Factors Affecting the Standard of Living Residents in Brgy. Cawayan, Catarman, Northern Samar
Our country is an ideal area for economic growth. Its mild climate, rich natural resources, and fertile soil suited for plant growth are some of many reasons to justify why our country could be developed economically. It is to be noted; however that increase production means economic growth and a way to raise the living standard of families.
As economic growth improves the average citizen’s standard of living a smaller portion of the population tends to fall below the absolute poverty standard.Society can eliminate absolute poverty through a combination of economic growth and transform of many citizens with more than adequate income to the poor. Every residents in the Philippines would like to raise its living standard an exactly that of its community fact, every political bigwig aims to improve his home towns above all other. Most of the people find a way to become successful to have greater income more than enough for their daily subsistence or that would suffice their needs. Those, improve the living standard of the residents. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMGenerally, this study attempted to determine some factors affecting the standard of living residents in Brgy. Cawayan, Catarman, Northern Samar. Specifically, this study will answer the following queries. 1. What is the socio-demographic profile of the residents in Brgy. Cawayan, Catarman, Northern Samar in terms of: Age Sex Civil Status Highest Educational Attainment Monthly Income 2. Are the following factors affects the standard of living of the residents in Brgy. Cawayan, Catarman, Northern Samar? Ideal household size Total family income (annually) Numbers of family members in school Types of household 3.What are those factors that directly affects and indirectly affects the standard of living of the residents in Brgy. Cawayan, Catarman, Northern Samar? 4. What is the standard of living of the residents in Brgy. Cawayan, Catarman, Northern Samar in terms of: Food expenditures Clothing expenditures Appliances and utilities Housing expenditures Recreation and transportation Health and education expenditures 5. What recommendation do the respondents advanced in order to uplift their standard of living? OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY Specifically, this study aimed to: 1. Determine the socio-demographic profile of the residents in Brgy.Cawayan, Catarman, Northern Samar in terms of: Age Sex Civil Status Highest Educational Attainment Monthly Income 2. Determine the following factors that affects the standard of living of the residents in Brgy. Cawayan, Catarman, Northern Samar. Ideal household size Total family income (annually) Numbers of family members in school Types of household 3. Determine the factors that directly affects and indirectly affects the standard of living of the residents in Brgy. Cawayan, Catarman, Northern Samar. 4. Determine the standard of living of the residents in Brgy. Cawayan, Catarman, Northern Samar in terms of: Food expendituresClothing expenditures Appliances and utilities Housing expenditures Recreation and transportation Health and education expenditures 5. Determine recommendation do the respondents advanced in order to uplift their standard of living. SCOPE AND LIMITATION This study is limited to the residents in Barangay Cawayan, Catarman, Northern Samar. The researchers shall base their analysis on the response of the respondents in the questionnaire designed for the purpose of this study. Likewise this is united to the indicators such as: food expenditures, clothing expenditures, utilities, housing expenditures and education.The house hold size, family income, number of family member in school, type of household, employment status of head of the family and nature of work are also considered. The researchers limits their knowledge on the expenses and knowledge in conducting the research. IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY This study attempted to gather data that can be a basis for improving the standard of living of the residents in Brgy. Cawayan, Catarman, Northern Samar. The result of this study will be useful to Barangay Officials in elevating the living standard of every residents in the said Barangay through the factors that affect them.It will also serve as reference for students who intend to do a research on other economical problem of this said locality. The findings of this study will also help the community to become aware of living standard of every Filipino residents in order to develop their community especially that of Filipino residents residing in the rural areas. DEFINITION OF TERMS 1) AGE – the entire period of life or existence, as of a person, thing, nation, etc. 2) SEX – either of two divisions, male and female, by which organisms are distinguished with reference to the reproductive functions. ) CIVIL STATUS – it refers to the respondents whether they are single, married, separated, widow or widower. 4) MONTHLY INCOME – it refers to the amount of money received by all members of the family every month and which serves as a common fund to buy the needs and wants of the family. 5) TYPES OF HOUSEHOLD – determine to as whether the respondents live in their own home or they live with their parents even they have own family. 6) STANDARD OF LIVING – refers to a living status in terms of indicators considered in the study.7) FOOD – it refers to a solids substance eaten for nourishment of the respondents. ) CLOTHING – it refers to a wearing apparel of respondents to cover their human body. 9) APPLIANCES – it refers to the things owned by the family which adorn their houses and are used by the family members for their comfort and convenience. 10) UTILITIES – fitness for some desirable practical purpose, serviceableness; that which is necessary. 11) HOUSE MAINTENANCE – it refers to any dwelling place of a family. 12) RECREATION – it refers to the activities of the family for refreshment and relaxation. 13) TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES – it refers to any mode of transportation used by the family ingoing to work or school.4) HEALTH – it refers to the body condition the respondents whether they are strong or weak. 15) EDUCATIONAL EXPENDITURES – it refers to a training by which a respondents learn how to use or develop their mental, physical and moral power. 16) EXPENDITURES – total expenses of a family for their daily needs. 17) NUCLEAR TYPE OF FAMILY – family members composed of father, mother, children living in their own home. 18) EXTENDED TYPE OF FAMILY – family members living together with their parents, even if they have own family. