building Approach, 1st ed, John Wiley & Sons. Singh, M. , and Vohra, N. (2005). Strategic human resource management in small enterprises. Journal of Entrepreneurship, 14(1): 59-70. Shub, A. N. and Stonebraker, P. W. (2009).

The Human Impact on Supply Chains: Evaluating the Importance of “Soft” Areas on Integration and Performance, Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 14(1): 31-40. Stone, R. J. (2005). Human Resource Management, 5th ed. , Australia: John Wiley & Sons. Taha, S. M. (2006). Knowledge Entrepreneurship: A New Paradigm for Organizational Performance. Business Review, 1(1): 96-105 Walker, J. W. (2001). Perspectives Human Resource Planning. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(2): 6-10. Wright, P. M. , McMahan, G. C. (2001). Theoretical perspective for Strategic Human Resource Management.

Journal of Management, 18(2): 295? 320. Wright, P. M. , & Snell, S. A. (1991). Toward an integrative view of strategic human resource management. Human Resource Management Review, 1 (3): 203–225. Youndt, M. A. , Snell, S. A. , Dean, J. W. , and Lepak, D. P. (1996). Human resource management, manufacturing strategy, and firm performance. Academy of Management Journal, 39: 836-65. Zheng, C. , Morrison, M. , Neill, G. O’. (2006). An empirical study of high performance HRM practices in Chinese SMEs. International Journal of Human Resource Management. 17(10): 1772-1803. 19 7 COUNTRY CASE STUDIES

Remember. This is just a sample.
You can get your custom paper from our expert writers

get custom paper

Cite this page

Human Resource Practices in Sme Sector. (2017, Jan 03). Retrieved from https://phdessay.com/human-resource-practices-in-sme-sector-an-exploratory-case-study-of-pakistan/

Not Finding What You Need?

Search for essay samples now

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy

Your Deadline is Too Short?  Let Professional Writer Help You

Get Help From Writers