Department of Global Political Studies One-Year Master In Global Political Science (Human Rights Track) Spring 2010 Supervisor: Erika Svedberg Assistant Professor Malmo University, Sweden Honour killings in Pakistan under Theoretical, Legal and Religious Perspectives An Analytical Study of Honour killings Abuse and Disconnecting Islam from This Ancient Brutal Tradition Author MUHAMMAD ZIA ULLAH MASTER THESIS SUBMITTED, 27-05-2010 Malmo University Malmo, Sweden Abstract This research sets out to examine the main excuses, often mentioned in connection to the so-called “honour killings” in Pakistan.
In this way, the aim is to discuss the idea of “honour killings” by looking at trends and patterns in this kind of homicides in Pakistan. This study also explores what legal and judicial obstacles stand in the way of putting an end to the abuse of killing women in the name of honour. The first part is mainly theoretical and analytical. In this part a set of concepts is theorized as the notion of patriarchy, public/private division and cultural globalization. These theories test the empirical data of “honour killing” in the last decade and try to find their role in the society of Pakistan.
This study also analyzes the “honour killing” cases in a different way by telling stories. Second part contributes to the research regarding Islam the official religion of Pakistan. This section mainly concerns the status of women in Islam and their rights of life and free will to choose their spouses. This study also tries to remove the misconception in the minds of the West regarding Islamic teachings towards women. This study proceeds mainly under the qualitative method with the supplementary help of quantitative method.
At the end, the thesis bears some finding under the abductive technique. The results show that the tested theories have a significant role in upholding the ancient practice of “honour killings” in Pakistan, and Qur’aanic and Prophetic Islam has no link with the abuse of “honour killing” in general. It is ancient tribal phenomena that have entered in some cultural norms of the society. Key Words: Honour killings, Pakistan, Islam, family, Women, Patriarchy, Public/Private Division, Excuses, Reasons, Cultural Globalization, Laws, Tribal, Customs, Traditions. ~I~ ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First of all I thank to Almighty Allah, who gave men and women equal rights and to His beloved Prophet Muhammad Peace Be Upon Him, whose teachings gave me the strength to complete my thesis I am whole heartedly grateful to my supervisor, Erika Svedberg, who’s assistance, encouragement and support in shape of useful comments on my thesis drafts work from the initial to the final stage enabled me to develop my understanding of the subject in an analytical way. Lastly, I offer my kind regards and blessings to all of those who helped me to make this research possible such as my Family, who gave me the moral support to complete my thesis. II ~ Abbreviations AHRC…………………………. Asian Human Rights Commission ALRC…………………………. Asian Legal Resource Centre CEDAW…………………………… Convention On the Elimination of All Kinds of Discrimination Against Women HRCP…………………………….. Human Rights Commission Pakistan PPC……………………………. Pakistan Penal Code U. S…………………………….. United States [of America] ~ III ~ Table of Contents 1-Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1 1. -Background ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2 1. 2-Purpose of Paper and Statement of the Problem ………………………………………………………………. 4 2-Case Study Design ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5 2. 1-Qualitative Research Method …………………………………………………………………………………………. 5 2. -Quantitative Research……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6 2. 3-Advantages and Disadvantages of the Methods ……………………………………………………………….. 6 2. 4-Data Collection ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7 2. 4. 1-Documents …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7 2. -Deductive, Inductive and Abductive approaches ………………………………………………………………. 7 2. 6-Reliability and Validity ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8 2. 7-Delimitations ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8 3-Theoretical Perspectives ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3. 1-Notion of Patriarchy ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9 3. 2-Public/Private Division …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10 3. 3-Cultural Globalization or Westernization…………………………………………………………………………
They have the right to marry or not to marry, to have children or not to have children. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage and its dissolution under many international human rights conventions. As sketched in Universal Declaration of Human Rights1948 ”Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status” (Ian, et al. , 2006: 23).
CEDAW 1979 also concludes many things regarding women rights in its article 16, which states ”States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in all matters relating to marriage and family relations and in particular shall ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women:” Here it elaborates in some sub sections as ”The same right to enter into marriage”, “ The same right freely to choose a spouse and to enter into marriage only with their free and full consent;”, “ The same rights and responsibilities during marriage and at its dissolution;” (Ibid 294).
In other words, marriage would be entered into only under the free and full consent of the attending or concerning spouses. However contrary to these Human Rights Conventions; women are still killed by their own family members for the sake of so called “Honour”. It is a global phenomenon today and can be observed in a number of countries such as Jordan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Brazil, Egypt, Palestine, Iraq, Morocco, Turkey, India and Pakistan. It also occurs throughout Europe and the U. S as well (Vitoshka 2010). ~2~
Amnesty International defines “honour killing” as a crime which is committed by male family members against a female relative, when the family believes that she has brought shame on her family and disregarded their honour. In many areas of the world, family honour is considered as a “social behavioural code imposed on women for the purpose of enforcing their inferiority and preserving male supremacy” (Smartt, 2006: 4). Honour crimes are generally committed, when women have chosen (or about to chose) her own decisions in a so-called “Western” style against the obedience of their family elders and choose her life partner.
According to the United Nations Population Fund 5000 women are killed by the name of honour in each year throughout the world (Ibid). 1. 1-Background Pakistani Women face all kinds of domestic violence and abuse at the hands of male perpetuators’ family members and community, even today women are mutilated, beaten and murdered in ritual “honour killings” (Jehanzeb 2004). It is estimated that one fifth of the “honour killings” in this world are committed in Pakistan. Almost 1000 women are killed in the name of honour every year.