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Research LiteratureStandard of living usually refers to the economic level achieved by an individual, family or nation. It may be measured by the value of the goods and services produces or used by the individual, family, or nation in a given period of time. Another interpretation of standard living is based on the goals that the people have enough material things for comfort and happiness, they achieved their standard of living. Standard of living is determined by the social status a person has and the goods and services he can buy. Wealthy people are secured with comfort and accorded with highest esteem by other people.Changes in prices can affect standard of living of families normally declines. On the other hand, when prices down with all other things remaining the same, people standard of living normally raises. But the letter statement does not anymore happen now a day. The relative poverty standard is the standard of living below which a certain percentage of population falls if we choose the percentage to be 10%, the relative poverty standard would be the income of the family at the tenth percentile of the income distribution. One of the problems of family is poverty. Poverty is a vicious cycle.If the parents are poor, the children will likely be poor also. Poor parents cannot provide their children with good condition or education that will raise them up from poverty. Another is they cannot give their children good food, hence they are sickly and have poor energy level which keep them away from school. Consequently, they slim chances to have a good saying job when they mature. According to Gordon and Dawson, standard of living in rural areas 30 percent below the standard of living in the cities, yet one of every five farmers lives below the poverty line. Development is the concern of everyone.It places a crucial role in every country. It is considered a progressive and dynamic process. Any country, which has attained development, has abundant material resources to meet her need. Educate people are more aware of the impact of the government on their lives and more attention to politics. They have more information about politics and undertake wide range of political activities. The status, goods and services they enjoy by the people largely determine their standard of living. On the other hand, the standard of living of the people depends upon there income.People who are wealthy are secured with comfort and accorded with highest prestige. Changes in the prices affect the living standard of segment of the population especially that of the worker or a person with fixed income. Family size also affect poverty. The absolute poverty standard raises with family size but not necessarily with earning capacity. The high standard of living, the lower the population that a given area can support. In many of the world, the standard of living is also low that large population can exist in small of land. In areas of high living standard, the resources can support only a spa use population.Although the poor earn but a small fraction of natural income, they have made great strides in absolute living standards. Real wages have rises steadily over the last century; manufacturing workers today earn real wages 10 times what their great grandfather got. Few socialist or communist today doubt that capitalist has been a mighty engine for increasing the real wages of poor as well as rich. A country may be conceived as one in which the collective objectives is to maximize the total welfare this rather than economic power of other forms of it, like military and political influence.The most living, that is the quantity of good and services available for consumption. Local Literature Electrification raises not only the level of consumption but also the will to economize because higher standard of living (consumption), brought about by household electricity, are necessarily accompanied by an increase in the income of the family (through more production), either through self-employment causing the electricity industry, or through employment in power-using industries.The people having a minimum of subsistence standard of living have an income adequate to provide for their necessities under normal conditions, but they cannot spare any part of their income for social necessities. They cannot afford medical care, and in case of emergency like sickness they have to depend on free clinic or dispensaries. They can manage to exist without any assistance, buy they can count on no savings to depend upon when the bread winner of the family is unemployed. They are always exercise careful economy in their expenditures. Pp. 668The families having the comfort standard of living may be described as those who can afford to provide not only for a sufficient amount of the necessities but also for cultural wants. They can send their children to college, they can afford to set aside part for their income for recreation and travel, and they can participate in the conventional activities in their community. The small land owner, most of members of the professional class and small business men enjoy this standard. Many of them can drive a car and can afford to join to a club. All demands of a respectable scale of living can be satisfied.The members constitute the upper middle class in the country. At the poverty level, people are unable to provide sufficient quantity of the necessities for an independent existence even with the most careful expenditure of available income. Their income is entirely inadequate to provide for the upkeep of the family. The people of this class have to be aided most of the time in one way or another. Their food is much simple, they could not afford to clothe themselves decently, and they live in a nip shacks in an over crowded houses where privacy is impossible.They literally live to have a mouth existence. The constitute the bulk of those who appeal to charitable organizations for help, if they are not actually living on beggary. Pp. 667 Standard of living are products of society. Many of the goods they consume are considered essential in maintaining personal and social well-being, because our neighbours and whole community are using them to do many things because it is appropriate and natural for us to work with them. If it is customary in a town to send children to school, parents in that community exerted effort sending their children to school.Our attitude toward many things is being imposed upon by society, our choices are controlled by the society of which we are part of. Living standard are constantly undergoing a process of change. There is scarcity in nation that does not experience changes in its standard of living. The standard of living of some people changes in its standard of living. The standard of living of some people changes much more slowly than that of others, depending on the effort of certain dynamic for use that bring about reorganization of social economics values and lead them to scrutinize of life.It is scarcity necessary to point out that the different standards of living in the Philippines have not been immune from innovation and new concepts and attitudes of what constitutes individual and social welfare since the Spanish time. Pp. 671 It is difficult for the poor to maintain life of dignity. They have not been fortunate enough to find an employment that will enable them to provide education. Because of lack of education and the right connection, a poor person finds it difficult to work for a job. If ever he finds one, it is usually a low paying job.Standard