Literature Review: Employment Relationship Introduction Literature review is the method of having some intensive secondary information related with some specific issues and problems. In the context of this fact, the literature review presented within the paper, has aimed to reveal some different dimensions of employee and employer relationship in different cultures. There is a significant impact of surrounding environment and culture over any practice undertaken by a business organization.
In this context, the literature review presents some crucial views of different authors and scholars regarding different nature and issues related with employee-employer relationship in different cultures. Employment relationship in the context of different cultures In different cultures, the presentation of the employment relationship can be done in different manner. There are different important issues and aspects of this relationship which can be explained in different manner in the context of different cultural problems.
Explaining this fact further, Singh (2010) has presented the employment relationship at the work place in the Indian context. In the views of the author, in line to the Indian culture, the employment relationship in the Indian is also quite ethical and concerned towards the betterment of the society as a whole. Works ethics and honesty is considered as the prime aspects of the commitment of the employee towards his organization. In response to this, the organizational values are also quite humanistic and in the favor of the employees developments.
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The author has highlighted the concept of emotional intelligence for the purpose of describing Employment relationship in the context of Indian organizations. As per the authors, managements of business organizations operating with the Indian culture, put emphasis over developing emotional and personal competencies in the employee as it leads enhance the perceived efficiency of the employee at the work place. In the support of this, Ratnam (1998) has also asserted the diversity of workforce is the major characteristic of the Indian organizational culture.
As Indian is a vast country which conceives diversity at a vast level, it becomes quite necessary for the employer to maintain a positive relationship with culturally diversified employees so that intra-organizational issues can be minimized in the most effective manner. In regard to this, issues related with intra-organization conflicts are quite natural in the context of Indian business organizations. Along with this, Sparrow (2006) has raised one more employment related issues in the context of Indian business organizations.
As per the author, lack of motivation provided to employees, large availability of work force, and bureaucratic organizational structure commonly preferred by Indian organization are some of the highlighting factors of Indian business environment. In Indian organizational culture, a strict hierarchy and flow of order is followed, which sometimes leads to weaken the employment relationship at the work place. These are some of the critical factors and aspects related with employment relationship in Indian context which is quite different with that in the Anglo-American context.
Different employment issues have also been highlighted by Drory and Vigoda-Gadot (2010) in the context of Israeli business organizations. As per the research conducted by the author, Israeli business organizations follow Islamic philosophy for commencing their business operations. As per such philosophy, there must be some specific rules and regulations confined by Islamic laws for the purpose of regulating different inter-organizational process. All the employees are strictly bound to follow such rules and regulation.
In the views of the author, proper implication of Islamic law and regulation brings uniformity in the business operations of different related business organizations operating within the same market. Along with this, high degree of discipline, and acceptance of work ethics are some crucial points of employment relationship within Islamic business organization. In the special reference of Israeli organizational culture, the author has demonstrated the implication of employment relationship in terms of organizational politics.
In this context, the author has indicated towards the decreasing socialist ideology of the society that directly affects organizational policies and culture. The author has reflected has that in recent period of time, a declining trend of collectivism in Israeli business environment has been sighted, which cast a negative impact over perception of workers and employees regarding trade union. Employees have started to prefer individualism while resolving any issue with management.
Obeidat, Shannak, Masa'deh, Al-Jarrah (2012) have demonstrated the Arabian Culture and work ethics followed within this culture quite prominently. As per the author, Arabian culture is quite conservative from the perspective of work ethics. All the ethics related with duty of employees, and moral and professional responsibilities of an employer are confined with the help of laws and rules of Islam. As per the findings of the author, Islamic philosophy followed within the culture of Arabian business organization considers honesty and fair treatment as the most desirable work ethic.
In addition to this, the culture also implies that it is a moral responsibility of the employer to fulfill all the essential and basic needs of its employee. In support of Islamic perspective regarding employment relationship, Ahmad and Yekta (2010) have also elaborated the phenomena of employment relationship. The authors have elaborated their findings in the context of Iranian Cement Industry. The authors have found out that as per Iranian culture, support provided to employee to gain skills and competencies should be the major organizational philosophy of the organization.