Pakistan has a population of 170 million and about three women are killed each day for the sake of so-called honour restoration. In the society of Pakistan honour is a multidimensional term that has to do with the respect of family and social prestige. Losing honour by the female member brings disgrace and shame. Many acts are considered shameful, but nothing is more important than female chastity. “In honourbound societies, female chastity represents the family’s symbolic capital”. To defend and restore it, the offender female must be killed, in this society.
This honour killing “redeems family honour and resurrects its prestige” (Knudsen, 2004: 2, 4). Millions of women’s lives in Pakistan have been circumscribed by culture and traditions, enforcing extreme submission to father, brother, husband and any other male relative, Although under the exposure of media, the work of women’s rights groups and the greater degree of mobility can be seen for women’s rights awareness in Pakistan yet they often face more repression and violent punishment and death. The trend is that killings are on the rise at the same time as there is parallel increase of awareness of women rights.
Officers of the state are indifferent to these crimes. The country’s police force, the legal system and the community have ensured leniency for perpetuators of “honour killings” under the cultural and traditional excuses (Honour killings Report, 2010). ~3~ Statistics clearly show that the number of honour killing have increased in Pakistan. The Human Rights Commission of Pakistan Report 2008 shows that approximately 2000 women were killed in the name of honour in the years of 2005-08 and in 2009 it increased more than 647 in a year. This is a very hocking statistic while human rights activities for women rights are becoming fast. Same time, there is evidence of increasing “honour killings” in Pakistan. This violence is witnessed throughout the country in the name of culture and traditions (HRCP Report 2008). This abuse occurs with shocking regularity in many areas of the Middle East, Europe and South Asia. Some have interpreted “honour killing” as a religious extension of traditional Islamic gender practices, where the female is bound to take care of the family’s honour under the so called patriarchy system of Islam.
Hussain (2006) says. “As honor crimes occur predominantly, although not exclusively, in Muslim countries”. He also mentions that some Muslim countries have codified laws to mitigate the punishment for the murderer. Others have argued that honor killings are the antithesis of Islamic morality and consider it a cultural and traditional product. Hussain (2006: 227) codes it. “Honour is a deep-rooted traditional notion that originated in pre-Islamic eras in the ancient culture of desert tribes”.
Today, the hardest charge is often levied against Islam and Muslims, as Islam is to be misogynist and that fosters this phenomenon of honor killings in the eyes of the West. This un-religious practice comprises the murder of women or girls by family members. Women and girls suffer this because they have been seen as defiling or disobeying their families through real or alleged acts, such as illicit relations, her decisions to choose her life partner, premarital sexual relations or dating with the opposite sex. The fact however is that, the practice of “honour killings” has no sanction in Islam.
In the case of dating, there is no punishment in Islam for a man or woman seeing a member of the opposite sex against the wishes of their families. Hence, to murder a girl or woman accused of one of these offenses is not any sort of Islamic punishment. Although a big majority of Muslim societies are free from such brutal practices yet these practices can be seen in some Muslim countries along with the other societies (Zaid 2007). So, it does not mean that Islam encourages the “honour killings” and it is the product of Islamic religion.
It is important to research regarding the relation between “honour killing” and Islam, because, I am conducting research about a county which is an Islamic Republic. My discussion about the traditions, customs in analytical section, can be misunderstood by the reader that traditions, customs and concepts of the community and family regarding so-called “honour killing” belong to the true Islam. This paper also ~4~ contributes to actual teaching of Islam regarding women and their place in the society, focusing on their rights of life and decision making for their life partners. 1. 2-Purpose of Paper and Statement of the Problem
Under the above discussion, the problem which I wish to understand and explore is the main excuses/reasons for upholding the ancient practice of so-called “honour killings” in Pakistan. This research will disclose the real factors of this phenomenon. Pakistan is an Islamic Republic country and has the idea of women rights in its religious and legal systems, so what are the excuses which do not let this problem end. This study would test the theories or the set of concepts and explore the main obstacles in the way of women’s decision making authority to choose their life partners.
This endeavor also intends to bring about reader’s mind for the understandings of different kinds and motives of “honour killings” in Pakistan. This research would also contribute to the discussion of cultural and traditional discourse along with the domestic and international laws and answer the question. Why are the traditions of ancient desert tribes still practiced even though Pakistan’s Penal code was amended in 2004 to eradicate this abuse along with the ratification of International conventions regarding women rights?
What are some of the legal, traditional explanations for rampant “honour killings”, including factors that trigger this phenomenon in Pakistan? In a patriarchal society, how does patriarchy and public/private division play their role and is cultural globalization, decreasing male control over the family. At the end this paper would also investigate original root of “honour killings”, as some blame (according to Jafri (2008)) that “honour killings” are inspired by Islam. This research will be conducted in order to remove the doubt that Islam is triggering the “honour killings” factors.
Although, Pakistan is a Muslim country yet many of them do not see the contradiction and conflict between “honour killings” and the teachings of Islam, (Jafri 2008: 4) so, this thesis would contribute to the discussion of Qur’aan and Hadith relating to women status and rights to understand the alleged connection between Islam and “honour killings”. ~5~ 2-Case Study Design This section will explain the research methodology, where research methods like qualitative and quantitative will be mentioned along with their advantages and disadvantages in the research field.
Strategy as case study with the techniques such as inductive, deductive and abductive will be elaborated to deal with data and theories. Here the means of data collection will also be depicted. In this way, the reliability, validity of the research will be described. Moreover the delimitations of the research will be described at the end of this section. A case study can be defined as a research strategy, an inquiry based on empirical evidence that investigates a problem within its real-life context. Case study research can be categorized by single and multiple case studies, comparative.