of living is determined by the social status a person has and the goods and services he can buy. Wealthy people are secured with comfort and accorded with highest esteem by other people. Changes in prices can affect standard of living. When prices go up without corresponding increase in income, the standard of living of the people normally decline. On the other hand when prices go down with all other things remaining the same, people standard of living normally rises. But the latter statement does not anymore happen now a days. Poverty is a vicious cycle.If the parents are poor, the children will likely be poor also. Poor parents cannot provide their children with good education that will raise them up from poverty. Another is they cannot give their children with good food, hence they are sickly and have poor energy level which keep away from school. Consequently, they end up unschooled. As such they have slim chances to have a good paying job when they mature. According to Sorio, as cited by Bicol, (1998) the standard of living of the people is largely determined by the status, goods and services they enjoy.On the other hand, the goods and services status people enjoy depend upon their income. People who are wealthy secure the most comfort and are accorded with the highest prestige. In addition to the family’s income the cost of living and the house, the family residents should not be considered. Limpoco, )1989) stated that material possession is an indicator of the level of living. Malaki, B. et. Al, (1998) claimed that in the discipline of economy. Largely family size may be a good source of income.This is, however, placed in tandem with all other attitudes which may contribute to the realization of a livable standard of living. Ubaldo, et. Al. , (1998) found out that most of the farmers, the respondents of his study belong to the income of P49, 912. 00 per annum as which for low the poverty level. Ronquillo, et, al. , (1989), stated that the higher the standard of living in a given area can support. In an area of high standard of living, the resources can support only sparse population. Development is the concern of every one.It places a crucial role in every country. It is considered a progressive and dynamic process. Any country, which has attained development, has abundant material resources to meet her needs educated people are more aware of the political activities. The status, goods and services they enjoyed by the people largely determine their standard of living. On the other hand, the standard of living of the people depends upon their income. People who are wealthy are secured with comfort and accorded with the highest prestige.Changes in the prices affect the living standard of segment of the population, especially, that of the worker or a person with fixed income. The higher standard of living, the lower the population that a given area can support. In many of the world, the standard of living is also low that large population can exist on small of land. In areas of high living standard, the resources can support only a spares population. The most important cause of poverty among individuals is poverty itself. One who come from a poor family generally turns out to be poor himself and this likely to be true to his children.This is vicious cycle of poverty. The poor has a lesser opportunity for a better life because he moves around an environment where everybody seems to be perennially needing support and assistance from others. The poor are generally more prone to illness; hence absenteeism at work is rampant thereby lowering their earning capacity. Poor health results in lower energy level, lower productivity and shorter lives. The goods services and social status that people enjoy depend upon their income. In like manner, the goods and services and social status largely determine their standard of living.People relatively enjoy a high standard of living. They are not very much affected when there is an increase in the cost of living because their income does not generally fluctuate if the changes in prices occur. For a worker or a person who depends on fix income, affects his standard of living. In sparsely populated countries, the people living standard is relatively higher than in over populated countries. This is so because the resources of a given country can sufficiently support an ideal number of population.If the population growth out poses production growth, there would be an imbalance of distribution of wealth. According to Ronquillo, et. al. , (1989) the standard of living is high in a country which has enough resources to support its population. Tussing, (1987) claims that children whose parents are poor and have been deprived of good pre-natal care; thereby likely have less IQ, lower energy level, higher absenteeism at school and shorter lives. They will likely be poor when they grow up and have less chance to enjoy a high standard of living. Foreign LiteratureThe fantastic magnitude of the increases in both labor production and output for capita since, say, 1800 is best appreciated by contrasting it with the dismal average record of many previous centuries. In Europe, after a long decline. Living standards had been increasing intermittently since the eleventh century – the century in which William the Conqueror acquired England. Yet, it is estimated that even by the time of the American civil war neighbour labor productivity nor GNP per capita had yet re attained the levels that had been achieved in ancient Rome – about 16 centuries earlier!Thus, on the average, productivity and GNP per capita did not grow at all over 1600 years. Even for those wealthy enough to buy them, the number of important new consumer goods innovated in those 16 centuries was remarkably small. Firearms, glass windowpanes eyeglass, mechanical clocks, tobacco, and printed books constitute almost the entire list of major new consumer products invented between the fall of the Roman Empire and the beginning of the nineteenth century.Indeed, some significant amenities notably elaborated bathing facilities efficient home heating devices, had disappeared since the fall of Rome. Family size is usually related to living standard. Bigger family size results in a lower living standard, while smaller family size leads to the improvement of living standard. This happens, however, only when other factors that affect living standard are held constant. According to Gordon and Dawson (1984), standard of living in rural areas are 30 percent below the standard of living in the cities, let one out of every five percent lives below the poverty line.According to Henderson and Poole (1991), the family size also, affects poverty line. The absolute poverty standard rises with family size, but earning capacity does not. There is also an association between large families and low education level. Parents with a little formal education are not likely to get jobs that pay well enough to support many children. Hence, many are likely to be poor. Even though family size and race can put people at the risk of poverty. Over all, the primary determinants of poverty is whether the household works.