The cement industry of the country usually follows the phenomena of collective leadership as their core organizational philosophy. In addition to this, work ethics are considered at high priority in Iranian organizational culture. The authors have stated that prime shortcoming of this culture of the organization is that there is a gap between individual worker or employee and management, which directly leads to create an intra-organizational issues within organizational culture. Searle et al (2011) has reflected the perspective of employment relationship in the context of European business organization.
The author has depicted in his literature that procedure and ideology of European business organization is quite different with that of the rest of the world. For this purpose the author has conducted an intensive online survey with different participants from different countries of the Europe such as Netherlands, Belgium, France, and Switzerland. As per the findings of survey, high employee involvement and engagement has been emerged as one of the major key aspects of employment relationship considered by business organizations in the European region.
As per this ideology, employees are considered as the integral part and asset of the organization. The organizational performance is directly linked up with performance of employees. In this context, employee involvement becomes quite essential for the long term success of the organization. Owing to this reason, the definition of employment relationship becomes quite close in the context of European culture. In relation to this, Bassanini, Breda, Caroli and Reberioux (2010) have presented their findings in the context of business environment of France.
As per the findings of authors, organizational culture of France is quite different with other European country as French organizations prefer the family business concept. Unlike other developed county, in France, the overall emphasis over collective leadership within the organization is quite less. In the country, the approach of people regarding family business is quite positive. Owing to this, the disposition of employer-employee within the country is quite informal. However, still the work ethics are prominently considered by both, employer and employee while accomplishing any organizational process.
In addition to this, concern regarding employee benefits and welfare is also quite high within French business organization. In direction to this, it can be considered that like Anglo-American approach, French and other European country’s organizational culture is also quite positive for employment relationship. In addition to this, Ribeiro-Soriano and Urbano (2010) have explored the significance of employee-organization relationship (EOR) in the context of small scale business organizations.
As per the authors, in existing business environment in which, direction of leadership has been shifted from individual leadership to corporate entrepreneurship (CE), it has been quite necessary for the management of the business organization to maintain a positive and close relationship with the employee. In the views of the authors, due to the advent of corporate entrepreneurship (CE) in existing business environment, there is communication gap between employer and employee has been created which hampers the positive relationship between both such entities.
For the long term sustainability and success of the organization it is quite essential for its management to maintain a close and positive communication and keep it policies quite aligned with employee welfare. Conclusion On the basis of the review of entire literature review, it can be concluded that employment relationship can be considered as relationship between employers and employees. There are different aspects of employment relationship such as work ethics, employer responsibilities towards employees, employee’s commitment, communication level and so on.
In this context, the paper has investigated employment relationship in the context of different regions, i. e. , India, countries from Islamic countries, and European countries such as France. Different literatures have reflected that the p and disposition of the employment relationship is quite different in different regions. In different countries, due to different culture and business environment, the ideology of employment relationship differs from each other. Reference: Ahmad, Z. A. and Yekta, Z. A. 2010.
Relationship between perceived organizational support, leadership behavior, and job satisfaction: An empirical study in Iran. Intangible Capital 6(2), pp. 162-184 Bassanini, A. , Breda, T. , Caroli, E. , and Reberioux, A. 2010. Working in family firms: less paid but more secure? Evidence from French matched employer-employee data. Drory, A. and Vigoda-Gadot, V. 2010. Organizational politics and human resource management: A typology and the Israeli experience. Human Resource Management Review 20, pp. 194–202. Obeidat, B. Y. Shannak, R. O. , Masa'deh, R. , Al-Jarrah, I. M. 2012. Toward Better Understanding for Arabian Culture: Implications Based on Hofstede's Cultural Model. European Journal of Social Sciences 28 (4), pp 512-522 Ratnam, V. C. S. 1998. Multinational companies in India. International Journal of Human Resource Management 9(4), pp 567-589. Ribeiro-Soriano, D, and Urbano, D. 2010. Employee-organization relationship in collective entrepreneurship: an overview. Journal of Organizational Change 23(4), pp 349-359. Searle, R. et al 2011.
Trust in the Employer: the Role of High Involvement Work Practices and Procedural Justice In European Organization. International Journal of Human Resource Management 22(5), pp. 2-18. Singh, K. 2010. Developing human capital by linking emotional intelligence with personal competencies in Indian business organizations. International Journal of Business Science and Applied Management 5(2), pp 30-42. Sparrow, P. R. 2006. International management: some key challenges for industrial and organizational psychology. International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology 21, pp. 189-266.
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