It can also be helped by quantitative evidence, thus, they can be based on any mix of quantitative and qualitative evidence. Case study research method is often used in many areas “to contribute to our knowledge of individual, group, organizational, social, political and related phenomena” (Yin 2009). It often consists of detailed and intensive analysis of single case regarding community, school, family, organization, event or “events surrounding the media reporting of specific issue area” (Bryman 2008; 52, 53). So this research will contribute to the honour killing “events” in the analytical mode.
This paper is the qualitative research method with the supplementary of quantitative style. This research mainly intends to go for qualitative methods, because female’s voices are heard and reduced by qualitative research. Statistics are used here to express the actual situation regarding many elements of “honour killings”. 2. 1-Qualitative Research Method Qualitative research method is a kind of scientific research, where this method generally investigates some questions to produce findings by the collection of evidence. Some researchers stress on the important role of the testing theories in qualitative research.
So today researchers have become more interested in qualitative research. The first step is generalizing the research question, and then there is a selection of relevant subject and moving towards the collection of relevant data. After that there is a theoretical and conceptual work and writing up finding under the theory. In this method, researchers are engaged in “purposive sampling”, which often consist of people, documents organizations (Bryman 2008). In this paper, ~6~ qualitative method would be adopted and documents such as books and articles will be consulted. 2. 2-Quantitative Research
The main thing is the numbers and statistics, where this research is often described as presenting the static picture of social reality emphasizing on the “relationship between variables” and their change (Bryman 2008; 394). The quantitative method is adopted sometimes with the main qualitative method “to infer from one case to larger population” (Silverman 2005; 128). It means to get information about the connected and relevant aspects of the population of the society this paper will bring the statistical data about the “honour killings” in Pakistan to analyze the case perfectly.
I will collect the secondary statistical data from Human Rights Commission of Pakistan [HRCP] and focus on the time period from 2004 to 2009 regarding so-called “honour killing” victims, offender’s relation with victim, victims from the other religions such as Christianity and Sikhism. The received statistics of Pakistan will be compiled in tables and charts by my own self to use as arguments in my analysis. 2. 3-Advantages and Disadvantages of the Methods Qualitative method has the advantages such as it generates the rich and detailed data in words.
It is the method of theory emergent from the data collection, where theories can be generated or modified, which had been ignored by the previous researches. It has also been done in a natural setting instead of artificiality, where researcher provides the participants points of views. Along with the advantages of qualitative research method, it has some disadvantages. So usually qualitative method findings trust more on researchers unsystematic views, where he starts open ended and narrow down the problem gradually. It is criticized as subjective.
It is also argued by the quantitative researchers that qualitative method is “difficult to replicate” because it is not concerned with the structured design, “problem of generalizing” means few people study only and the “lack of transparency” (Bryman 2008; 391,393). Quantitative method is an objective method. It has the idea of measurement which has many advantages. In this method the researchers are mainly concerned with the generalization instead of confine to something for the conducted research. This method has also the numerical statistics, which are interpreted in short.
On the other hand, quantitative research has the criticism, where quantitative researchers face the failure to differentiate social institutions from the natural world. The process of measurement based of artificiality and fake ~7~ sense of regularity and accuracy. This method has some hindrance in the way of connecting research and “everyday life” (Bryman 2008; 156, 159). 2. 4-Data Collection The main data will be collected through documents, as Bryman (2008) referred that qualitative research generates a large data in the shapes of media, transcripts and documents.
Documents will be in the shape of journals, articles, books. 2. 4. 1-Documents This is the main source of data collection in this essay, where research seeks to investigate the problem under some valid statistics, virtually provided by the human rights websites, argumentative text form the well written books, articles from journals and websites as well. There would be an attempt to consult web article and articles in journals to get the “events” of so-called “honour killings” as empirical evidence. 2. 5-Deductive, Inductive and Abductive approaches This theory represents the social science and research.
In this theory the researcher deduces a hypothesis and tests it with the date of “empirical scrutiny”. In this way the researcher searches and collects the appropriate, relevant and proper data and tries to confirm or reject the hypothesis. On the other hand, inductive has the opposite direction of the deductive theory, which starts from data, observation then findings and creating a theory or concept. The theory is “outcome of the research” (Bryman 2008: 9, 11). Further, abductive approach has different meanings. It is called as “systematic combining” of deductive and inductive approach.
However abductive approach has more influence of inductive approach. Abductive approach is fulfilled, if researcher is going to discover a new thing with the combination of both approaches. Here the researcher also runs back and forth between data and theory (Dubios and Gadde 2002: 559). This study relates to the abductive technique. Figure 1 is presenting the systematic way of these approaches. I create this figure under deductive, inductive and abductive theories. ~8~ Deductive Theory Observation/Finding s Inductive Observation/Finding Theory Theory Abductive Data Theory Findings Data
Figure 1, Deductive, Obductive and Abductive Techniques 2. 6-Reliability and Validity It is often referred to the question, whether the results, which are got by study of some problems, are repeatable. Reliabilities are mainly concerned with the consistency of the measures. For external validity, which is referred to check the degree in which findings and conclusions could be generalized on social settings? It is also considered as an indicator or set of indicators, which are devised to measure a concept and does this devised gauge measures that concept really (Bryman 2008; 149, 151).
As for as reliability and validity of data is concerned in the society of culturally and traditionally structured, where incidences, victims and offenders of so-called “honour killings” cannot be accessed by researchers in Pakistan. So, researcher has to rely on materials previously written in the shape of books and article and also the data provided by some organizations and other professionals who are considered informants in “honour killing” matter. So, here the work of others, I mean secondary data will be consulted under qualitative method (Neuman 1999).
In order to ensure the validity and reliability of data, I will try my best that if any other researcher would like to carry out same kind of research as I will do, he would get the same result as of mine under the same method and material. 2. 7-Delimitations This thesis has some bindings to narrow down the scope of the research to avoid the vastness the topic. Regarding cultural globalization, which has a long area list (Manfred B 2003; 70), but the research is limited to some aspects such as values, ideas and beliefs under ~9~ cultural globalization.
Sometimes “honour killings” occurred due to homosexual behaviour society where the same sex sexual relations are made (Birch 2008). This paper will not deal with this aspect. It will explore the “honour killings” based on opposite sex relation and in opposite it will be limited to the female gender especially. This research will not deal with the other violence against women such as sexual harassment, beating them, acid attack and stove burning, This thesis will also not talk about other Islamic aspects such as veil or dating, relation without marriage however it will explore the women rights in Islam regarding life and her choice to hoose her spouse. This research will also explore legal factors for rampant “honour killings”. Further, research regarding women “honour killings” in Islam will be presented in the context of Qur’aan and Hadith (Sayings of Prophet Muhammad Peace Be Upon Him). 3-Theoretical Perspectives The following section will outline the set of concepts, which will form the base of this research. The each concept such as patriarchy, public/private division and cultural globalization will be discussed briefly and shortly. 3. 1-Notion of Patriarchy
The word patriarchy is from Greek word patria means father, arche means rule. It means a male head of a family who exercises autocratic authority on the other female member of family, in broad meaning a member of the ruling class, group of a society, because of their presumed capacity to exert control and women disregarded and supposed lack of control (Barlas 2004). Kambarami (2006: 2) quotes. “Patriarchy as a social system in which men appropriate all social roles and keep women in subordinate positions” Women are considered that they need men’s supervision, protection, or control.
It is also considered male centered phenomenon, in which the center of attention is the natural place for men and boys, and that women should occupy the margins. Patriarchy can be seen in the primary stage in domestic sphere, the male child has been preferred to the female child. The male child is often thought superior, although he born after the female child, He is automatically considered the head of the family who control, protect and look after his sisters. The female gender faces further discrimination because after ~ 10 ~ marriage, she has to join another family.
On the other hand the male child protects the survival of the family’s good name through bringing some additional members into the family by his marriage. (Kambarami 2006: 3). This is the main and very much suitable concept or theory, which projects the violence actually and leads to the death of women by men in the name of so-called honour. 3. 2-Public/Private Division In this social world, public realm is defined as a sphere within life where people discuss or identify societal problems and by that discussion create political action.
This sphere is comprised of the individuals and the groups of society regarding their common interests. On the other hand, private sector is considered, where individual can enjoy the authority without any intervention of public or governmental side, As Elshtain (1993) mentions about the division. “A public world of politics and a private world is familial”. She also claims in contrast that the private sphere is actually the part of public sphere, because no private sphere can be existed without the public sphere in this social world (Elshtain 1993: 10, 12).
This division paves the way to the discrimination, as one sphere cuts off from the other one. In that time, it is considered that one sphere does not have any link to the other sphere. In private (family) sphere, where the male gender is assumed as the “master of the territory” impacts on the other members especially on female gender in the way of decisions and work allocation. They (men) cause the violations of rights in the private sphere regarding women. Public sector is considered as no jurisdiction in family matters.
Man only holds all the authorities in domestic level, because violation of rights is neglected by the governments in private or domestic spheres (Okin 2000). So, men’s violation against women is mostly seen in private and family sphere. This concept is also a suitable concept to examine the empirical material regarding “honour killing” crime in Pakistan. 3. 3-Cultural Globalization or Westernization To Manfred B (2003) the cultural globalization gives the meaning of the intensification and expansion of the cultural flow across the globe.
Culture is very broad concept and frequently used for the whole activities of human beings. She gives the view points of the different assumptions and views by the hyperglobalizers and skeptics. Does globalization made the people more alike or more different around the world? The Optimistic (hyperglobalizers) argues that people are more alike today than before. She has given many examples. One of them is Mcdonaldization to describe the wide range culture of the fast food, ~ 11 ~ which is coming dominant more and more today throughout the world.
She also said that today we are witnessing the rise of homogenized popular culture underwritten by the Western culture industry based in New York, Hollywood London, Milan, Western norms and lifestyles are overwhelming the vulnerable cultures. She also says about the ideological globalization. ”An ideology can be defined as a system of widely shared ideas, patterned beliefs, guiding norms and values and ideas accepted as truth by a particular group of people” in this way she also adds that today the cultural globalization means the “loss of traditional meanings” (Manfred, 2003).
So the point is that the norms of the society are changed by the cultural globalization. Globalization also paves the way for cultural imperialism (Western Culture). The standardization of world culture, with local popular, trendy or traditional forms driven out to make way for Western television, music, food, clothes and films, has been seen by many scholars as the very heart of globalization. This fear that Western (including U. S) models are replacing everything else now spills over from the field of culture (Jameson, 2000).
Hoper also describes that mostly religious and simple kind of skeptics who blame globalization as Americanization, capitalism, secularism and rationalism and especially Muslims think that globalization is nothing but the bombardment of the Western political and cultural Ideas (Hoper 2006). So this theory is related and suitable to explore that either there is actually bombardment of Western Cultural values, which invoke the women to reject patriarchal imposition in decision making or there is any other thing. ~ 12 ~ -Empirical Material: The Case of “Honour killings” In Pakistan Here the empirical data regarding “honour killings” in Pakistan have been collected along with the concept of “honour killing” in the context of Pakistan has also been defined. This section is also consisting of statistical back ground of “honour killings” from 2004 to 2009 in Pakistan. 4. 1-Pakistan and “Honour killings” Pakistani Women faces all kinds of domestic violence and abuse at the hands of the male perpetuators’ family members and community.
Multiple forms of domestic violence can be found in the shape of spousal murder, mutilation, beatings; ritual “honour killings” (Jehanzeb 2004). “Honour killings” have been committed in all provinces and tribal areas of Pakistan with different names. It occurs in the name of Kala Kali; in Southern Punjab, Kara kari; in Sindh, Siya Kari; in Sindh, Taurtoora; in NWFP. Traditionally, “honour killings” are practiced as accusing and punishing the individuals for their illicit relations, extramarital sex, and disobedience of family for marriage, which defiles the family’s honour (Warraich 2005; 79).
Mainly honour defilement is known with two major kinds such as “honour killings” and Karokari. So we will discuss the trends of “honour killing” abuse to know the actual situation in the Country. 4. 2-Statistical Background; Trends and Patterns of “Honour killings” in Pakistan Despite the increase of official attention regarding “honour killings” in the year of 2004, one cannot find good and healthy outcomes regarding the issue of “honour killing” in Pakistan. There was an obvious increase of “honour killings” of females, who face this threat by choosing their life partner by their own free will.
Statistics collected by HRCP describes the increase of “honour killings”, which hit the total of 560 approximately in the year of 2004. Same was the case with the year of 2005; when there was no evidence of a decrease in violence against women by the name of honour, more than 465 lost their lives to restore the family or community honour. There was an increase in 2006, when more than 600 honour ~ 13 ~ killings reported across the country. HRCP (2006) report says. about traditional, feudal custom karo kari which “continues whereby couples found in, or more often merely uspected of, adulterous relationship are summarily done to death by the family members themselves. ” In this year the Jirga (a tribal justice system based on old customs) banned to register the honour killing cases at the police station and declared that whoever did this would be killed. The Jirga also mentioned that it is the part of people’s culture and also declared. “Same jirga had delivered a verdict stating the killing of a couple who had married of their own free will was permissible”.
It shows that in a tribal patriarchal society, women are not allowed to use their own will for their own marriages. This abuse continued with increasing trend and reached to the 638 “honour killings” approximately in the year of 2007, and 618 in 2008. Under the database of HRCP, “violence against women registered a sharp increase during 2009, despite low registration of gender-related crimes because of societal pressure and a biased and obstructive police force dominated by men. A total of 647 women were brutally killed in the name of . honour. Including the cases of karo kari) and more than 757 were killed for some other reasons. The figure 2 is showing the actual trends of “honour killings” from 2004 till 2009. Figure 2, Female Victims of “Honour killings” and Karo Kari Figures 2 is compiled from HRCP (Reports and Statistics) (http://www. hrcp-web. org/) 4. 3-Defining “Honour killings” in the Context of Pakistan Honour can also be defined as social control of the members of society. This concept of “honour killings” is particularly related to the male’s feeling of shame. In this male ~ 14 ~ ominant world, it is his duty to keep the control over the female behavior especially in a domestic sphere to extend his imposition on the other gender. So, when he perceives that his control has been lost due to violent behavior of the female gender and would be extended to the community and the surrounding, he feels shame. To remove that shameful feeling, he does what the culture and traditions requires (Nancy V 1999), so when she bring shame by violating the honour norms and the whole family experiences shameful feelings so in that time the killings of women is considered an act of the purification for the family (Jafri 2008; 21).
Human Rights watch describes honour crimes as “acts of violence, usually murder, committed by male family members against female family members who are perceived to have brought dishonour upon the family. ” The “dishonourable acts” includes premarital sexual relations, illicit relations, seeking divorce, or being a victim of sexual assault or rape (Hussain 2006; 225). Amnesty International describes “honour killings” as usually committed by a man often against a female in a family, when they (family) think that she has caused for shame on the family particularly for male members. Honour killings” are found as brutal reactions within domestic and private sphere mostly in Asian and Middle Eastern, which consequently give the result of murder of women and sometimes their male friends, who have poisoned the ghairat (family honour). However mostly woman is targeted by her family under some different reasons, “including, refusing to enter into an arranged marriage, being the victim of a sexual assault, seeking a divorce”. Only a single perception that female gender has acted to bring shame to the family is enough to harm or kill her. Honour killings” can also target those who prefer any lovers, boyfriends from another religious or ethnic group or caste other than the family’s own. “Honour killings” have been practiced in order to clean shame, which the woman may have carried for her family by adultery or injuring the family reputation and traditional cultures. Men control within private sphere is critical and women who wish to confront such cultural tradition, are often murdered (Smartt 2006: 4). ~ 15 ~ 5-Honour Killing Victims This section presents some “honour killing” victim’s cases with some statistical details.
This is the main empirical section which will be analyzed by the set of concepts such as patriarchy, public/private division and cultural globalization. 5. 1-Being Trapped Between Two Patriarchal Controllers The concept of disreputation of the male honour has extended, when he lost his control over a female relative. Sometimes women desire to choose a life partner and contracting a marriage with a person of her own choice in a society where the majority of decisions for marriages are taken by parents. Their acts are believed to be acts of disobedience.
These practices are assumed to pollute the honour of man to whom that female belongs and who waits for a bride price at her marriage. Women and girls who marry men with their own choice sometimes take help and protection from state laws, and do against the traditional norms and brought shame for their guardians leading them to commit violence for the restoration of their honour. In a traditional notion, the arranged marriages are perceived as balancing of the society, so when females use their own decisions.
It causes an imbalance in the society. Sometimes girls and women are killed, when they are trapped between many men’s decisions for their marriages. Different male relatives have different choices for their arranged marriages. She obeys one relative male. Consequently, she is attempted murder by other male relative. Nagina Bibi, a 17 years old girl was engaged with her cousin by her father’s choice, but her brother wanted her to marry his wife’s brother. Once, her brother saw her with the cousin and he burnt her alive.
She was admitted to the hospital and her family told the doctors that it is only due to stove bursting at home, but when she came into conscious, she disclosed all the facts (Amnesty International 1999). 5. 2-”Honour killings” In The pretext of Illicit Relations Sometimes a woman is killed by her family or relative, because she is blamed of illicit relations with a guy. In 2007, an attempt to kill a fourteen year old Hooran was committed by her cousin. The reason was that she had illicit sexual relations with another man. She was shot by the pistol, but survived under medical treatment, when she was interviewed.
She said that one of her cousins had wanted to marry her, but they were refused ~ 16 ~ and attempted to kill me for personal vendetta. She also insisted. “”Following my parents’ refusal, my cousins blamed me for having relations with Ghulam Ahmad, whom I had never seen” (Latif 2007). HRCP statistics show that there is a devastative contribution in “honour killings” in the shape of own marriage choice along with the illicit relationship reason. The figure shows that in 2004 there were 469 victims of “honour killings” based on own marriage choice and 14 were due to the illicit sexual relation in Pakistan.
The statistical chart in the figure 3 represents the a little bit up and down from the year of 2004 till 2009. The year of 2007 was the highest regarding own choice, but it decreased to some extent in the year of 2009, but it doesn’t mean that here is a decrease of “honour killings” in Pakistan, If we compare the figure and the figure, where the year of 2009 is the highest of all in killings. It means that there is a decrease of “honour killing” in the area of own marriage choice. However increase in some other areas or due to other reasons. The other areas and reasons of “honour killings” are under mentioned.
Figure 3, Two Main Reasons For “Honour killings” in Pakistan Figures 3 is compiled from HRCP (Reports and Statistics) (http://www. hrcp-web. org/) 5. 3-“Honour Killings” As Punishment for Seeking Divorce Sometimes women want divorce from their husbands because of some marital problems, but are killed, when they (women) try to seek legal help. This act brings the defilement for the family honour and some relative do the act of killing to restore the honour of family. In 1999 a 29 year old Saima Sarwar, a mother of two children was killed by her family, when she was in her lawyer’s chamber, because Saima’s family felt that her act for 17 ~ seeking divorce by the court brought the shame and disobedience of family. Her lawyers were also threatened. In that time, some tribal and religious organizations demanded that the lawyers must be dealt with the iron hands, because they had been contributing in country’s bad image by misleading the women (Hussain 2006: 226). 5. 4-“Honour killings” After Rape This type of “honour killing” is a brutal kind of killing, when a girl is raped without her consent; even then she is being killed by her own family, because she brought the shame for the family.
In 1999, a mentally disordered 16 year old girl was raped by a clerk. They were apprehended by the police in a hotel. The girl was handed over to her tribal family. The tribe decided unanimously to kill her, because she brought shame for their tribe and family and “honour could be restored by her death”. She was killed before the community. On that time an NGO Sahil expressed, “it had been carried out not by an individual overcome with emotion, but by a community which sat in judgment and pronounced the victim guilty” (Amnesty International 1999). 5. -”Honour killings” As Punishment For Disobedience “Honour killings” sometimes occur on the pretext of disobedience in Pakistan. The member of the family of community, who commit killing of females are rarely punished and prosecuted by the laws. It also seems that if female is murdered in real or fabricated accusation against her. Her murder is considered rightful by the family member for the restoration of so-called honour. In this way, a little domestic quarrel leads to the killing on the name of honour, as it happened with M. s Shahul a 25 years old married lady in 2004.
It was reported that in the evening they both (husband and wife) had a quarrel on a little domestic issue. At the same night, her husband shot dead her to restore his honour. F. I. R was lodged against her husband (AHRC 2004). 5. 6-“Honour Killings” under the Pretext of Property The desire to get the property or land is also a pretext for the “honour killings”. “Land is the main issue in Sindhi society”, if she owns any property or land which is mostly an inherited property, her relatives kill her and use the pretext of honour killing. Amnesty International 1999) In 2008, Tasleem Solangi 17 year old innocent girl was blamed of “Immorality” by her uncle in the way of extramarital relationship with a boy and punished by dogs and at last shot dead, but her father accused his brother that he killed his daughter under ~ 18 ~ a land dispute. So there was not “Immorality” in her behaviour, but was a pretext for land in her uncle’s mind (Felix 2008). 5. 7-”Honour killings” Based on Ethnicity Ethnicity is also the reason of “honour killings” in Pakistan. When a girl chooses her partner from another ethnic community is killed by the family.
In 1998, Riffat Afridi a Pashtun girl eloped with another guy (Kunwar Ahsan) of other ethnic community and got married. The tribal Jirga called for their murder. “Both Riffat and Kunwar Ahsan should be killed as they had defied the will of the girl’s father and thereby dishonoured the family”. The story of this spouse is too long, but the point here that the ethnicity works here for defiling the families honour (HRCP 2002). 6-Analysis under Theories This section begins with telling a fiction (based on my observation as a lawyer in Pakistan) relevant to the actual theme of this study.
Then this section analyzes the actual case with this fiction and tries to convey some new ideas in an analytical way. Moreover, this section tests and analyzes the theories on the empirical cases of “honour killing” and explores the role of the concepts such as patriarchy, public/private division and cultural globalization. 6. 1-Double Standards within a Society Two businessmen were working in the locality of Pakistan. One of them had been making progress by leaps and bounds in his business. The Other one was not making progress.
He looked a failed businessman in the locality. He spread the rumor that the products of the other businessman were not good or under the standards. He conspired against the successful businessman by forging products of bad quality and labels them as these products of the successful businessman In this way, the progressing businessman had to face a great loss and other one began to make progress, because he got the contracts which were got by the first successful businessman before, When the successful businessman came to know about the actual conspiracy against im. He murdered the other businessman, because the other businessman spoiled his honour and good will in the society and he had to face the loss. So for his defiled honour, he killed the other businessman. He was arrested by the police and he confessed his crime, but also said that other businessman had brought his societal ~ 19 ~ honour into disrepute by spreading the rumor.
He also tried to get the benefit of sudden provocation, but The Court punished him with the sentence of death under the section 302 (a) Pakistan penal code (1860) says; “Whoever commits qatl-e-amd (intentionally murder) shall, subject to the provisions of this Chapter be: (a) Punished with death as qisas (similar hurt to the offender); (b) punished with death for imprisonment for life as ta’zir (other than qisas) having regard to the facts and circumstances of the case, if the proof in either of the forms specified in Section 304 is not available; or (c) Punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to twentyfive years” The court did not accept his claim that he killed because murdered person defiled his honour. He also tried to make a compromise with the murdered family but they refused. The court only announced the adequate punishment for him in the shape of hanging till death. The community also appreciated this punishment and expressed the view that one should not kill the other only under the loss of honour or reputation in community or society. Now we move the actual theme of study, where women are killed, because they defiled the honour of family by choosing her life partner or sometimes killed under the rumor of illicit relations.
In the case of Saima Sarwar (Hussain 2006), who only demanded divorce from her husband because, she was ill treated by her husband. When her husband refused to give her divorce, she knocked the court’s door and once she was sitting in her lawyer’s chamber, she was shot dead. Her lawyers raised the voice for the punishment of the offender. In this way, many religious organizations and also the family of Saima Sawar became hostile to the lawyers and also tried to threaten them. The religious organizations and the family of the Saima Sarwar blamed them that they were “misleading” the women and contributing to the bad name of Islam and Pakistan. However, they re the ignorant people as were in the ancient desert tribes. Pakistani law and the religious teaching do not allow such kind of act. Despite registering the FIR on the same day against her mother and some others, no one is arrested to date (Hussain 2006). Beside this case, only nominal quantities of murderers are arrested in honour killing cases (HRCP Statistics). This obviously shows the double standards of the society and judiciary, who give the death sentence to the businessman but are reluctant to give maximum death sentence in so-called female honour killing case. Warraich (2005: ~ 20 ~ 101) also agrees with my standpoint regarding double standard of judiciary and says. The courts have been unwilling to move beyond applying S- 302(c) PPC in cases of honour crimes, thus continuing to refuse to apply the maximum possible sentence (death, which is applied in other murder cases)” while dealing with the same kind of murders. The businessman in above mentioned story and the offenders here in the honour killing cases committed same crime but businessman is sentenced of death whereas the murderers in women killings are not arrested, if arrested. They are released after some time, as Warraich (2005: 100) confirms this practice by saying. “First not all instances of” “honour killings” are registered and second a substantial proportion are compromised before reaching conviction, with most remaining cases. Same is the practice today in Pakistan regarding this matter. The story of two businessmen is based on my own observation as a lawyer in Pakistan. Society doesn’t think about women’s killer but only thinks about the businessman, who killed the other businessman under the honour defiled excuse. Although, both are same crimes within the same reasons, yet treated separately under same society and law, where all have their fundamental rights under the domestic and international laws. Double standards are also against the aim and objective of law, because, the purpose of law is to promote justice and to prevent injustice in the society (Frederic, 1998).
Double standards for punishment in above mentioned story and the real victims of honour killings are against the objective law. 6. 2-Patriarchal Mind-Set and “Honour killings” Basheeran Bibi a female victim of domestic violence by her husband says; “Pakistan was made only for the powerful and for the men. It was not made for weak and poor women like me” (Jehanzab 2004: 30). This reveals that in Pakistan the patriarchal practices are often practiced and established in the social institution of family, where boys and girls are differentiated and male are the only “breadwinners” and the head of the home, whilst women and girls are understood a creature other than human beings.
Women are particularly defined as a dependant being on the men and subordinate to men (Ali 2009). On this occasion Fernandez (2009: 276) says; “Their fathers and their brothers choose their husbands; they are closed up in their own homes and confined to domestic tasks”. In the case of Nagina Bibi, who was engaged with her cousin by her father’s choice, but her brother decided that she would marry with his wife’s brother, but when once ~ 21 ~ her brother saw her with her cousin, he burnt her alive. Because, she challenged his patriarchal control and did not end meetings with her cousin. She was admitted to the hospital and her family told the doctors that it is only due to stove bursting at home.
They all did this because it is considered that male is only important in private (family) sphere and have the control and authority to punish anyone, who challenges his patriarchal authority. Further I agree with Ali (2009) that patriarchy is a tool with which the capabilities of the women and girls are underestimated. This tool paves the way to the discrimination within an institution and claims that the girls and women are different from the boys and men in every way. In fact the concept of patriarchy invokes a man to beat, punish rape and even kill women. It also tells women that it is their own fault if they are raped. Ali (2003) confirms that in some cases, girls who are raped are also killed by her family member to diminish the slain from the family honour.
In Pakistan, today patriarchy can be seen in many institutions such as in family, marriages work places, in mass media and in family (Ali 2009) as in the case of mentally disordered girl, who was raped by a clerk and murdered by the family and the community, because they thought that she brought shame to the family by being raped, In the case of Riffat Afridi (HRCP 2002), who was elapsed with her lover of other ethnicity, her father said. ” We don’t allow our women to be taken away or to go away. Whether she has eloped or was kidnapped, we will kill her”. So here in a patriarchal society, the rape or kidnap of girl was considered her own fault. “Even if she is victim of rape- is considered a disgrace to the culture and community” (Sheila and Croucher 2004). The table 1 reveals the notion of patriarchy in the society of Pakistan, which some time leads to the women killing in the name of so-called honour.
The available statistics and the annual reports of HRCP shows that in the duration of 2004 to 2009 approximately 675 girls and women had been killed by their brothers, 96 were murdered by sons, more than 200 females were the victims by the hands of their fathers and there were 1145 women, who were murdered by their own husbands in the name of so-called honour and Karo Kari. This shows the particular mind-set of the Pakistani society, where girls and women are killed to maintain the patriarchal control over the females. Nancy (1999) says that it is considered that it is men’s duty to keep the (Patriarchal) control over the female behavior especially in a domestic sphere to extend his imposition on the other gender.
Mostly above mentioned “honour killings” cases covers the idea of patriarchy, where Saima Sarwar (Hussain 2006), was killed for challenging the control of her husband and applying for the divorce through the Court. ~ 22 ~ Nagina Bibi (Amnesty International 1999) was also the victim of patriarchal control, because she was caught between two patriarchal powers (brother and father). M. s Shahul’s (AHRC 2004) murder also drives the intentions towards the patriarchal connection of murder, when she said something bad to her husband during the quarrel and husband might be thought that he had lost his control over his wife and she spoiled his honour, so he murdered her and spread the rumour of her illicit relations to someone else.
The statistics in table 1 also verify the approach of Kambarami (2006), who claims that patriarchy does not mean that not only the eldest male of the family have the patriarchal control over family but also the younger male have the control over the elder females, as statistics justify the situation, where brothers and sons also murdered their sisters and mothers under the patriarchy notion. Kambarami (2006) agrees by saying. “if the male child is not the first born in a family, he is automatically considered the head of the household who should protect and look after his sisters. ” I think the meaning of look after is to keep an eye on them. And “If a sister has “lost her way” by say dating a man, killing her should be a right thing to do” (Detrick, and Viaardingerbroek 1999; 47).
It reveals that in patriarchal societies even the dating of women with men can cause them death on the name of honour. Incidents Brother Sons Father Close In- Husband Local Residents 336 30 Neighbours Relatives Laws “honour killings” Karo kari Table 1, Relation with The Victims 227 42 64 154 6 809 448 54 143 177 61 11 12 3 Figures in Table 1 are compiled from HRCP (Reports and statistics) (http://www. hrcp-web. org/) 1 6. 3-Rumors That Can Trigger “Honour killings” If we analyze M. s Shahul’s (AHRC 2004) case, who was murdered by her husband due to disrespecting him. After murdering his wife, he claimed that she had relations with someone else and also disrespected him.
He was arrested but later it was compromised in court and the murderer released without any punishment, because “the victim’s family often 1 Honour killings and Karo kari are separated here, because in some areas of Pakistan honour killings are known as Karokari and also the Human Rights website has compiled the data separately. Otherwise both are same. ~ 23 ~ compromises with the accused according to the Ordinance of Qisas and Dayat after receiving big pressure from the society” Domestic violence in Pakistan is measured for women as great disobedience. So some domestic violence in shape of honour killing is to punish a woman for perceived insubordination, which is considered that she has crossed the limits (AHRC 2004).
It seems that this was a rumor which was spread by her husband that she had relations someone, but it is also cleared that they had a quarrel in the evening on domestic issue and wife might had said something wrong to him and her killed her at night to revenge his disreputaion and spread the news of her extramarital relations to some other guy. He was not sentenced and released by the compromise of the parties. One can easily find the double standards of the society and inconsistency of the law including judiciary, where one is sentenced and the other is released on the same kind of crimes. It is also fact that compromises are mostly found in female “honour killings” cases in Pakistan. Same is the situation with the Tasleem Solangi (Felix 2008) case, where uncle killed her niece in order to compel his brother to transfer property to him. They also spread the rumor that she had been caught with a guy and killed to restore the honour of the family.
So, it means rumors work to kill the women and girls in Pakistani society. 6. 4-The Patriarchal Division of Society and Its Implications for Violence Against Women “Patriarchy also creates a division between the public and the private, between ‘world’ and ‘home’” (Ali 2009). The keen study of the honour killing cases expresses the drawbacks of public private division which create the double standards in the society. Many acts are considered shameful in Pakistani society but nothing is perceived important more than women chastity in the society. Other kinds of honour have not such important. As businessman’s honour and the male’s honour in family are not the same.
In public sphere when businessman kills the person, who defiled his honour, is consi